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[…] It is through that method, indeed, that Lapschina is able to attack cultural stereotypes […]
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  1. abbreviations - Abbreviating time - German Language Stack Exchange
  2. German Resources
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Date of Incident Location Kassel, Germany. Publication Date Additional Funding documenta Play Video. Read Full Report. Opfer' - 'no tenth victim'. A collection of open-source images and documents that formed the basis of our investigation. Forensic Architecture. Additionally, we undertake historical and theoretical examinations of the history and present status of forensic practices in articulating notions of public truth.

In March , our researchers travelled to Berlin to reenact Temme's reenactment at the House of World Cultures gallery. Update 6 April Update 6 May Update 25 August Update 19 December Following the submission of our text and video reports to the parliamentary 'NSU inquiry' in Hessen, and the release into the public domain of updated computer login timings, we were obliged to revise our timeline. Our conclusions were not substantially altered. Update 7 March Mark Blower. Principal Investigator. Eyal Weizman. Christina Varvia. Stefanos Levidis. Omar Ferwati. Ortrun Bargholz.

Eeva Sarlin. Nicholas Masterton. Filmmaking Post Production. Simone Rowat. Yamen Albadin. Research Assistance. Franc Camps-Febrer. Project Support. Hana Rizvanolli. Sarah Nankivell. Lawrence Abu Hamdan.

abbreviations - Abbreviating time - German Language Stack Exchange

Chris Cobb-Smith. Extended Team Extended Team. Installation Production. Filmmaking Berlin. In Germany, a 10 minute application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands was the standard application time until when shorter application times as short as 1 min were allowed [ 4 ]. The data sets with a 10 minute application time were obtained using the method version of [ 2 ], all other data sets were obtained using the last method version of [ 5 ]. Each experiment was performed in a reference-controlled cross-over design. A minimum of 20 volunteers was recruited per experiment.

The skin of the forehead was randomly divided into five areas of approximately five cm 2.

One area was chosen to determine the baseline bacterial density. Two areas were used for application of the reference alcohol 10 minutes , one for each of the different sampling times. Another two test areas were used for application of the skin antiseptic 2 or 10 minutes , one for each of the different sampling times. A cotton swab was soaked with the skin antiseptic and swabbed over the marked test field. The procedure was repeated up to five times in order to keep the skin moist with the skin antiseptic for the entire application time.

Ethical approval for studying the efficacy for skin antisepsis was obtained from the ethics committee of the University Hospital Kiel, Germany The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origins in the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki 52 nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October Informed consent was obtained from each participant. Each sampling area was marked so that the standard size of 5 cm 2 was clearly visible.

A cotton swab was soaked in tryptic soy broth TSB. The sampling area was rigorously rubbed for about 10 s as described before [ 6 ]. The swab was transferred into 5 ml TSB containing a combination of neutralizing agents for inactivation of residual biocidal activity [ 7 ].

This combination of neutralizing agents was found to be valid for neutralization of the skin antiseptics data not shown. The tube was vortexed for 30 s. A serial dilution was done in TSB. From appropriate dilution steps aliquots of 1 ml were spread on tryptic soy agar TSA in duplicate. Two marked skin areas on the forehead were treated with the reference alcohol, two other ones with one of the two skin antiseptics. After each type of treatment two samples were taken post-values. The first sample was taken immediately after completion of the application 10 or 2 min after beginning of the application.

The second sample was taken 30 minutes after beginning of the application 20 or 28 min after completion of application. Between each product application, a rest period of at least one week elapsed in order to allow the reconstitution of normal skin flora. The weighted mean of CFU was calculated taking into account the number of CFU per plate and the corresponding dilution step. The weighted mean was multiplied by the dilution factor in order to obtain the number of CFU per mL in the sampling liquid. All pre- and post-values were expressed as log 10 values.


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For each sample from each volunteer, the logarithmic reduction factor RF was calculated as the difference between the log 10 baseline value and the log 10 post-values. Skin antiseptic A applied for 10 min reduced the bacterial density on the forehead by 1. Two experiments were performed with the clear skin antiseptic A applied for 2 minutes.

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Skin antiseptic B was studied in two experiments Table 1 Tab. Application for 10 minutes was equally effective than the 10 min reference procedure in the immediate effect 1. When applied for 2 minutes it was also equally effective immediately after the application 1. For the first time we were able to demonstrate that the efficacy of two iso-propanol-based skin antiseptic is achieved on the forehead within 2 min and does not require a 10 min application time.

Extending the application time with any of the two skin antiseptics beyond 2. Although the efficacy of iso-propanol on the resident skin is considered to be weaker compared to ethanol and n-propanol [ 8 ], it is nevertheless one of the most commonly used types of alcohol for skin antisepsis both in Europe and the US and is considered to be safe and effective for this purpose [ 9 ].

Its efficacy is often underestimated especially when a combination with other active agents is used [ 10 ]. The clinical advantage is substantial if the application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands is reduced from 10 to 2 min without any loss of efficacy. Although data were obtained on the forehead other skin areas are also known to have a high density of sebaceous glands such as the skin on back or the chest [ 11 ] which underlines the relevance of our data especially in spine surgery or open thoracic and cardiac surgery.

But this will only be possible for preparations with sound evidence that a short application time yields the same efficacy as a long application time. The clear and coloured skin antiseptics which were tested in our study and which were applied for 2 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. GK and NN designed the study, all authors analysed the data, GK wrote the manuscript, and all authors read and approved the final manuscript.

The sponsor participated in the study design, analysis and interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript and the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar 7. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract Background: Recent research suggests that specific ethanol-based skin antiseptics exhibit their efficacy on the resident skin flora of the forehead in only 2.