- Teaching method - Wikipedia
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Getting started and facilitating discussion
- Strategies to engage your students in learning
Cooperative learning is an instructional format used in heterogeneous learning environments. This instructional method is often confused with the concept of "group work" or the idea that students simply work together to accomplish a task. Cooperative learning is a specific type of group work that has the following defining elements: Positive interdependence. Learning activities are structured in such a way that students are required to depend on one another to successfully accomplish a task. The success of the whole group depends upon the performance of each group member.
Face-to-face interaction. Each activity requires extended time for students to interact directly with each other. Individual accountability. Each person can be evaluated and held accountable for some specific element of the task. Social skill development.
In addition to the academic content being taught, social skills are incorporated into students' learning. This step includes evaluating academic and social learning outcomes and how the group functions. There are a variety of techniques that teachers can use to incorporate the defining elements of cooperative learning into group activities.
You can assign specific roles to each student in the group, such as scribe, reader, encourager, or illustrator. Students then have the opportunity to rotate through these roles during different cooperative learning activities. Assigning roles helps students develop positive interdependence and individual accountability. A number of specific cooperative learning formats can be used to facilitate face-to-face interaction, such as Group Projects. In the group projects format, each group is assigned to a specific task and each group member has a specific role Sharan et al. Each role is essential to the overall success of the project.
Through the jigsaw format, students work first in "expert teams" to learn content about different topics in-depth and then teach it to other students. Next, the teams are reconfigured so that one member of each expert team forms a second round of groups. Each member of the reconfigured groups is then responsible for sharing with new group members the content that they mastered in the expert team Slavin, For example, a social studies teacher decides that her students will focus on a unit about the branches of government.
One expert team may focus on the legislative branch, another on the judicial branch, and a third on the executive branch. When the teams are reconfigured, one member of each expert group forms a second round of teams. These teams then work together to teach one another how the three branches of government function. Student Teams Achievement Divisions. A teacher gives each of her students a pre-test on selected content.
Then, students form groups and assist one another in studying for a quiz on the content. Next, the teacher gives another round of individual quizzes, and each student earns points for the team based on his or her improvement from the pre-test Slavin, These formats provide structured face-to-face interaction among students and help facilitate positive interdependence. For example, in the jigsaw format, students must depend on fellow team members to accurately present the content they learn in expert teams.
Students also use these same interdependence skills in the student teams achievement divisions format when they are required to coach one another in learning selected content. Individual accountability is important in cooperative learning because students are responsible for specific content. Finally, teachers can also evaluate academic content through each of these models. Cooperative learning formats provide a natural laboratory for developing social skills. Social skills such as using names, communicating ideas and questions, taking turns, disagreeing amicably, and encouraging others are important skills that can be reinforced within the context of cooperative learning.
- 5 Ways to Design Your Teacher-led Station!
- Teaching method.
- The 4 Questions to Ask When You Debrief on a Project?
Prior to beginning a cooperative learning activity, it may be helpful to do mini-lessons with your students around these skills. For example, if you have observed that your students have difficulty disagreeing amicably, then you might highlight this skill in a mini-lesson. Before the activity, you may want to discuss the fact that reasonable people sometimes disagree, and it's OK.
What you do want to emphasize is that it is not OK to make personal attacks. You may decide to follow this brief discussion with role-playing activities that show appropriate and inappropriate ways to disagree with team members. This activity will allow students to practice this skill within the context of the cooperative learning activity. Evaluation is another critical element of cooperative learning that can be incorporated into your lessons in a variety of ways. You can use an observation checklist to evaluate your students' social skills see Figure 1. Your checklist can include columns for each of the targeted social skills and rows for each student's name.
As you observe your students, you can record appropriate or inappropriate behaviors for each item on an individual basis. You can modify this form by using different skill lists for different sets of students. Additionally, peer evaluation forms can be used to supplement teacher evaluations see Figure 1.
Cooperative Learning Observation Checklist.preview.bluetangent.org/nuxo-2006-toyota.php
Teaching method - Wikipedia
Cooperative Learning Peer Evaluation Form Please rate yourself and each of your team members in each area using the following scale. The following scenario shows an application of cooperative learning in Mr. Jones's 6th grade science class at West End Middle School. Derrick is a year-old African American male. He lives with his grandmother and two older siblings. He enjoys social studies and learning about and working with other people. He struggles with literacy and often needs concepts repeated several times before he grasps them.
Maria is 11 years old. Her family moved to the United States from Mexico three years ago. She is an only child and lives with her parents who co-own a small restaurant in the community. Spanish is the primary language spoken in her home. Maria excels in mathematics and enjoys puzzles, but she struggles with her English literacy skills. Shalandra is a year-old African American female. She lives with her father and her younger brother. Her father is a janitor at a local department store. Her mother died when she was 5 years old.
Shalandra is an avid reader and enjoys creative writing. She is socially mature for her age and sometimes seems aloof and uninterested in interacting with her peers. She prefers to work alone. LaMont is an year-old African American male. He lives with his mother and two older sisters. La Mont's mother is unemployed.
He is an excellent artist who can draw detailed and lifelike pictures. Despite his obvious intelligence, LaMont completes very few assignments and shows little interest in school. He can be noncompliant and seems angry most of the time. If he is pressured to do something that he doesn't want to do, he becomes volatile and physically aggressive. Because of these behaviors, LaMont has been identified as emotionally disturbed.
Jones is in his first year of teaching at West End Middle School, and he is excited to begin his new career. West End Middle School has been described as a "hard to staff" school in the inner city and has suffered from high teacher attrition rates. There are high transiency rates among students as well. Seventy five percent of the student population is African American and 23 percent of the students are Hispanic, many of whom are English language learners.
Eighty nine percent of the students receive free or reduced-priced lunches. Jones teaches approximately students per day. Eighteen of these students have learning disabilities, mild mental retardation, emotional disturbances, speech impairments, or visual impairments. Jones is energized by the diversity of the students in his classes; however, he is insecure about his ability to meet their needs.
Additionally, he is concerned about the fact that West End Middle School has been designated as a "failing school" because of declining test scores. The school has never made adequate yearly progress for any year that students' performance has been tracked. Consequently, if students' test scores do not improve by the end of the school year, the school is in danger of closing. Jones wonders what he can do to enhance the achievement of his diverse group of students.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Jones has decided to use cooperative learning in his science classes. This learning format will embrace the diversity of his students and provide opportunities for them to support each other in learning challenging content. Although his students are 6th graders, Mr. Jones discovered that they have not been exposed to cooperative learning formats in their previous school experiences. He prepared them for cooperative learning by explaining what should and should not happen during cooperative learning, and he made time to reinforce these ideas through role-play activities.
After he prepared the class, Mr. Jones used a group project cooperative learning format. Since cooperative learning would be a new experience for his students, Mr. Jones used smaller groups of three to four students to reduce the complexity of interactions among team members. Jones assembled these groups with care. He wanted each group to be heterogeneous in terms of students' skill and ability levels, ethnicity, gender, and language characteristics. Jones also avoided placing students together who he knew would not work well with each other.
Jones planned a lesson based on the 6th grade standard related to exploring the earth's biomes. During this lesson students will learn about aquatic biomes, grasslands, deserts, chaparrals, taigas, and tundras. In order to meet this standard, students will need to be able to identify geographic factors in biomes e. Jones's prior lessons in this unit included varied kinds of activities such as class discussion, hands-on activities, and videos focusing on the relationship of a biome's characteristics to the nature of plants and animals that live there.
With this basic content in place, Mr. Jones is ready to begin the cooperative learning activity with his class. Each group was assigned to research a different biome. All groups were required to do the following: 1 construct a three-dimensional model of their biome; 2 write a brief paper that defends their depiction of the biome and states how the characteristics of the biome affect the nature of the plants and animals that live there; and 3 present and explain their model to the class.
Each group member has a specific role. The facilitator leads the group's discussion about how the model should be designed and defended, the scribe writes down the group's ideas for the report, the lead builder takes leadership for building the model, and the presenter explains the model to the class.
- Distributed Systems for Information Systems Management!
- Confused by Design.
- Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation?
Everyone in the group is responsible for participating in the group discussions, assisting with building the model, and gathering supporting evidence for the model. This last task involved using the science textbook and the Internet to find support for the design of the model. Both computers included screen reading software. Derrick, Maria, Shalandra, and LaMont were in a group for this activity.
Maria served as the facilitator, Shalandra as the scribe, LaMont as the lead builder, and Derrick as the presenter. While each group worked on the assigned cooperative learning task, Mr. Jones checked each group to monitor progress, answer questions, reinforce appropriate behaviors, and troubleshoot. When Mr. Jones visited this specific group, he noticed that Shalandra seemed to be withdrawing from the group and writing the paper on her own. Jones decided to step in and guide the group in working together on deciding what should be included in the paper.
He also queried individual group members to check their levels of understanding with respect to the concepts at hand. During a second visit with this group, Mr. Jones found that LaMont was really engaged in building the model, and he praised him discreetly on his efforts. During a third visit to the group, Mr.
Jones found that the majority of the group had misunderstood an important concept, so he conducted a mini-lesson with the group on the topic. After the cooperative learning lesson was completed, Mr. Jones evaluated the targeted academic learning. For the academic learning, Mr. Jones created a rubric to help him evaluate the models, the accompanying papers, and the presentations.
He also developed a brief pencil and paper quiz. His goal was to determine which students mastered identifying the geographic factors in biomes that cause diversity in flora and fauna. Jones also assessed the targeted social skills for each student. Because of Shalandra's and LaMont's previous emotional difficulties, Mr. Jones decided to document how they worked during cooperative learning time. As you implement cooperative learning in your classroom, begin by helping students develop their interpersonal skills.
These skills include communicating ideas effectively, taking turns appropriately during discussions, remaining focused on the topic, sharing materials, and disagreeing amicably. If you or your students are new to cooperative learning, start by using smaller groups with two to four students that meet once a week. As you move forward, keep the following concepts in mind:. Do not attempt to cover all instruction using a cooperative learning format. Instruction should include individual, small-group, and whole-group formats. Explicitly outline behavioral and learning expectations for students prior to beginning cooperative learning activities.
For example, expectations regarding voice volume, specific roles in the group e. You can use a fishbowl technique and allow students to model these roles for their peers. In the fishbowl technique, one group of students performs a brief cooperative learning activity while the rest of the class watches. Afterward, the class discusses the groups' strengths and ways in which the group can improve based on the guidelines of cooperative learning.
Provide special support to students as needed to help them participate effectively in cooperative learning. For example, using a "talking wand" may be helpful for young or impulsive students. Students are required to wait until they receive the talking wand before they speak. Other students may need visual reminders or checklists that can include the following items: Am I following instructions? Am I using a quiet voice?
Am I contributing to the group discussion? Am I listening to my group members? Am I staying focused on the task? Remove students from cooperative learning activities if they cannot focus on the task or are distracting others. Teachers should be prepared with an alternate learning activity that focuses on the same content in an individual format to accommodate students when they are not able to function in a group. Tiered lessons allow teachers to present a given concept to students at multiple levels of complexity or through multiple learning styles.
According to Adams and Pierce , "A tiered lesson addresses a particular standard, key concept, and generalization, but allows several pathways for students to arrive at an understanding of these components" p. Adams and Pierce identified the following steps for implementing tiered lessons: Identify the standard that you are targeting. Determine the key concepts or big ideas that are inherent in this standard. What should all students know or be able to do relative to this standard? Determine what students already know or can do. Will some students need help gaining prerequisite skills?
Have some students already mastered the basic concept? Choose what lessons you will tier and how you will tier the content, process, or product. For example, if you are teaching a lesson on measuring to the nearest half inch, you may find that some students in the class have not yet mastered this skill while other students have. You may decide to tier the content by having one group focus on measuring to the nearest inch, another on measuring to the nearest half inch, and yet another on measuring to the nearest quarter inch.
You could also tier the process or the method through which students will experience the lesson. Determine how many tiers you will have and match students to the appropriate tiers. You may decide to have as few as two tiers or as many as five tiers based on the learning needs of your class. The following scenario shows a tiered lesson strategy in Ms. Wilson's 3rd grade classroom. In this scenario we meet three students from her class, Dorothy, Jim, and Juan.
Dorothy is a 9-year-old white female student. She lives with her mother and two younger siblings. Her mother works as a waitress at a local pizza parlor. Dorothy's favorite subjects are social studies, music, and art. She learns best when she is working with her hands or with others. She was identified as mildly mentally retarded as a 2nd grader and has very weak literacy and math skills. Jim is an 8-year-old African American male student. He is an only child and lives with his parents, both of whom are educators in another school district.
Jim's favorite subject is science and his least favorite subject is social studies. He can perform at very high levels and was recently identified as a gifted student. Jim enjoys puzzles and appears to be an analytical thinker. Although Jim is a very capable student, he does not always put forth his best effort. If the topic is not interesting to him, or if he deems an activity "stupid," he will not engage and can become a behavior problem.
Juan is 8 years old. His family moved to the United States from Mexico two years ago. He lives with his parents and three older siblings. Juan's mother works at a fast food restaurant and his father works at a construction site. Spanish is the primary language spoken in his home.
Juan's favorite subject is math. He also enjoys sports and is a great artist. Juan often struggles to express his thoughts in English and understand abstract concepts and academic language. His literacy skills are very low.
Getting started and facilitating discussion
During the 20 years that Ms. Wilson has taught at Southside Elementary School, she has witnessed increasing diversity in the student population. More than 40 percent of her students are African American, Hispanic, or Asian; 20 percent are English language learners and speak either Hmong or Spanish; and most students receive free or reduced-priced lunches.
Wilson also serves two children who have learning disabilities; one child has mild mental retardation and the other has a behavior disorder. Additionally, there are two students who are identified as gifted in her class. The instructional and behavior management strategies that Ms. Wilson used with success in the past no longer seem to be working. Adding to her frustration is the fact that Southside Elementary has now been labeled a "school in crisis" because of its failure to make adequate yearly progress.
With this new designation, Ms. Wilson and her colleagues are under increasing pressure to ensure that all students reach established benchmarks at the same time that the needs of the student population have become increasingly diverse. Wilson used a tiered format to design a lesson to address the 3rd grade social studies standard for identifying ways to prepare for natural disasters in the United States.
She decided to focus on this standard during a lesson on tornado preparedness. Wilson began the lesson with a preview of related vocabulary. Next, general content regarding tornado preparedness was presented through a video and a class discussion. A local meteorologist visited the class to discuss tornados and safety precautions and brought in a model that simulated a mini-tornado in action.
After this whole-group presentation, Ms. Wilson tiered the remaining class activities based on different tiers and learning projects see Figure 1. Juan and 19 other classmates were assigned to tier 1 and were required to design posters that illustrated each of the steps to take during a tornado.
- Glossary of Hattie's influences on student achievement - VISIBLE LEARNING?
- Ten Metacognitive Teaching Strategies.
- Main navigation.
After designing the posters, students in this tier paired up with a peer to explain their posters. Dorothy and four other classmates were assigned to tier 2 and worked together as a team to develop and perform a skit that depicted the steps to take during a tornado. Jim and two other classmates were assigned to tier 3 and developed PowerPoint presentations that briefly outlined what causes tornados, what steps to take during a tornado, and what kinds of damage tornados can cause. To complete these activities, students in tier 3 were required to do Internet research on specified sites to learn more about the causes and consequences of tornados.
Standard: Identify ways to prepare for natural disasters in the United States. Steps to take during a tornado. Design and explain posters to peers. Create a poster that illustrates steps to take during a tornado. Work together as a team to develop skit. Perform a skit that depicts steps to take during a tornado.
Steps to take during a tornado Explain causes of tornados Explain kinds of damage tornados can cause. Conduct Internet research on specified sites. Develop PowerPoint presentations that outlines the content. Wilson knew that Dorothy learned best by doing an activity, therefore she assigned her to the group that developed a skit. Likewise, Ms. Wilson recognized that social studies was Jim's least favorite subject, so she found a way to link it with a science concept.
She also designed a learning activity that challenged Jim and extended his learning about tornado preparedness. Finally, Ms. Wilson capitalized on Juan's artistic skills and circumvented his literacy limitations by assigning him to the tier that required students to illustrate the steps to take during a tornado. As you get started with this approach, begin with two tiers for each lesson and then you can add as many as five tiers as you become more comfortable with this approach. As with other approaches, it is important to prepare students for using tiered lessons.
Create a classroom climate where students understand that the assignments will be differentiated for each student based on their needs. Students should understand that "fair" means that everyone gets what they need and not everyone will get the same thing. Strategies for facilitating this kind of classroom environment can be found in Chapter 4. Learning centers are another powerful instructional method that can be used to support diverse groups of learners.
Keep the following guidelines in mind as you design your learning centers: Learning centers should be phased in gradually if students don't have prior experience using them. Before center time begins, students need explicit instructions regarding behavioral and academic expectations.
This discussion should focus on rules for appropriate behavior when working in the learning center e. Initially, students should only go to one center for a short period during this time. After students use the center, give them a "debriefing" that includes feedback about how well behavioral and academic expectations were met. As students become more familiar with learning centers, you can phase in more complex or lengthy center formats. Likewise, pre- and post-discussions regarding the learning center process can become more abbreviated.
In general, learning center activities should focus on material that students already know. If students are working independently in the learning centers, they will need to have some familiarity with both the content and format of activities. This guideline would not apply if the teacher is stationed at one of the learning centers. All materials that students will need to complete the required activities should be located in or near the center. Providing easy access to all materials will reduce the need for students to stray away from the physical location of the center.
Center activities should be novel and engaging. This appeal will serve as intrinsic motivation for students to complete the task at hand. A system of accountability should be inherent in the center activity. Students need to feel that there is an expected outcome for center activities and that they will be held responsible for this outcome.
For example, in one center students may be expected to complete word puzzles. At the end of center time, students should submit a completed word puzzle to the teacher. This accountability reinforces the idea to students that while center time may be fun, productivity is still expected. Learning centers can be implemented in a variety of ways.
Strategies to engage your students in learning
In some cases, students do not rotate among centers but remain at assigned centers for 25 to 45 minutes at a time. In this case, differentiation occurs within centers rather than between them. For example, in a high school English class with diverse students, several learning centers are set up to focus on punctuation.
Four centers are set up for end punctuation, comma usage, quotations, and colons and semicolons. Students work in the same center during center time based on their punctuation needs. The teacher then visits each station to do a mini-lesson. In other learning centers, students have the opportunity to visit multiple centers during each period. When learning centers are used in this way, students usually rotate through three to five centers and stay at each for 15 to 25 minutes.
Activities in each center are then differentiated to meet the needs of diverse students. The following scenario shows a learning center strategy from Ms. In this scenario, we meet up with Dorothy, Jim, and Juan again and see how they interact with a learning center lesson plan. Wilson frequently uses learning centers during the minute math block in her class.
Because many of her students have short attention spans, Ms. Wilson likes to give them frequent opportunities to shift activities and move around the room. Consequently, when Ms. Wilson uses learning centers, she often has students rotate among them in minute intervals.
Although her students are familiar with this format, Ms. Wilson still briefly reviews center activities and reminds students of behavioral expectations before they begin their work. She uses pictures and other graphics to support her explanations. During center activities, Ms.
Wilson moves between each center to monitor students' work and answer questions as they arise. Because of the diversity of the students in her class, Ms. Wilson differentiates activities within each learning center. She uses a color-coding system to cue students to the activities they need to complete. For example, some students may work on "red dot" activities while others work on "blue dot" or "yellow dot" activities.
Wilson designed a series of learning centers to reinforce skills related to the 3rd grade math standard for solving addition, subtraction, and word problems using two- and three-digit numbers with and without regrouping. During the first rotation, Dorothy, Jim, Juan, and their classmates visited center 1 which was designed to help them practice problem solving in math. In this center, Dorothy, Juan, and one other classmate worked at a bank of three computers.
Juan's computer was loaded with software featuring subtraction word problems that were read aloud in Spanish into his earphones. These were single-step word problems that involved two-digit addition with regrouping. The software saved a record of Juan's performance for Ms. Wilson's review. Dorothy and another classmate worked at the other two computers which were loaded with software featuring basic math facts that were read aloud e. How many do I have in all? These problems were accompanied with animated graphics that illustrated the problems. Jim and three other classmates worked on task cards featuring multi-step word problems involving three-digit subtraction with regrouping.
Center 2 was designed to reinforce basic facts. In this center, Dorothy and one other classmate were assigned to create a visual representation of several addition facts by gluing the indicated number of uncooked macaroni pieces underneath each problem. In the same center, Juan and four other classmates worked with speed drills on subtraction facts.
Jim and one other classmate did not work at this center because both students had already exceeded benchmarks on speed drills in both addition and subtraction facts. Instead, these two students remained at the problem-solving center and worked on making multi-step subtraction problems that were to be included in a word problem book for the entire class. Center 3 focused on helping students develop accuracy with two- and three-digit addition and subtraction algorithms involving regrouping. Juan and three classmates worked on "mystery person" worksheets in which the correct answers were coded to letters that spelled out the name of a famous African American mathematician.
These problems involved two-digit subtraction with regrouping. Jim and two other classmates worked on similar worksheets involving three-digit subtraction with regrouping. Dorothy and one other classmate did not participate in this center because its focus was not developmentally appropriate for them. Instead, both students remained at center 2 and continued to work on macaroni math facts. Center 4 involved three game boards. Dorothy and one other classmate played one of these games together.
This game included red problem cards with visual prompts. Good for: Incorporating reflection into every class; giving students time to collect their thoughts; facilitating equal participation; preparing for or debriefing after an experience; articulating goals; making connections to course readings. How to: Ask students to bring a journal or notebook with them to every class. At the start of each class or discussion, pose a question and give them five minutes to write down their response.
Think-Pair-Share What is it? A quick activity that allows students to think carefully about a question before sharing their responses with others. Good for: Giving students time to collect their thoughts; facilitating equal participation; ensuring every student contributes to the discussion. How to: Pose a question or present a problem. Give students minutes to think through or write down their response. Next, have students turn to a partner and discuss their ideas. Finally, ask students to share what came up in their pair discussions during a whole class discussion.
Ball Pass What is it? A method for structuring a large group discussion that encourages active listening and student-to-student interaction. Good for: Facilitating equal participation. How to: The facilitator, holding a ball, begins by posing a question or sharing an observation. Students wishing to respond raise their hands, and the facilitator passes the ball to one of them.
The second speaker then passes the ball on to the next person wishing to contribute. Fish Bowl What is it? A method for structuring a group participation that encourages peer-to-peer dialogue and active listening. Good for: Facilitating equal class participation; ensuring that every student contributes to the discussion. How to: Arrange the space into a smaller inner circle of chairs and a larger outer circle of remaining chairs. The facilitator poses an initial question, and those in the inner circle discuss the question among themselves while all others in the outer circle listen attentively.
Participants in the inner circle may choose to leave, at which point anyone in the outside circle is free to take the empty seat in the inner circle and join the conversation. Digging Deeper and Making Connections What? So what?
Now what? What is it? A method for sequencing reflective thinking that moves from description to analysis to action. It can take the form of an in-class writing assignment, discussion, or creative project e. Good for: Debriefing after an experience; articulating goals; developing strategies for achieving goals. How to: Begin by asking students to describe an experience, such as an excursion, a class discussion, or personal life event: What happened? What did you do? Next, ask them to analyze the experience: Why does it matter to you? To DePaul students? To Chicago residents?
How is it significant within the context of this class? Finally, ask students to take action: What have you learned? What will you do differently? Force Field Analysis What is it? An analysis activity that asks students to identify the helping and hindering forces affecting their movement towards a specific goal. Good for: Articulating goals and developing strategies to achieve the goals.
How to: Ask students to identify an educational, career, or financial goal and to provide a description of what success looks like. Ask students to chart out the hindering forces and helping forces that affect their movement towards the goal. Next, have students articulate where they currently are in terms of reaching that goal and steps they can take to accomplish it. Photo Captions What is it?