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The origins of the game are difficult to ascertain , although evidence now suggests that early forms of golf were played in the Netherlands first and then in Scotland. From a somewhat obscure antiquity, the game attained worldwide popularity, especially in the 20th century. Golfers participate at every level, from a recreational game to popular televised professional tournaments. Despite its attractions, golf is not a game for everyone; it requires a high degree of skill that is honed only with great patience and dedication. The origin of golf has long been debated.
Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica , which involved using a bent stick to hit a wool- or feather-stuffed leather ball. According to one view, paganica spread throughout several countries as the Romans conquered much of Europe during the 1st century bc and eventually evolved into the modern game.
However, upon close examination, neither theory is convincing. Other early stick-and-ball games included the English game of cambuca a term of Celtic origin.
In France the game was known as chambot and may have been related to Irish hurling and Scottish shinty , or camanachd , as well as to the French pastime derived from an Italian game of jeu de mail. In chicane a ball had to be driven with the fewest possible strokes to a church or garden door. Chicane closely resembled the game of kolf , which the Dutch golf historian J. Many traditions surround the game of kolf.
One relates that it was played annually in the village of Loenen, Netherlands, beginning in , to commemorate the capture of the killer of Floris V , count of Holland and Zeeland, a year earlier. No evidence supports this early date, however, and it would seem to be a clear anachronism. Based on the evidence, it may well be that golf came into being only a little before the 15th century. It may be conceived as a domesticated form of such medieval games as football , in which the size of the goals and the ball was radically reduced and in which, as a consequence, the element of violence had to give way to the element of skill.
Seen from this perspective, golf would be the result of the process of civilization as described in the work of German-born sociologist Norbert Elias. For many years it was believed that golf originated in Scotland. This belief rested on three references in Scottish acts of Parliament from the second half of the 15th century.
In addition, these texts enjoined the Scottish people to practice archery , a sport which might be put to good use in defending the country. In more recent times the validity of these sources has been called into question on two grounds. First, pictorial evidence now seems to point to a continental European origin of golf.faberlicfashon.com/modules/50.php
love and other indoor sports cupids conquests Manual
In addition to the books of hours, there are engravings that highlight golf. Playing Monkeys , by Pieter van der Borcht — , features a monkey taking a swing at a teed ball, and Venus, Protectress of Lovers , by Pieter Janszoon Saenredam — , shows, in the margins of a picture of an embracing couple with Venus and Cupid, some people playing games such as football and golf.
The latter work is a copy of an earlier work by engraver Hendrik Goltzius — The earliest known scenes depicting golf in Scotland are found in two paintings dated or and — The earlier work is an oil painting by an unknown artist who depicted a gentlemen foursome and two caddies against the backdrop of the town of St.
The second, a watercolour by the Englishman Paul Sandby — , shows a squad of soldiers fighting over a golf ball in the shrubbery at the foot of Edinburgh Castle. As to the Scottish acts of Parliament, the difficulty there lies in the uncertainty concerning the meaning of the term golf in 15th-century Scotland. Thus, by the strictest definition of historical evidence, we require both the name, and its [being attached] to some description which is recognizable cricket, before it is safe to talk about the origin of the game. Proof that golf in Scotland had exactly the same meaning as its Flemish counterpart kolve comes in The Buik of Alexander the Conqueror , a translation, by Sir Gilbert Hay c.
In his Scots version, Hay rendered crosse into golf-staff and further alludes to the stick as a means with which to chase the Persian emperor and his lords to and fro like a ball in a hockey match. Such a description leaves hardly any doubt that in 15th-century Scotland the term golf primarily referred to a fiercely contended team game, and this accounts for its being banned in the acts of Parliament quoted above.
A continental origin of golf is also suggested by a linguistic analysis of golfing terms and a recently discovered Dutch description of golf from the first half of the 16th century. However, the source most likely to tip the scales in favour of a Dutch origin is a phrase booklet written by a Dutch schoolmaster, Pieter van Afferden, or Petrus Apherdianus — This source predates the earliest Scottish description of golf—the Vocabula by Scotsman David Wedderburn—by almost a century. In the Tyrocinium the club is indeed called a kolve , and the game as such is referred to as kolven the infinitive of a verb used as a noun.
This confirms that the Scots word golf is indeed based on kolve or kolf. In the course of a dialogue in this text, the fictitious players also give the first indication of the existence of rules. The hole, however, is called not a put but a cuyl. Generally speaking, then, the Tyrocinium proves that, by the middle of the 16th century, golf in the Netherlands was a firmly established and rather sophisticated game.
That royalty were the leaders of this new sporting fashion is to be expected. The route of transmission to Scotland was likely to have been Flemish traders and craftsmen who had found employment at the Scottish court. In addition, the entry for the year specifies the amount of three French crowns lost by the king in a golfing bet betting on the outcome of games was widespread in the Middle Ages. The Stuarts also gave the game its first woman golfer— Mary , Queen of Scots, who was charged with playing in the fields beside Seton only a few days after the murder of her husband, Lord Darnley.
However, there is no evidence of the existence of the latter in Scotland much before the 16th century. There is another provenance story that says James I introduced golf to Blackheath in , long thought to be the year the historic royal Blackheath Golf Club was founded. Although King James and his courtiers played golf somewhere in the vicinity, it is doubtful whether any organized society then existed, and research has set the earliest date of such a society nearly two centuries later. The oldest club with documentary proof of its origin is the Gentlemen Golfers of Leith, now the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers , whose modern home is at Muirfield in East Lothian.
Its genesis was a move by a group of players to hold a competition or tournament. The Society of St. These two clubs played major roles in the development of the game in Scotland. The Devon club was the first course on seaside links outside Scotland. In its infancy players simply cut holes with their penknives and stuck feathers in them for the guidance of those who were coming behind.
The rabbits were the greenskeepers. By the club was fairly established, and members played matches against players from clubs such as Blackheath and the Royal North Devon Club at Westward Ho!. The first Scotland-England amateur match was organized in , and it was at Hoylake in that an unofficial contest between British and U. Although these fragments constitute the earliest clear evidence of golf clubs in the United States, the clubs appear to have been primarily social organizations that did not survive the War of Civil War. In the meantime, golf was played experimentally at many places in the United States without taking permanent root until, in , it was played in Foxburg, Pennsylvania.
The Oakhurst Golf Club in West Virginia , which later became the Greenbrier Club, is said to have been formed in ; and the Dorset Field Club in Dorset, Vermont, claims to have been organized and to have laid out its course in , although in both instances written records are lacking. The Foxburg Golf Club has provided strong support for the claim that it was organized in and is the oldest golf club in the United States with a permanent existence. Foxburg also claims the oldest American golf course.
Golf as an organized game in the United States, however, usually is dated from the founding of the St. This done, Reid and his friend John B. Upham tried them out on February 22, , over an improvised three-hole layout. That fall, five men formed the club, and in the spring they moved to a course in an apple orchard. The Tuxedo Golf Club in New York, founded in , met the Shinnecock men in in what has been assumed to be the first interclub match in the United States. The Newport club staged an invitational tournament for amateurs in September , and in October the St.
These were announced as championships, but that was questioned because the events were each promoted by a single club and on an invitational basis. Its aims were to organize the U. Amateur and Open championships and to formulate a set of rules for the game. The founding fathers, two from each club, were from St. The U. Before organized clubs had been established in North America , colonies of British settlers, merchants, and civil servants carried golf with them.
The Royal Calcutta initiated an amateur championship for India, and the two clubs paved the way for many in East Asia.
The Royal Bangkok Golf Club was first housed in an ancient temple. Golf came to China when the Shanghai Golf Club was formed in , until which time the game was apparently unknown outside Hong Kong. The Tokyo Golf Club was founded in With the boom in the popularity of the game in Japan after World War II , players came to be numbered in the thousands, despite the fact that the shortage of open land made the game enormously expensive to play.
The first club in Australia , the Royal Adelaide Golf Club, was formed in , and it is believed that the game was played in Melbourne in but went into abeyance for nearly half a century, the gold rush having taken priority over golf for the settlers. New Zealand origins have been dated from the formation of the Christchurch Golf Club in On the European continent the first golf course was laid in France at Pau in The French golf federation, the Union des Golfs de France, was inaugurated in In Switzerland the first golf course, in Davos, was planned in by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle , who after its completion was annoyed by the fact that cows enjoyed chewing up the red flags that marked the greens.
How the ball is hit and directed is the essence of golf. For many years golf balls were made from wood, but in the early 17th century feather balls were introduced and were hailed as an advance. For stuffing in the feathers a wooden tool was first used, after which the stuffing iron had to complete the job.
When the leather case was crammed beyond increase, the hole was stitched up and the case left to dry; then the ball was hammered and made as round as possible and painted white. The whole process was so slow that the maker did well to finish four balls in a day, so that they cost as much as five shillings each.
Although the feathery could be hit a long way, it became sodden and disabled in wet weather and was destroyed by hacks from iron clubs, and thus the balls were short-lived as well as expensive. Gutta-percha , the evaporated milky juice or latex of various South American and South Pacific island trees especially those of Malaysia , is soft and impressible at the temperature of boiling water but becomes hard and nonbrittle and retains its shape when cooled. It is not affected by water except at boiling temperature. In the mids it was discovered to be a substance ideal for the easy and efficient manufacture of golf balls; the manufacturing process consisted simply of boiling a strip of gutta-percha, molding it into a spherical shape, and allowing it to dry.
The first prototypes were smooth as billiard balls; they were difficult to get airborne and tended to duck drop quickly in flight. It was soon discovered that ball flight improved tremendously once the ball acquired the nicks, cuts, and scuff marks that resulted from a round of play. Ball makers learned to mold balls with raised or indented surface patterns, thus ensuring proper flight. The emergence of the gutta-percha in brought about a revolutionary change in the game.
The professionals had divided views, however.
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At St. Andrews in , after the death of Robertson.
The ball was heartily welcomed by the golf community , not least for its economy cost: one shilling each , and its coming immediately swelled the golfing ranks. The beginning of the 20th century introduced a new ball and a new era. Work of the B. Goodrich Company—involved a tension-wound rubber thread around a solid rubber core. The new design allowed for a ball that flew and rolled farther than a gutty; it was also easier to hit and gave its striker a greater sense of power.
Older men found it easier to play, and hosts of women and children were drawn into the game. Early concerns as to the controllability of the rubber ball were quelled when the U. Amateur and the U. Open and Open Championship British Open were won by players using the Haskell ball, defeating opponents playing gutties. The Spalding company introduced a ball covered with balata , a natural rubber, in ; it proved more durable and easier to control than gutta-percha.
Length was the lure, and the trade race upset the design of courses. Championship and other tees had to be sited farther back. Another factor that greatly increased the popularity and playability of golf was the introduction of the golf tee, patented in by George F. Cupid still has a lot to learn, and this time he's heading to college to do it.
Griffin and Colby were shoved together by fate during a fraternity hazing game of spin the bottle but, in a world deserted by Cupid, fear and uncertainty pushed them apart.
Now, twelve years later, they're getting a second chance with each other. A woman in Colby's life, however, doesn't like what she sees as competition for his affections, and she's willing to ruin both men if they don't bow to her demands. After all this time, are they willing to risk everything for a chance at happiness, or are they destined to lose each other again? Cupid won't give up easily though.
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He has one last game for them to play and, this time, it's winner take all. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Not Enabled. No customer reviews.
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Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get fast, free delivery with Amazon Prime. Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Length: 82 pages. Word Wise: Enabled.