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Selbst Wilhelm Pieck und. Als Sokolowski von der beginnenden Demontage in Jena erfuhr, wandte er sich an Stalin. Noch im September hatte ein sowjetischer General das Zeiss-Werk damit beauftragt, monatlich 6. Photo-Objektive an die Dresdner Kamera-Werke zu liefern. Im Alliierten Kontrollrat zeigten die westlichen. Sokolowskis Intervention bei Stalin hatte Erfolg. Mai angeschafft wurden, ebenfalls der Demontage unterliegen.
Aber so wie die Abbauarbeiten voranschritten, kam die Produktion zum Erliegen. Von den insgesamt 8. Unter dem Um jede Maschine wird ein Balkengestell gebaut, das mit Maschinenschrauben zusammengeschraubt wird. Die Innenseite der Kiste wird mit ungesandeter Dachpappe ausgekleidet. Mitte November begann der Abtransport des Demontagegutes, und am Dieser Teil der Demontage hatte offensichtlich eine Doppelfunktion.
Dazu waren sie aber nur in der Lage, wenn der gesamte Betriebsorganismus funktionierte. Dezember immerhin 1. So hielt Otto Marquardt unter dem Und am Kimmisch, Klemp Klempnerei d. Er ist 31 Jahre bei Zeiss. Das zeigte sich auch am November im Bau 29 des Hauptwerkes. Dobrowolski behauptete am Dezember wurden Rudolf Klupsch. November und vom Im Verlauf der Demontage verschlechterte sich die Stimmung in der Belegschaft zusehends. Die Art der Demontage wurde als sinnlos empfunden. In einem von Betriebsratsmitgliedern am Seid keine Saboteure der deutschen Wirtschaft.
Reiht Euch mit in die Reihen des zivilen Ungehorsams ein! Das Demontagegut wurde zwischen Mitte November und Juni auf 7. Es bestand aus In: Jenaer Jahrbuch zur Technik- und Industriegeschichte Der Befehl sah vor, die demontierten Maschinen und Einrichtungen auf 14 feinmechanisch-optische Betriebe zu verteilen. Die Leningrader Werke Nr. Alfred Krohs und Dr. Karl Gundlach, die Wissenschaftler Dr. August Sonnefeld, und Dr. Friedrich Hauser aus dem Mikrolabor und Dr. Die Gruppe im Werk Nr.
Im Werk Nr. Herbert Kortum. Das Werk Nr. In diesem Werk arbeiteten insgesamt 45 Zeissianer. Matthias Uhl fand in den vom ihm ausgewerteten Archivalien auch einen Vorgang, in dem der Chef des sowjetischen Staatssicherheitsdienstes, Abakumow, am Friedrich Schomerus und den in die Sowjetunion deportierten Zeissianern, Arbeitsaufgaben zugewiesen wurden. Dort machte ich nun den 4. Wir lieferten im Durchschnitt 1. Das wurde mir aber bestritten, denn ich war abgeneigt, Objektive herzustellen. Vorgesetzten bedauert. Ich lehnte ab, ich war inzwischen 66 Jahre geworden, meine Frau war krank, wir wollten nach Hause, wo meine Frau auch nach 2 Monaten verstorben ist.
Woran das liegt, ist schwer zu sagen. Die Sprachschwierigkeiten und Verschiedenheit in der Art der Arbeitsauffassung spielen dabei wohl eine gewisse Rolle". Die Wissenschaftler und Konstrukteure aus Jena wurden in Arbeitsgruppen eingesetzt und blieben zumeist unter sich. Ein sowjetischer Verbindungsmann hielt den Kontakt zur Betriebsleitung. Er war im. Die Leningrader beklagten das windige und feuchte Seeklima. Nur das arbeitende Familienmitglied bekam Kartoffelzuteilung - ein Pfund am Tage. Einige Briefschreiber zeigten sich aber mit der Lebensmittelversorgung zufrieden, sie sei gut und ausreichend, jedenfalls besser als in der Heimat.
Dabei waren die. April an eine bekannte Familie in Jena. Es wurden die Arbeitsjahre im. Die Freizeit verbrachten die Zeissianer meist miteinander. Sie gestalteten gemeinsame Weihnachts- und Osterfeiern und Konzerte. Im ersten Jahr konnten sich die Zeissianer in Leningrad frei bewegen. Deshalb fragte Karl Gundlach, der inzwischen das Friedrich Schomerus konnte Ende und mit Freude vom begonnenen Wiederaufbau berichten.
Wir werden uns sehr freuen, wenn Sie. Schomerus vom Ustinow blieb es auch versagt, das Vorhaben, das Jenaer Zeiss-Werk zu liquidieren, zu realisieren. Zwischen dem Seite 53 fehlt]. Februar rief Hugo Schrade die Betriebsleiter zusammen, um die ersten praktischen Schritte in die Wege zu leiten.
August das Zeiss-Werk. Er beauftragte die Vertriebsabteilungsleitungen, in Abstimmung mit den Fertigungsleitungen das traditionelle zivile Zeiss-Programm wieder anzubieten. Erst danach sollte die weitere Programmplanung erfolgen. Die Abteilungen sollten mindestens ein charakteristisches Zeiss-Instrument auf den Markt bringen. Experimente mit Neuentwicklungen seien zu unterlassen. Die Belegschaft sollte in diesem Zeitraum auf 9. Gleichzeitig waren die Facharbeiter nach ihren Arbeitserfahrungen und -fertigkeiten in den sich neu konstituierenden Betriebsabteilungen einzusetzen.
Mai Bis Juni konzentrierte man sich darauf, die Herstellung der Kleinbild-Objektive in. Gang zu setzen, im Sommer erfolgte dann die Produktionsaufnahme von Reproduktions-Objektiven, und ab. September begann die Fertigung der Kino-Projektions-Objektive. November stellte die Abteilung das. Es gelang bis Ende nicht, die vorgesehenen. Juni der erste Abstich des selbstkonstruierten Kupolofens erfolgte. Im Hauptwerk wurden Damit war die Vorgabe des ersten Aufbauplans realisiert. Der Wiederaufbau wurde aus verschiedenen Quellen finanziert. Des Weiteren konnte das Contax-Programm abgerechnet werden.
Davon entfielen 71 Prozent auf die Firma Carl Zeiss. April ; Preisgestaltung vom 1. Von den ca. Die ersten 13 Heimkehrer trafen im August in Jena ein.
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Die Zeiss-Kapelle. Hugo Schrade vom Zuteilung von IN-Karten vom Der Werkdirektor Dr. Hugo Schrade bereitete allen ein Wiedersehen mit der geliebten Heimat, die allen zu Herzen ging. Juli wissen:. Kaum einer stellte sich aber den aktuellen Belangen des Betriebes! Soweit die Wohnungen nicht bis zum Eintreffen freigemacht werden konnten, wurden die heimkehrenden Kollegen mit ihren Familien im Hotel. Jetzt sind alle Kollegen untergebracht. Beanstandungen liegen nicht vor. Schwierigkeiten hat es nirgendwo gegeben. Februar Auf den Fertigungsbetrieb entfielen 36,5 und auf den Brillenbetrieb lediglich 3,7 Prozent.
On 11 April , a Wednesday, gave the Sirens on the rooftops of the city of Jena those monotonous sound that indicated the officers and soldiers of the garrison Jena, the NSDAP officials and residents that approaches the battle front of the city. The National Socialist mayor handed the head of the municipal food and economic office into office and said: "I am so politically exposed that I have been ordered to drop me off with the Volkssturm as soon as enemy alarm is triggered.
The time has come. Pioneers prepared the demolition of municipal utilities and the Saale River bridges. I felt that he was internally greatly moved. Whether the following mitmache? I told him that all men and women of my department think this is a madness and would not go along.
The guys wanted to hunt the Zeiss and Schott the plant, as well as the Saale bridges in the air. I was outraged by this news and said, this is not to believe. When I said yes to him on the spot, he said he was determined to prevent this, even if it would cost him his head. Such madness do. Empire from to A daily chronicle of politics, economy, culture, Augsburg , p The opponents of Hitler in the population, the hope mixed on the liberation from National Socialism with the concern that the anticipated hostilities could destroy the city further and cost victims among the civilian population in the last minute.
The mood of the vast majority of the population was from the expectation that the war is finally over, the marked fear of imminent hostilities and uncertainty about the behavior of the Americans against the Germans. The foreign workers and prisoners of war eagerly awaited the arrival of the Americans and their return home. On 13 April moved the soldiers of the 4th Panzer and the 80th Infantry Division, coming through the Mill Valley, in the city before. To complicate the Americans the crossing of the Saale, had Wehrmacht pioneers on 12 April , the Saale bridges blown up Of these, the Americans could not stop it.
They sat on the Saale and pushed the Wehrmacht units further east. In Jena fell apart within a few hours, the Nazi regime structures. As the American military occupied the Zeiss factory, Jena, the company was in existence-threatening crisis.
Its integration into the Nazi regime and in particular the continuing focus of the research, development and production on the defense issues as well as the weakening of the innovative potential through the withdrawal of personnel engaged in military service had led to the Zeiss factory in important areas of the optical precision instrument making had lost the advantage over international competitors. In addition, the substantial losses came in property arising out of the pre-war period in the countries against which the Third Reich had been at war or which had been occupied by German troops, and by the air attacks on the plants in Jena.
The American military took over immediately after their engagement in Jena control of the Zeiss works. The managers had to be approved all substantial decisions of the officers of the Military Commission. The managers understood it, to make relations with the occupying officers objectively and sometimes trusting. Abs of an American officer "under the control we work and the other hand, has given us, especially in the first few weeks good protection.
The initiative came from Otto Marquardt, who had chaired the council from to The optician was on 15 April returned to his work in optics-Justiererei II and was in contact with his former council colleagues taken to jointly establish with them the democratic workforce representation again. Hugo Schrade, in order to discuss with him this project. Hugo Schrade had played a key role in the early thirties, the main line and staff was just as Otto Marquardt persecuted by the Nazis.
He was a trusted person with whom he could discuss the structure of the workforce representation for Otto Marquardt. Because it was not known whether the American. Then and Now, p Military government would allow councils, Otto Marquardt chose the name for the workforce representation of workers and employees-Committee. Such a body was enshrined in the constitution of the Carl Zeiss Foundation.
With Hugo Schrade Otto Marquardt discussed substantive issues that had to be solved immediately. This concerned primarily the elimination of all provisions that were inserted under pressure from the Nazis in the foundation's statute, and contradicted the Abbe spirit, as well as the continuing validity of the statute.
Then it was about the abolition of disciplinary actions, which had been spoken by the management due to the Nazi legislation against staff members. After the election of committee members, department representatives and Commissioners between 27 April and the 6th May met on 7th May staff representative for the constituent meeting of the Workers 'and Employees' Committee and decided on the basis of the Foundation's constitution of , the employment contract of , the Pension Regulations of 1 January and the statutes of the company health insurance from 1 March to work. This included the 19 April wrote production program and the far-reaching changes in the workforce.
When planning the production of the directors of the expected demand went out in the first postwar period Zeiss products. He gave up the manufacture of ophthalmic lenses, photographic lenses and selected optical precision equipment in the center of the range to be produced. The let the numbers on the distribution of workers recognize the operating and manufacturing departments and the division of the intended production hours. Then from the future total workforce This program, on 13 June was present, should be processed until October It had next to number and type of glasses also from which numbers were finished per month.
The American officers ordered 4, binoculars, riflescopes for 1, rifles, until the fall of and riflescopes, which were to deliver in the coming year. In addition, the Americans issued orders for rangefinder different construction methods. During the month of May , the Executive Board of the American Military Commission submitted the corresponding offers. Since 8 May reported the management of the U.
Exception: Small completing work on unfinished devices that were taken after the completion of Americans to 30 June. In the early postwar weeks, the composition of the workforce changed. At the request of the American military government stepped down. S 95 Report of the Technical Director , No. General Volume I.. This was according to the level of 31 March A small Some of them were transferred to the regular Zeiss workforce. By June , the Zeiss works also separated by Zeiss-permanent staff consisted at that time of only Moreover retired senior management in these weeks workers and employees who were 60 years and older.
Through these redundancies changed from March to June , the workforce structure. The worker share of employees decreased from In the last weeks of the war staff had returned from the various Zeiss companies outside Germany to Jena. The staff main line itself known to the staff members who had been liberated by Allied forces from Nazi concentration camps and prisons.
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After the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht, the first Zeissians came back from captivity. At the same time always plant employees had to be removed from the staff lists again, of which it became known that they had come shortly before the end of the war at the front or by air strikes killed. She was especially interested the business relationships of the Zeiss Group to the Japanese.
In particular, they investigated which optical military equipment had been delivered in the Empire. March 31, Then the Zeiss factory employed a total of 3, civilian foreigners from 22 nations. These included Of the civil foreigners were 28 percent female. March As late May , more and more clearly apparent that the U. Now the withdrawal of U. This means that the division of labor relations within the Zeiss Group were at risk. This situation had two aspects for the American military. You remained no time, the products which they had been commissioned to obtain even in full and, if employed in the war against the Japanese Empire.
They had to accept at the same time that the Soviet armed forces get the disposition of the Jena-based company. Since Americans but did not rule out a military confrontation with the USSR, they were not keen to leave the military usable knowledge, products and processes of the Soviet defense industry. Also, the precision engineering and optical industry in the U. That this was not unfounded, it becomes clear in the following chapter. The acting in the Zeiss factory in Jena glassworks and American and British teams explored why not just militarily relevant, but also opened up what ever was of particular value in the optical precision device and the photo-optics.
So the Americans seized the objective collection of the Zeiss factory and spent it in the United States. The 's collections contained both the oldest Zeiss lenses as well as the latest pieces of evidence. Furthermore, 20 construction books were taken away with optical sketches of the most common lenses and the associated production rules. Kaprelain, assessed in February , to Astoria, Long Iceland, placed lens collection as follows:.gboat.vip.avoori.com/kisu-astra-mk4.php
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Then and Now. Lieutenant W. He announced in late May or early June , the Executive Board. There they checked first whether the company cover can provide suitable premises. Stuttgart in the Contessa factory, which belonged to the Zeiss AG lkon Use of this manufacturing facility failed due to the resistance of the French occupation authorities.
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Since Brayer obviously was not qualified to conduct the relocation company in the ways he sought the support of his superior authority, on 7 June Colonel Hubert Zempke and Colonel JJ Stone sent to Jena. Air Force. Archives of the U. The directors of the foundation companies attracted from the different information that they received from the officers of the American military commission and other sources, the conclusion that the American withdrawal from Thuringia may be imminent in the near future.
They used the prepared by the Americans mission to plan even the construction of new production facilities in the American occupation zone so that they can take over the tasks of the Jena foundation companies in the Group as a whole. They had expected that after Nazi Germany was defeated, the latent tensions between the USSR and its Western allies increase and the Western occupation zones are isolated from the Eastern Zone. In such a case, the company of the Zeiss Group were supplied in the Western occupation zones neither with special optical glass or optical systems.
This could - as they feared - enable Zeiss competitors, initially to dominate the market in the Western occupation zones, and in due course the external market. He demanded that the head of the optic management and the Planning Board to set target figures for the individual machine types that are to be relocated. Establishment of a branch office of the Zeiss factory production" The crucial passage in the note reads. The composition of the new plant is to be chosen such that a closed, high-performance precision-engineered optical company is given, ie, that in addition to professionals and specialists of the company also special forces of the design offices, laboratories with shifted werder.
For the entire production facility of the directors had provided a floor space of 25, m2, on the machine can be set up. For the transportation of machinery, equipment, documents, etc. The removal of the 2, staff members and their 4, family members. For this reason, the plan should be re-positioned for a total of 1, people. Colonel Stone noted in his secret report that the Director had asked the officers for a meeting in order to make them a proposal which should take into account the American side. According to Stone's report, the Director pointed at this meeting first that come to its knowledge, Jena and the surrounding territory under Russian control.
And as they went not work for the Russians still with them, they want from the Zeiss factory "certain important parts of the research, production equipment and key personnel evacuate. Your evacuation plan also saw several productions and control devices before that are needed to meet the anticipated U. Colonel Warner, G-4 officer of the 9th U. Army, listened to what the Director lectured and let her know that he would not comment on the plans of the Soviet side.
Army had given the order to use the Zeiss factory in the war against Japan, the intention of the Board would " being considered ". These demanded the Colonel of the managers in the next 24 hours records or statements about the personnel, materials and equipment. Schott was given by the Schott glass works of the command to create a list of equipment and personnel, those who are to be made by the Zeiss factory match. The following day, the directors laid the responsibility for the mission officers the desired lists before, in their compilation, the so concerned Zeiss employees obviously had imposed maximum restraint, because the Americans were most dissatisfied with the performance of their statement.
Therefore, they demanded a rectification. At the same time received. The managers recruited between the 11th and 16 June among the scientists and engineers for voluntary resettlement in the American zone. Wilhelm Trostmann commented later on this action of the Executive Board:. Hansen then Prof. In advertising, it was revealed that the addressee showed little willingness to leave Jena, because even the withdrawal of the Americans seemed not identified.
And on top associated with a departure uncertainties were extremely large. Something different was the case with Heinrich tip Bender and several other executives who also had a personal interest, not to meet the Soviet military, as they were, even though they held no outstanding feature of the NSDAP, in virtue of their position in the defense industry integrates the Nazi system of rule. They had feared that they would be to account for it. On 10 June began the removal of the scientific-technical documentation and the special equipment from the laboratories and workshops.
They were the 45th Air Depot Group brought. While the packaging of furniture, furnishings and documents in Jena was in full swing, Colonel Hubert Zempke learned from his superiors - he was on 11 June traveled to the headquarters to Paris to be far-reaching program for the evacuation of personnel and property carried forward - that you stick to the Allied definition and the withdrawal of troops from other zones of occupation the industrial plants leaves untouched. After that, the "Carl-Zeiss-works mission" could no longer be realized in full.
He led the laboratories of the company. Since the 8th Corps of the U. Army, which was responsible for the control of Jena, knew this command denied his officers the removal of industrial material goods from Jena. Colonel Zempke, on 17 June was again arrived in Jena, urged together with Colonel Stone at the 8th Corps on the release of requisitioned.
But you were able to accomplish nothing for the time being. The 8th Corps had even let into the foundation companies raise guards who had orders to prevent the removal of material and machinery. The efforts of the "Carl-Zeiss-works mission" Supervisor to obtain a written order for the execution of their project at the headquarters of the Air Force, were unsuccessful. Finally a radio call came in, who instructed the 8th Corps, Stone and Zempke to assist in the evacuation of data and people.
Thereafter, the raw glass and the furnishings of the glassworks were , both were already loaded on 19 railway wagons, brought back into the glass factory.
Likewise, the Packaged remained in the Zeiss plant in place. I still remember that the American officers, the memorandum corrected We came across a that us a clean copy This was not done. After the U. President in mid-June , Churchill and Stalin informed by telegram that he would pull U. This command brought together a group of officers from the headquarters on the afternoon of 18 June to Jena.
Then the directors of the foundation companies were for the late evening of 18 June called together in the Administration Building. It therefore should be limited to the most important people, equipment and machinery. Zempke needed this to me remained in memory sentence: We take the brain '"Colonel Zempke also announced that the directors are on a special list of the Allied headquarters and transported as the first, although Walther Bauersfeld had not been mentioned..
Among the managers were required to list them from their areas of responsibility, the key staff. Georg Joos should call 20 designers 30 to 35 scientists and Prof. Walther Bauersfeld. The staff lists of Joos and Bauersfeld got the Americans on June 19, They led to the dismantling of the Zeiss factory and thus a destruction of our founder, Abbe work.
The Directors have been told that this is not a request, but a command. And if there is no progress in assembling and packaging within 24 hours is visible, American troops were being taken to the factory to complete the work. In addition, the directors were informed that, if no visible success can be seen within 24 hours, they will be handed over to the local military authorities for insubordination. Furthermore represents Stone stated that they had "list of research staff, as it had been submitted by the Directors of the Carl-Zeiss-work or the Schott glass works" used as a "guideline for the selection to be evacuated personnel" the.
He introduced her to the existing contracts for outsourcing parts of the Zeiss factory and then described what had happened the previous night. The demand of the shift has been interpreted as meaning that they lie in the complement of the American territories eventl. Justification of the management team, he still led to: "The management has to take this opportunity to once again pointed very clearly to the consequences of such an action for both to be displaced people, as well as for the remaining workforce, she has made it clear that the company could meet only as a coherent whole their tradition-bound tasks that required by the Americans step if he would be carried out, is tantamount to almost a separation of the head from the body and will cause a very serious concern in the farms.
The machines, which on photographic lenses are necessary for the production of the mentioned order and transported, may be taken from a very abundant supply. He made the Leader violent accusations because he packaging of laboratory equipment, drawings, etc. Then ordered Brayer "to begin immediately with the reinforced packing of tools and devices to bring the production in the American sector, based on the machinery of Amberg and Ebrach, in a short time to start up.
Here, the necessary special equipment and machines for the production of large aviator lenses should be fully taken away. Zempke and GL the plan of relocating production to lack of time as unworkable was ". The Director informed immediately the staff who were involved in the action package, about the assistance obtained from Brayer statement. He pointed Erich Schreiber and Walter Traut on to let the pack "devices for general Zeiss production and for the production of aviator lenses" and also to inform the superintendent. When the members of the Workers 'and Employees' Committee were informed by the manager of engineering and auxiliary systems, Wilhelm Trostmann about this arrangement, they laid the other hand, sharp protest.
Erroneously led preparation for relocation be undone The American officers who were charged with the "Carl-Zeiss-works mission" and tried again on 20 June to implement an extensive shift, ultimately the success of the American renunciation of the requisitioning of machinery and equipment was denied. Thwarted also the plans of the directors to build with these kits outside of the Soviet occupation zone a new production facility. He was also instructed. Assess people immediately pose a security risk to the United States.
For the accommodation of the announced general Heidenheim an der Brenz certain. At the same professors, faculty and staff of the University of Jena and their families were taken away. The Army had assigned each family a truck. In his secret report on the "Carl-Zeiss-works mission" are J. Stone Recommendations for the use of the deportees professionals and evaluated its usefulness for the United States as follows: "Obviously controlled the Carl-Zeiss works to a large extent the highly qualified research potential of the German optical industry.
Thereafter possibly could be selected for an industrial or academic employment in the USA ten percent of scientists. The others should be distributed to the various precision mechanics and optics companies in the American occupation zone. The report shows that the aim of "Carl-Zeiss-works mission" to spend selected production capacity in the American occupation zone and the deportees to provide for the immediate resumption of their work activities in view, not at or intended for only a short time.
The German question in class. Series for politics, history, German. As Stone wrote his report, the U. Air Force on 14 August capitulated. The scientific and technical documentation and the equipment from the Zeiss works were brought to the U. The American Military Commission exhibited for the services which had provided the Zeiss works for the American forces from mid-April to end of June and for part of the transported away documents, materials and equipment Requisitionsscheine. Even the packaging of the seized documents and articles, the concerned departments built directories on the Withdrawn.
On 4 October was an overview of the losses that were incurred by the Zeiss works by the American and British military, together. Thereafter, documents, materials and equipment were lost in the value of The sum of The analysis of the requisitioned products shows that Plus 7. Table 2 in the Supplementary tables are supply details on the losses of the operating departments. In the drawings and bills of material, the emphasis was not on a backing of machines and devices.
They accounted for only Furthermore, the American military for image and precision instruments, as well as for geodetic instruments interested. From the seized original drawings accounted for On 20 June informed the officers of the American military commission, the managers about their imminent removal. This forced them to come to a decision about the management of the Jena-based company for the period in which they will not be in Jena.
They had to select the people who, during his absence perform their duties and had to agree on which skills are to have the new managements. About to be selected persons, the Leader were quickly agreed, because there were only figures in question have the necessary authority in the workforce, were technically proficient and above all against the retiring managers loyal. They must also be of the Soviet occupation authorities and the Germans, in future to be leaders in Jena in Thuringia, accepted politically. The choice fell on Dr. Schrade Hugo and Victor Sandman. Friedrich Schomerus had led the staff main line until and had been forced by the Nazis from this function.
He was an expert on all matters relating to the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. Because he was married to a Jewess, he was persecuted by the Nazis. In he was part of a workers 'and soldiers' council and had been sentenced to imprisonment. A particular problem it was for the directors to determine the responsibilities of their successors. The managers were so it looked before the constitution of the Carl Zeiss Foundation, appointed for life.
It was a privilege to which they do not want to do without easily. At the same time, however, demanded the uncertain political and economic conditions that its representatives were sufficiently legitimized for the performance of their duties. After the foundation statute the directors were appointed without the Foundation administration and by the Commissioner no new Leader. First, they wanted to give Friedrich Schomerus and Hugo Schrade only power of attorney.
Therefore, Paul Henrichs signed on 21 June an application to the district court, but did not send him off. On 22 June Paul Henrichs presented for the three selected employees a power of attorney, which authorized them "the business of the Board for the time being, as long as the members of the Executive not in Jena, perceive. Therefore, would the managers, and in particular the suggestion of Dr. Erich Schott, determined from executives who remain in Jena, to form a new management team. As the members of the Workers 'and Employees' Committee of the two founding companies but insisted that the officers have the same powers with the management of the companies, such as those appointed for life managers, they turned still on 22 June Arno Barth, president of the court in Gera, had been appointed by the State Office already for the new foundation Commissioner.
They taught Arno Barth on the resulting in Jena situation and the corresponding articles of the Foundation's constitution. Arno Barth secured to its visitors, on 23 June to come to Jena. On the morning of 23 June came the endowment commissioner to Jena, to clarify the personnel matters at the top of the Zeiss company.
Arno Barth marked the beginning of the situation and referred to the provisions of the Statute of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The note of the Arno Barth about 25 June anfertigte, it says:. The current management had already taken precautions so far as they had ordered new power of attorney or had a panel of three men transferred the future management without being able to make these gentlemen but formally managers.
My view is that both the workforce over as outwardly formal Bestallung new manager is needed if the current management removed. Esau, the former Foundation Commissioner, had been dismissed because of his connection to the Nazi system. In: Combative science. The Acting Director expressed initially have reservations against the unrestricted transfer of the foundation laid down in the Statute rights and obligations for directors to the designated employees. They wanted to know the Makeshift this change more strongly emphasized in the management.
Otto Marquardt, on 23 June the course of the meeting held in the diary of the Workers 'and Employees' Committee, noted: "The old GL would have preferred it if the Provisional is more emphasized to the contact Scho Friedrich Schomerus author and I also. What the incumbent Director made her hesitate, we can only guess. First, is to assume that it came to them to enter at a possible return to Jena again in their full rights as Leader.
The them was granted by the Foundation Commissioner also readily. The previously quoted Barth notice is this: "However, the existing management team, as it corresponds to the Articles of Association, appointed for life. If they return, they are entitled to it; take over the old office back. For this reason, a temporary appointment of the new Director is provided as permitted by the Articles of Association "Paul Henrichs had provided for the period of one year.
But it is also quite possible that the outgoing Director considered to act in the complete Zeiss manufacturing plant, whose construction they were planning in the American occupation zone, as appointed Leader. Probably the managers were also assumes that if Thuringia long period occupied by Soviet troops, will be able to take on as a second management responsibility for the foundations and corporate assets in the Western occupation zones.
On 23 June , the new Director were used. I declare that we are in the fortunate position of being able to provide us with full on the bottom of the proposals of the GL. In announcing the new GL will appear after Dr. Barth that a equipped with full powers GL is, but withdraws when about coming back the old GL It consists of Dr. Schomerus and Prok authorized representative author Sandmann. The GL serve until the return of the old line. To open you the way statutes in accordance to order at ordinary course of business leaders, we have therefore the end of June of last year the Lord Foundation Commissioner suggested you as our follower and you pass the shops.
We wish to acknowledge clearly and unequivocally that we have seen since our removal from Jena as the now solely and fully responsible business lines of Foundation companies inwards and outwards and considering them. A copy of this letter was also the Stiftungskommissar. In the meeting with Arno Barth on 23 June the responsibilities of the new Executive Committee members are set. Hugo Schrade was responsible for the operation and production, Victor Sandmann for internal administration and finance and Friedrich Schomerus for personnel issues, for social policy and affairs of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung.
On 27 June provided the foundation Commissioner to the American garrison commander, the management team at his request before. On the same day the foundation Commissioner signed the contracts with the managers appointed by him. The district court, he reported that the order of Walther Bauersfeld and Paul Henrichs has gone out to officers of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung.
At the same time the foundation Commissioner informed that the members of the Executive Board, Friedrich Schomerus and Victor Sandman, have been appointed as agents of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in affairs of the company Carl Zeiss new. Assistant Secretary of State Frederick bull by the State Office of Education had the changes at the top of the Jena-based company already endorsed orally. However, a written declaration Arno Barth had to send a reminder. Dated 28 January In the late afternoon of 1 July rang at the home of Hugo Schradedas phone.
The caller was the doorman at the Zeiss high-rise and informed the Director with that wish him two officers of the Red Army to speak. When Hugo Schrade short time arrived at the factory later, introduced him to Major Sharov, who, like his companion, a topographic military unit belonged. The Major asked Hugo Schrade, to direct the work as before and asked him the appropriate powers of the occupying power from. On the same day Captain Grigoriev took command of the Zeiss works.
Of sat Hugo Schrade on 2 July , the superintendent informed. The change of occupation troops taking advantage, Otto Marquardt gathered on the same day the members of the worker and employee-Committee in order to form the committee of a council and staff to ervveitern. They discussed the future position of the works council and discussed what needed to be done to remove active supporter of Nazism in the work of leading positions.
The works councils called on the Executive to ensure that everything is removed from the constitution of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung, what the Nazis had in changed in their favor. Restore the original version of the statute were interested, requested on 16 July when the provincial government in Weimar, to remove the embossed by the National Socialist spirit passages from the statute. On 7 July were the managers to an information meeting at the Soviet city commander, letting them know that the occupying power's interest in a speedy resumption of production.
The stated interest of the occupation officers to the timely resumption of production encouraged the directors and the council's intention to create the conditions for it immediately. These included primarily to troubleshoot war damage, the logical continuation of the conversion process and the establishment of a production program for the coming months. The Schrade discussed Hugo and Victor Sandman with the operating and sales managers. The Soviet occupation authorities had locked the company accounts with financial institutions, so that one could not rely on the Company deposits with the banks in Jena and Berlin in the foreseeable future.
Of the funding in the amount of For the same reason could outstandings not at companies from the Soviet occupation zone are withdrawn, and the business relationships with customers in the Western occupation zones were interrupted. In order to cover the running costs of being able to pay off all about wages and salaries, had stocks and newly produced products are sold.
Ortlepp: Chronicle of the Zeiss plant, p For the value adjustment account on 16 July indicated that 30 September assets valued at RM Eliminating the production of military equipment, we have our operating fully converted to the manufacture of products known to you for civil needs and are thus able to accept orders on these devices again and run it. At present, however, there is the limitation that deliveries may take place only in the Russian occupation zone, which require the approval of each of the local Russian plant commander.
The permit shall be issued if non-Russian interests are affected by these deliveries. This customer information would prove to be too optimistic, because while the managers, the operating and sales manager who works councils, supported by sections of the workforce, all took to create peace unfit conditions at the Zeiss factory again, watched the officers from the People's Commissariat for arming of the USSR, on 11 July arrived in Jena, a very different plan.
The one had also granted so that it the People's Commissariat after the occupation of Thuringia by the Red Army in particular mattered to gain a picture of the Zeiss potential and documents, equipment, Fertigerzeugnisseusw. What plans the People's Commissar harbored regarding the precision mechanics and optics industry in Thuringia, is clearly in the fall of On 12 October Ustinov put in a "draft resolution for the disposal of the Council of People's.
Afterwards he wanted to spend with the equipment 2, German scientists, engineers and technicians in the USSR, which should make the proper organization of the disassembly good. Beria, from October 12, Ustinov pointed out that the optics manufacturing in the USSR by more than two times can be raised by the transfer of the equipment of the Jena-based company.
This supported the People's Commissar with the fact that it even exists in the Balkans no such industry, and it is not sufficiently developed in European countries. This export will bring much-needed foreign exchange for the USSR. Of course, playing in the considerations of the People's Commissar also a role that by the dismantling. Foundation companies Germans a chance in the future to produce optical military equipment withdrawn, is at least difficult.
To realize this project, the reduction of research development and manufacturing capacity had to be prepared and implemented. At the same time it was necessary to create the conditions for the construction of the equipment and for the accommodation of the German technical personnel in the USSR. But back to the events in Jena in July Finally, they discussed with management, which military equipment could produce the work for the Red Army. On 19 July completed the three emissaries of the People's Commissariat their inspection. While the colonel returned to Moscow, the engineering majors remained in Jena.
In: Soviet dismantling in Germany from to Background, objectives and effects. Contemporary History Research Volume 17, Berlin , pp. A short time later became Major General Nikolayev, head of the Commission. This Commission, which has been factory internally referred to as Soviet or Russian factory Commission went after the foundation company on 31 December had been asked by the chief of SMA in Thuringia, Kolesnitschenko, under sequestration, in the Soviet administration of the works Zeiss and Schott.
The head office was responsible for the overall opto-mechanical industry in the USSR. Major General Nikolayev now functioned in this administration as chief designer. The other employees of the factory Commission retained responsibility for the various subject areas. The officers of the Soviet factory Commission had to manage between summer and autumn of , a wide range of tasks.
The main task was the preparation of the complete dismantling of the company of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung and the precision mechanics and optics works in Saalfeld and Gera. Then it came to the systematic development of the level of development in the field of military optical instrument design. This led the Commission to work particularly on the continuation of selected development issues. These gave Nikolayev on 7 September Hugo Schrade a list of 40 devices whose development during the war could not be completed and to which the People's Commissariat had a special interest.
He let the Director know also that in the course of the conversion process nothing should be destroyed, because "the rich experiences of CZ will Russia benefit. On 26 November received Hugo Schrade of Major General Nikolayev a list of the "most important scientific and technical tasks that must be performed and of the company Carl Zeiss independently in cooperation with the firm Schott. Complexes on military technical field. The twelve complexes are listed in Table 3 in the Appendix Table. For Nikolayev, the work on the quartz melting and ultrarotempfindlichen cells had priority. The factory Commission fmanzierte the processing costs from its own budget.
Although the running time of different topics was designed to late , urged the Commission work on the completion of the work. The second task for the staff of the Soviet Works Committee was to ensure that Jena technicians and skilled workers prepare a manufacturing facility for the camera Contax in the USSR. First, the Zeiss works had since August photographic lenses to Zeiss lkon to deliver in Dresden.
In September, the Technical Commission requested the production of the complete camera at the Zeiss factory. On 17 October , the management was finally instructed for a camera manufacturing in Kiev until 1 March to create the technical basics.
The Optics Plano rod formed to engineers, technicians and foremen created a comprehensive documentary about the optics manufacturing. For the first time, the technological process for the production of optical elements and systems of a modern engineering point of view has been described in 18 volumes. Graduate thesis, Humboldt University, Berlin , p The members of the Works Committee finally controlled that the job of the supply department of the Main Political Administration of the Red Army from the early autumn of , to manufacture 5, Cinematographic projectors for a Soviet model, was carried out.
In addition, Major General Nikolayev demanded the construction of a completely new system. Under the designation D 15 was. From autumn , the third object of the work of the Commission came to the fore. She had to take care that the various Soviet departments with Zeiss products were supplied from current production. Recipients were academic institutions, state trading organizations which supplied the Red Army and the civilian population in the USSR consumer goods, as well as Soviet foreign trade company.
After the. Contributions to the History of Thuringia ed. S 95 Report of the Technical Directorate about the Zeiss factory. SMAD had newly regulated in October , the organization and financing of reparations from current production of East German enterprises, the factory Commission requested the beginning of November by the Executive Board, the submission of a production plan for the year Thus, the foundation company was acquired by the Soviet planning system, because now no longer certain the management the scope and content orientation of the production program, but the second Head office of the People's Commissariat for Armaments and the Department of reparations and deliveries in the SMAD.
The management had calculated and indicated a potential production volume of Thus, the Soviet side was not satisfied. In a meeting, the Head of the Department for reparations and deliveries, Major General Sorin, on 17 November led to the Zeiss business leaders in Berlin-Karl Horst, it was mainly about the reparations that were expected from the Zeiss factory. The Major General said the managers: "The company is obliged to reserve primarily their entire or almost all of production for the orders of the ARL Department of reparations deliveries and author.
Hugo Schrade made the Major-General points out that the sales figures of the war years included not only the benefits of the Zeiss plant, but also the suppliers. Without these supplies the Zeiss sales have only amounted to 87 million RM. Hugo Schrade expressed to Major-General nor the Please make sure the diet of the workforce. In fact, Jena became the first November classified as an industrial city, to which the food supply in Jena improved somewhat.
The Board increased the planned production volume for to million RM. Since the Board looked at the pressure from Major General Sorin and factory commission newly formed production plan for the year as unrealistic, she decided on 26 December , the work of the Commission for the first quarter of to submit a plan in two variants. The first variant contained the imposed production target and the second probably the attainable production levels. The management chose this way to hedge against a penalty, which threatened in the event that the required supplies to the USSR was not made on time.
The second variant was justified as follows: "The purpose of this list is not only our safeguard against the Russians in terms of the penalty, but also to try together with the Russians, to remedy the difficulties encountered! In fact, showed it after a few weeks that the Soviet notions of the performance of the Jena company were unrealistic in these times, because the prescribed for the first quarter revenue could not be reached. So it was also in the following quarters, so that the Commission was working despite all the threats against the Executive compelled to reduce production runs.
There were several causes.
Careers: jobs in sales
The Zeiss works no longer received the necessary supplies. There was a lack of electrical products for the devices that had been related to the war, mainly from southern and western Germany. It was the same with black metallurgical semi-finished products, specialty chemicals, diamonds, mirror glass, tools, etc. The experiments in. Many companies were unable to deliver because of bomb damage and disassembly. In the Zeiss works even existed operational bottlenecks. The Teilerei was the required production increase capacitively not grown. As missing four automatic Kreistelimaschinen and two or three machines for the production of the linear partition to meet the requirements.
The lack of castings. The joinery and the Mikroskopfasserei were not fully operational by bomb damage. On top of that the joinery was claimed by the many custom-made for the occupation forces over charge. A parade of manufacturing facilities in suitable premises could be due to lack of transport does not bewerkstelligen. In the considered weeks and months, it was not possible to perform the usual in the Zeiss factory work performance. There was a lack of incorporated labor forces.
A large proportion of skilled workers was still in captivity. Newly hired workers first had to be incorporated. The relocation of skilled workers in the American zone had torn a sensitive gap. A significant number of technically expert staff members had been arrested by Soviet authorities for different reasons. The multilayer system could not be reintroduced without further ado, because the ways of working in the evening and night hours uncertain and the transport links were highly erratic.
All this meant that the plant only 70 percent of the power provided peace. Revenue generated from November to December , and the part that was claimed by the Soviet occupation authorities of this is shown in Table 4 in the Appendix Table. To set the production back on track and execute the Soviet orders, the management was forced to take significant loans from the State Bank of Thuringia.
In a draft letter to the National Office of Finance Dr. This increase has taken place against our will, because we have expanded our point of view works only up to a staff of people. Since the assets and inventories for reparations were purchased from us, it seems right and proper that they be treated by the Russians as reparations and not as spoils of war, especially since the reparations consisted solely of civil devices. The Carl Zeiss company took in the second half of , three loans totaling Of the Reparationskredite accounted for These liabilities were offset by claims on the Soviet authority in the amount of In addition.
Application had been justified by the fact that the stop prices from do not cover the costs actually incurred. Until the end of October , the required price increase had not yet been approved. The conversion process was interrupted by the development contracts for military optical devices. It had to profile foreign orders will be executed. This included the construction of the new Tonkinokoffers and its production in large numbers as well as the development and construction of equipment for a factory for photographic cameras.
These orders also not allowed to separate from the Gera Technical workshop GmbH and Saalfeld Apparatus-Gesellschaft mbH, at the initiative of the Armed Forces exclusively for the production. The reparations forced to expand the manufacturing capacity strong. Deposit a peer-reviewed article or book chapter. Deposit a complete issue of a scholarly journal, newsletter or book. Deposit scholarly works such as posters, presentations, conference papers or white papers.
Skip to Content. Toggle navigation Carolina Digital Repository. Help Contact Us Login. You do not have access to any existing collections. You may create a new collection. MLA Woelk, Emma. APA Woelk, E. Chicago Woelk, Emma. Whether it be as a symbol of proletarian solidarity in East German theater or as part of West German literary engagement with American Jewish culture, Yiddish shows up all over postwar German literature and performance. Building on scholarship from German Studies, Yiddish Studies, and cultural and political history, the following study connects the study of Yiddish in German literature after both to discourses from the early 20th century and to broader discussions on German identity and literary legacy in the postwar era.
I am primarily interested in the reinvention of the folk tradition following the Nazi era and the creation of a usable literary past at a time in which the German political and geographic present was in flux.