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30 December 2009
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  1. Attachment theory - Wikipedia
  2. More titles to consider
  3. Thomasville Singers present music by John Rutter

The second in the series, 'Rutter's Reunion', followed in January The third book, 'Relapse' was published in the spring of These are the 'Rutter Books'. There will be more of them as well. When 'Heartsong' is published, David intends to complete a collection of short stories that he has also been working on. What are your five favorite books, and why? As a boy, two books stood out for me. One was 'Winnie the Pooh', which I still consider to be one of the funniest books ever written, and the other was 'Treasure Island', the first great adventure story that I ever read.

I would dream of playing Jim Hawkins in a new film version - but then I turned twelve and became too old.

Athens Choral Society - John Rutter's "Mass of the Children" - II. Gloria

As I grew, 'The Lord of the Rings' - the ultimate adventure story - supplanted it. That leaves me with one to choose. Rowling and Suzanne Collins, but there is one small scale book that edges both out for me. I stumbled across it by accident a few years ago and I loved every page. It is 'Father Frank' by Paul Burke. What do you read for pleasure?

My taste is wide-ranging. Rowling, Suzanne Collins, George R. Martin and some of the better independent writers, including several of Elaine Waldron's works. I am currently working my way through 'Catching Fire' by Suzanne Collins. Rutter Books by David Waine. Chained in Time Price: Free! Words: , Dismissive-avoidant adults desire a high level of independence, often appearing to avoid attachment altogether. They view themselves as self-sufficient, invulnerable to attachment feelings and not needing close relationships.

They tend to suppress their feelings, dealing with conflict by distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinion. Adults lack the interest of forming close relationships and maintaining emotional closeness with the people around them. They have a great amount of distrust in others but at the same time possess a positive model of self, they would prefer to invest in their own ego skills. Because of their distrust they cannot be convinced that other people have the ability to deliver emotional support. They try to create high levels of self-esteem by investing disproportionately in their abilities or accomplishments.

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Attachment theory - Wikipedia

These adults maintain their positive views of self, based on their personal achievements and competence rather than searching for and feeling acceptance from others. These adults will explicitly reject or minimize the importance of emotional attachment and passively avoid relationships when they feel as though they are becoming too close. They strive for self-reliance and independence. When it comes to the opinions of others about themselves, they are very indifferent and are relatively hesitant to positive feedback from their peers.

Dismissive avoidance can also be explained as the result of defensive deactivation of the attachment system to avoid potential rejection, or genuine disregard for interpersonal closeness. Fearful-avoidant adults have mixed feelings about close relationships, both desiring and feeling uncomfortable with emotional closeness. They tend to mistrust their partners and view themselves as unworthy. Like dismissive-avoidant adults, fearful-avoidant adults tend to seek less intimacy, suppressing their feelings.

Sexually, securely attached individuals are less likely to be involved in one-night stands or sexual activity outside of the primary relationship, and more likely to report mutual initiation and enjoyment of sex. Dismissive-avoidant individuals tend to report activities reflecting low psychological intimacy one-night sex, extra-dyadic sex, sex without love , as well as less enjoyment of physical contact. Research has demonstrated that for both sexes, insecure-ambivalent attachment was related to enjoyment of holding and caressing, but not of more clearly sexual behaviors.

Relationally, insecure individuals tend to be partnered with insecure individuals, and secure individuals with secure individuals. Insecure relationships tend to be enduring but less emotionally satisfying compared to the relationship s of two securely attached individuals. Attachment styles are activated from the first date onwards and impact relationship dynamics and how a relationship ends.

Secure attachment has been shown to allow for better conflict resolution in a relationship and for one's ability to exit an unsatisfying relationship compared to other attachment types. Secure individuals authentic high self-esteem and positive view of others allows for this as they are confident that they will find another relationship. Secure attachment has also shown to allow for the successful processing of relational losses e. Two main aspects of adult attachment have been studied. The organization and stability of the mental working models that underlie the attachment styles is explored by social psychologists interested in romantic attachment.

The organization of mental working models is more stable while the individual's state of mind with respect to attachment fluctuates more. Some authors have suggested that adults do not hold a single set of working models. Instead, on one level they have a set of rules and assumptions about attachment relationships in general.

On another level they hold information about specific relationships or relationship events. Information at different levels need not be consistent. Individuals can therefore hold different internal working models for different relationships. There are a number of different measures of adult attachment, the most common being self-report questionnaires and coded interviews based on the Adult Attachment Interview. The various measures were developed primarily as research tools, for different purposes and addressing different domains, for example romantic relationships, platonic relationships, parental relationships or peer relationships.

Some classify an adult's state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment patterns by reference to childhood experiences, while others assess relationship behaviours and security regarding parents and peers. The early thinking of the object relations school of psychoanalysis , particularly Melanie Klein , influenced Bowlby.

However, he profoundly disagreed with the prevalent psychoanalytic belief that infants' responses relate to their internal fantasy life rather than real-life events. As Bowlby formulated his concepts, he was influenced by case studies on disturbed and delinquent children, such as those of William Goldfarb published in and He and Bowlby collaborated in making the documentary film A Two-Year Old Goes to the Hospital which was instrumental in a campaign to alter hospital restrictions on visits by parents.

In his monograph for the World Health Organization , Maternal Care and Mental Health , Bowlby put forward the hypothesis that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment", the lack of which may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences.

This was also published as Child Care and the Growth of Love for public consumption. The central proposition was influential but highly controversial. Over time, orphanages were abandoned in favour of foster care or family-style homes in most developed countries. Following the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health , Bowlby sought new understanding from the fields of evolutionary biology, ethology, developmental psychology , cognitive science and control systems theory.

He formulated the innovative proposition that mechanisms underlying an infant's emotional tie to the caregiver s emerged as a result of evolutionary pressure. He set out to develop a theory of motivation and behaviour control built on science rather than Freud's psychic energy model. Bowlby argued that with attachment theory he had made good the "deficiencies of the data and the lack of theory to link alleged cause and effect" of Maternal Care and Mental Health.

Bowlby's attention was first drawn to ethology when he read Konrad Lorenz 's publication in draft form although Lorenz had published earlier work. After recognition comes a tendency to follow. Certain types of learning are possible, respective to each applicable type of learning, only within a limited age range known as a critical period. Bowlby's concepts included the idea that attachment involved learning from experience during a limited age period, influenced by adult behaviour.

He did not apply the imprinting concept in its entirety to human attachment. However, he considered that attachment behaviour was best explained as instinctive, combined with the effect of experience, stressing the readiness the child brings to social interactions. Psychoanalytic concepts influenced Bowlby's view of attachment, in particular, the observations by Anna Freud and Dorothy Burlingham of young children separated from familiar caregivers during World War II.

He called this the " cupboard-love " theory of relationships. In his view it failed to see attachment as a psychological bond in its own right rather than an instinct derived from feeding or sexuality. Bowlby instead posited that several lines of development were possible, the outcome of which depended on the interaction between the organism and the environment.

In attachment this would mean that although a developing child has a propensity to form attachments, the nature of those attachments depends on the environment to which the child is exposed. From early in the development of attachment theory there was criticism of the theory's lack of congruence with various branches of psychoanalysis. Bowlby's decisions left him open to criticism from well-established thinkers working on similar problems.

The philosopher Kenneth Craik had noted the ability of thought to predict events.

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He stressed the survival value of natural selection for this ability. A key component of attachment theory is the attachment behavior system. Bowlby applied Craik's ideas to attachment, when other psychologists were applying these concepts to adult perception and cognition. Infants absorb all sorts of complex social-emotional information from the social interactions that they observe. They notice the helpful and hindering behaviors of one person to another.

From these observations they develop expectations of how two characters should behave, known as a "secure base script. Theoretically, secure child and adult script, would allow for an attachment situation where one person successfully utilizes another as a secure base from which to explore and as a safe haven in times of distress. In contrast, insecure individuals would create attachment situations with more complications. Childhood attachment has a direct impact on our adult relationships. A parent 's internal working model that is operative in the attachment relationship with her infant can be accessed by examining the parent's mental representations.

In the s, problems with viewing attachment as a trait stable characteristic of an individual rather than as a type of behaviour with organising functions and outcomes, led some authors to the conclusion that attachment behaviours were best understood in terms of their functions in the child's life. Selection of the secure pattern is found in the majority of children across cultures studied. This follows logically from the fact that attachment theory provides for infants to adapt to changes in the environment, selecting optimal behavioural strategies.

Securely attached Gusii infants anticipate and seek this contact. There are also differences in the distribution of insecure patterns based on cultural differences in child-rearing practices. The biggest challenge to the notion of the universality of attachment theory came from studies conducted in Japan where the concept of amae plays a prominent role in describing family relationships. Arguments revolved around the appropriateness of the use of the Strange Situation procedure where amae is practiced.

Ultimately research tended to confirm the universality hypothesis of attachment theory. Critics in the s such as J. Harris , Steven Pinker and Jerome Kagan were generally concerned with the concept of infant determinism nature versus nurture , stressing the effects of later experience on personality.

Kagan argued that heredity was far more important than the transient developmental effects of early environment. For example, a child with an inherently difficult temperament would not elicit sensitive behavioural responses from a caregiver. The debate spawned considerable research and analysis of data from the growing number of longitudinal studies.

Subsequent research has not borne out Kagan's argument, possibly suggesting that it is the caregiver's behaviours that form the child's attachment style, although how this style is expressed may differ with the child's temperament. Rudolph Schaffer concluded that parents and peers had different functions, fulfilling distinctive roles in children's development.


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Mentalization, or theory of mind, is the capacity of human beings to guess with some accuracy what thoughts, emotions and intentions lie behind behaviours as subtle as facial expression. Object relations models which emphasise the autonomous need for a relationship have become dominant and are linked to a growing recognition in psychoanalysis of the importance of infant development in the context of relationships and internalized representations. Psychoanalysis has recognized the formative nature of a child's early environment including the issue of childhood trauma.

A psychoanalytically based exploration of the attachment system and an accompanying clinical approach has emerged together with a recognition of the need for measurement of outcomes of interventions. One focus of attachment research has been the difficulties of children whose attachment history was poor, including those with extensive non-parental child care experiences. Concern with the effects of child care was intense during the so-called "day care wars" of the lateth century, during which some authors stressed the deleterious effects of day care.

Although only high-quality child care settings are likely to provide this, more infants in child care receive attachment-friendly care than in the past. The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team, led by Michael Rutter , followed some of the children into their teens, attempting to unravel the effects of poor attachment, adoption, new relationships, physical problems and medical issues associated with their early lives.

Studies of these adoptees, whose initial conditions were shocking, yielded reason for optimism as many of the children developed quite well. Researchers noted that separation from familiar people is only one of many factors that help to determine the quality of development. Authors considering attachment in non-Western cultures have noted the connection of attachment theory with Western family and child care patterns characteristic of Bowlby's time. For example, changes in attitudes toward female sexuality have greatly increased the numbers of children living with their never-married mothers or being cared for outside the home while the mothers work.

This social change has made it more difficult for childless people to adopt infants in their own countries. There has been an increase in the number of older-child adoptions and adoptions from third-world sources in first-world countries. Adoptions and births to same-sex couples have increased in number and gained legal protection, compared to their status in Bowlby's time. Principles of attachment theory have been used to explain adult social behaviours, including mating, social dominance and hierarchical power structures, in-group identification, [] group coalitions, and negotiation of reciprocity and justice.

While a wide variety of studies have upheld the basic tenets of attachment theory, research has been inconclusive as to whether self-reported early attachment and later depression are demonstrably related. In addition to longitudinal studies, there has been psychophysiological research on the biology of attachment.

The quality of caregiving received at infancy and childhood directly affects an individual's neurological systems which controls stress regulation. Recent studies convey that early attachment relationships become molecularly instilled into the being, thus affecting later immune system functioning. Recent improvements involving methods of research have enabled researchers to further investigate the neural correlates of attachment in humans. These advances include identifying key brain structures, neural circuits, neurotransmitter systems, and neuropeptides, and how they are involved in attachment system functioning and can tell us more about a certain individual, even predict their behavior.

For example, individuals with an avoidance attachment style produce higher levels of the pro inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 IL-6 when reacting to an interpersonal stressor, [] while individuals representing an anxious attachment style tend to have elevated cortisol production and lower numbers of T cells. Attachment theory has often been applied in the discipline of Criminology.

It has been used in an attempt to identify causal mechanisms in criminal behaviour — with uses ranging from offending profiling , better understanding types of offence and the pursuit of preventative policymaking. It has been found that disturbances early on in child-caregiver relationships are a risk factor in criminality. In the s, Cesare Lombroso 's born criminal theory, which posited that criminality was innate and inherited, had dominated thinking in criminology. The origins of attachment theory within Criminology can be found in the work of August Aichhorn.

In applying psychoanalysis to pedagogy he argued that abnormal child development, stemming from relationship difficulties, underlies many instances of delinquency. The intersection of crime and attachment theory was further researched by John Bowlby. In his first published work, Forty-four Juvenile Thieves , he studied a sample of 88 children 44 juvenile thieves and 44 non-delinquent controls to investigate the home life experiences of these two groups.

Amongst the control group, there were no affectionless characters. He also noted that delinquents of an 'Affectionless Character' were far more likely to steal in a persistent and serious way than are delinquents of other types. The relationship between age and crime is one of the most replicated findings in criminology. Whilst the age-crime curve is regarded as fact, the mechanisms driving it are largely disputed. The two main theories, developmental theory and life-course theory, have attachment theory in their origin.

Developmental perspectives place importance on the role of childhood experiences, and argue that this can determine criminal patterns later on ie. Instead they argue that because humans have agency, every stage of the life course matters. Early childhood experiences remain important, albeit within a framework of cumulative disadvantage, and attachments later on in life can determine whether an individual will be likely to offend or not.

The developmental perspective aims to explain the age-crime curve by two qualitatively distinct types of people and their behavioural trajectories; adolescence-limited those who start their criminal career in adolescence and desist from crime before adulthood and life-course persistent those who begin anti-social behaviour in adolescence and continue this criminal behaviour into adulthood. Attachment theory has been used to identify differences between these two trajectories.

Life-course persistent offenders start with disrupted attachment relationships in their childhood, which drives a disordered personality and long term antisocial behaviours and criminal careers. By contrast, adolescence-limited offenders do not have disrupted family bonds and are described as having healthy pre-delinquent development. The life-course perspective argues that individuals are not automatically assigned to a category in a dual taxonomy. Instead, there are within-individual changes in criminality, due to human agency.

Individuals who have insecure attachment styles in childhood can therefore later create meaningful social ties and thereby desist from crime, allowing changes to criminality at different stages in the life course. Since early childhood relationships can influence interpersonal relationships throughout the lifespan, [] attachment theory has been applied in research into particular crimes, particularly those which tend to occur within close relational ties. Disrupted attachment patterns from childhood have been identified as a risk factor for domestic violence.

This has been extended to theorise why domestic violence occurs; an adult with consistent experience of insecure attachment may use physical violence to express their attachment needs not being met by their partners. This perception of low support from partner has been identified as a strong predictor of male violence. Other predictors have been named as perceived deficiency in maternal love in childhood, low self-esteem.

It has been found that sexual offenders have significantly less secure maternal and paternal attachments compared with non-offenders which suggests that insecure attachments in infancy persist into adulthood. There is also evidence that suggests subtypes of sexual crime can have different attachment styles. Dismissive individuals tend to be hostile towards others, and are more likely to offend violently against adult women. By contrast, child abusers are more likely to have preoccupied attachment styles as the tendency to seek approval from others becomes distorted and attachment relationships become sexualised.

As a theory of socioemotional development , attachment theory has implications and practical applications in social policy, decisions about the care and welfare of children and mental health. Social policies concerning the care of children were the driving force in Bowlby's development of attachment theory. The difficulty lies in applying attachment concepts to policy and practice. Zeanah and colleagues stated, "Supporting early child-parent relationships is an increasingly prominent goal of mental health practitioners, community-based service providers and policy makers Attachment theory and research have generated important findings concerning early child development and spurred the creation of programs to support early child-parent relationships.

You would assume that individuals would be educated on child development and the importance of the early parent-child relationship. However, our current education system is more concerned with sex education rather than healthy relationship tactics and skills needed to parent in a sensitive, responsive manner. If Researchers and educators could work together and develop future-parent curriculum for the high school and university levels, It would benefit society as a whole.

With the dynamic nature of social and economic environments, many families struggle balancing work and family responsibilities. Finding quality childcare while at work or school is another issue for many families. NIHD recent study convey that top notch day care contributes to secure attachment relationships in children. This includes re-examination of parental leave policies.

Too many parents are forced to return to work too soon post childbirth because of company policy or financial necessity. No matter the reason this inhibits early parent child bonding. Historically, attachment theory had significant policy implications for hospitalized or institutionalized children, and those in poor quality daycare. It is plain from research that poor quality care carries risks but that those who experience good quality alternative care cope well although it is difficult to provide good quality, individualized care in group settings.

Attachment theory has implications in residence and contact disputes, [] and applications by foster parents to adopt foster children. In the past, particularly in North America, the main theoretical framework was psychoanalysis. Increasingly attachment theory has replaced it, thus focusing on the quality and continuity of caregiver relationships rather than economic well-being or automatic precedence of any one party, such as the biological mother.

Rutter noted that in the UK, since , family courts have shifted considerably to recognize the complications of attachment relationships. Judgements need to take this into account along with the impact of step-families. Attachment theory has been crucial in highlighting the importance of social relationships in dynamic rather than fixed terms. Attachment theory can also inform decisions made in social work , especially in humanistic social work Petru Stefaroi , [] [] and court processes about foster care or other placements.

Considering the child's attachment needs can help determine the level of risk posed by placement options. Many researchers in the field were strongly influenced by it. Although attachment theory has become a major scientific theory of socioemotional development with one of the widest research lines in modern psychology, it has, until recently, been less used in clinical practice. The attachment theory focused on the attention of the child when the mother is there and the responses that the child shows when the mother leaves, which indicated the attachment and bonding of the mother and the child.

The attention therapy is the done while the child is being restrained by the therapists and the responses displayed were noted. The tests were done to show the responses of the child. This may be partly due to lack of attention paid to clinical application by Bowlby himself and partly due to broader meanings of the word 'attachment' used amongst practitioners. It may also be partly due to the mistaken association of attachment theory with the pseudoscientific interventions misleadingly known as " attachment therapy ".

In , Bowlby published a series of lectures indicating how attachment theory and research could be used in understanding and treating child and family disorders.


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His focus for bringing about change was the parents' internal working models, parenting behaviours and the parents' relationship with the therapeutic intervenor. They range from individual therapy to public health programmes to interventions designed for foster caregivers. For infants and younger children, the focus is on increasing the responsiveness and sensitivity of the caregiver, or if that is not possible, placing the child with a different caregiver. Some programmes are aimed at foster carers because the attachment behaviours of infants or children with attachment difficulties often do not elicit appropriate caregiver responses.

Modern prevention and intervention programmes have proven successful. One atypical attachment pattern is considered to be an actual disorder, known as reactive attachment disorder or RAD, which is a recognized psychiatric diagnosis ICD F Against common misconception, this is not the same as 'disorganized attachment'. The essential feature of reactive attachment disorder is markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness in most contexts that begins before age five years, associated with gross pathological care.

There are two subtypes, one reflecting a disinhibited attachment pattern, the other an inhibited pattern. RAD is not a description of insecure attachment styles, however problematic those styles may be; instead, it denotes a lack of age-appropriate attachment behaviours that may appear to resemble a clinical disorder. It may also be used to refer to proposed new classification systems put forward by theorists in the field, [] and is used within attachment therapy as a form of unvalidated diagnosis.

As attachment theory offers a broad, far-reaching view of human functioning, it can enrich a therapist's understanding of patients and the therapeutic relationship rather than dictate a particular form of treatment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Secure attachment. Main article: Attachment in adults.

Thomasville Singers present music by John Rutter

See also: Attachment measures. Main article: History of attachment theory. See also: Maternal deprivation. Main article: Attachment-based therapy children. Main articles: Reactive attachment disorder and Attachment disorder. Atlas personality Attachment parenting Attachment theory and psychology of religion Social connection Fathers as attachment figures Human bonding Nurture kinship.

Makers of modern psychotherapy. London: Routledge. The Cultural Nature of Human Development. NY: Oxford University Press. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Attachment across the lifecourse: A brief introduction. London: Palgrave. New York: Guilford Press. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. New York and London: Guilford Press. Social and Personality Development Sixth Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning. I'm not even half-way finished yet, so there's lots of work still to be done.

The family pages need updating. I'm also planning on redesigning the entire site. Can't complete this until my database update is done Get my professional certification through the Board of Certified Genealogist my goal is to have my portfolio done by April. Apply, get accepted to, and go to graduate school. Carnival of Genealogy, 87th ed. Tags: COG. The Genealogical Proof Standard, step 2. Plagiarize - to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own : use another's production without crediting the source [1] Have you ever plagiarized something?

If you do not cite your sources then you are plagiarizing someone else's work. A family tree posted online, a book of census abstracts, or a birth certificate; all of these things need to be cited, not matter how insignificant you think it might be. Step two in the Genealogical Proof Standard: 2. We collect and include in our compilation a complete, accurate citation to the source or sources of each item of information.

When you are using a record you need to note the following, to a write your source citation, and b help you analyze the information you find: Who Who created it author, transcriber, etc What What exactly is it? Where Where is it kept? Repository, Courthouse, Website What is the locator? When was the information you are looking at created? Remember that from your school days?

Creating a source citation does not have to be difficult. Notate what database you used and the date you used it. It is like a treasure hunt: the source is your treasure and the citation is the map to finding it. To confuse you even more, there are three different ways to phrase your citation. I have used two of them in this post. It is in bibliography or source list style.

Tags: GPS. Tombstone Tuesday - Old Woodlawn Cemetery. Old Woodlawn Cemetery. The Genealogical Proof Standard, step 1. In preparation I will be posting a series on the GPS. Please feel free to rip it apart, question anything you don't understand, point out anything that I didn't explain, etc. Reasonably extensive research is prerequisite—regardless of whether the problem is simple or complex—and includes appropriately broadening the search beyond the person, family, event, or record of the most-direct impact on the project.

The search effort extends to discovery of information that does or might illuminate or conflict with the other items of collected data. It seems like a daunting task because it is. This is what keeps us researching year after year, decade after decade, and without getting bored. Have you read through all of the local newspapers for mention of your ancestor?

Have you searched collateral lines? What about land, court, probate, military and church records? Have you read that county or city history? It might surprise you where information can be found. Mark Tucker at ThinkGenealogy has created a Genealogical Proof Standard road map that is extremely useful and amazing. He has suggested a few organizational tips for the first step of the GPS: Set a research goal , it should be a Statement Question Hypothesis Create a research plan Where will you be searching What records will you be searching Keep a research log What records have you searched and what did or not you find in them?

If you know what you are searching for and what you have or have not found, if cuts down on the extra stuff. How many of us have searched a source several times because we could not remember if we had already done so? Also think of your research log as a check list. What sources have you not yet searched that might hold a clue? Do not settle for the sources you already have. Okay, so you have a birth certificate. Do you also have a copy of the birth announcement, posted in the local newspaper? Were there birth announcement cards mailed out to family?

Is there a letter letting someone know of the birth? Keep looking! December On this day in Alonzo J. Rutter married Mary E. Merry Christmas. Tags: Finch , On this day , Rutter. I've had this on back order for a while, and it finally came today:. Follow Friday - Favorite Blogs. I'm calling these my "favorite" blogs because of the knowledge I learn from them.

I love blogs for allowing us to share our stories. To those who go beyond that and share their knowledge, I am immensely grateful. We grow as genealogist and family historians by increasing our know-how. Tags: Follow Friday. Blog Caroling. Tags: Christmas.

Sweet Township, Pipestone County, Minnesota. Tags: McLean , Tombstone Tuesday. Or perhaps were your ancestors involved with church groups that assisted others during the holiday? December 7. Thousands of lives were lost. The United States responded by declaring war on Japan. This was our official entry into World War II. All of us have someone who served during the war, as soldier or sailor, or civilian. Do you know how they contributed? Did a child lead a scrap drive?

Did a mother plant a victory garden? Did a son, father, brother join the service? This generation is fast disappearing. We should not let their hard work disappear with them. In I visited Hawaii with my high school band. One of the place we went was Pearl Harbor. It sits above the ship, which is visible. In the harbor are white mooring blocks with the names of all of the ships, placed where each ship was on the morning of December 7, Tags: On this day.

I recieved a reminder e-mail today and though I'd pass it along, This is open to everone: The Southern California Genealogical Society sponsors one of the very few writing contests designed specifically for family historians that is open to the general public. Membership in SCGS is not required to participate in the contest.

The GENEii Family History Writers Contest, now in its tenth year, offers cash prizes in two categories: Category 1: Family or local history articles of 1,, words in length, published or unpublished. If previously published, entries must be accompanied by the written permission of the publisher allowing article to be reprinted by SCGS.

Look on the left-hand side of the screen for "Writing Contest" and click on that link. In November, , Heritage Books, Inc. Tags: SCGS. It could be hardware, software, a missing family Bible, a record that you desperately want, etc. Dear Genea-Santa, I would like to find a letter.

It was up for auction on e-bay several years ago and I have found part of the listing. The e-bay people don't keep records for that long ago so I have no idea what happened to it.