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David John Hindle. Your review has been submitted successfully. Not registered? Forgotten password Please enter your email address below and we'll send you a link to reset your password. Not you? Forgotten password? Forgotten password Use the form below to recover your username and password. New details will be emailed to you. Simply reserve online and pay at the counter when you collect. Available in shop from just two hours, subject to availability. The first Hungarian balloon, the "TURUL", filled with lighting gas, rose with its two passengers to metres 13, feet on its first aerial journey and landed smoothly.

David Schwarz said: "Dirigible aero-navigation can be attained with a rigid body of metal construction. A Prussian officer as a "test-pilot" controlled the maiden flight. Lajos Martin A university lecturer, he became the first outstanding aeronautical experimentalist known worldwide. He suggested the use of aileron-surfaces in dynamic aviation.

In his hovering wheel model, which applied one of the technological solutions of today's helicopters, reached completion.

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In June , it organised international air-races in Budapest. Owner of the Hungarian No. Here the first two wooden booth-hangars were built. At the International Air-Race already 16 plus 24 temporary hangars stood at the disposal of the local Hungarian and the 29 competitors from abroad. The first 3 flying pioneers started from here, flying successfully, small, Hungarian-built, light monoplanes:.

The first Hungarian pilot to fly in this country on his own, self-designed aeroplane He started flying in , but after a crash he withdrew and engaged himself only in design and building. Famous for his innovations. At the time of the international race he had already flown 3 - 4, metres miles distances on a circular course. His machine was "the first Hungarian aeroplane constructed by an engineer with a master degree. Aerobus to carry 34 passengers. Later, in he experimented with primitive gas turbines as a new source of power for aeroplanes.

In he passed the pilot examination in Wiener-Neustadt, Austria, built a fast plane considered as modern for a 66 kW engine - but crashed at its test flight and died of tetanus infection. His achievement won a distinguished place in the history of Hungarian aviation. In , he flew with a Pischof-monoplane 60 h. This was the first long-distance flight by a Hungarian. He won second prize in altitude and third prize in speed at the National Air Race in He was one of the aeroplane and aero-engine designers of the initial stage of Hungarian flying from Two young mechanics.

Their machine was the first completely covered, plywood stressed-skin structured plane in Hungary. Dedicated his whole life to experiments in man-powered flying machines. He built several planes of his own from and was an outstanding pilot, the most popular in the country at the time. Pioneers of Hungarian aero-engine manufacture from He built the first aeroplane engines between , when the manufacture of planes was still in its infancy everywhere.

He was the first to apply the 6-cylinder radial-engine which caused a sensation in , as it produced 44 kW output with a mere 62 kg lbs mass. Later, the brothers switched to the production of 7-cylinder rotary engines. At the initial stage of flying, he experimented in America. In he continued working at home. In he flew km miles , reaching a height of metres feet within 2 hours. Lilly Steinschneider ?

The first Hungarian woman pilot. She received, in , the No. Their most successful aeroplane was a monoplane with closed fuselage powered by a radial-engine, without the common single-skid undercarriage. Between , the Hungarian aircraft industry established here by the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy began developing.

In , at the 3-day Schicht Air Race between countries of the Monarchy, out of 10 entrants, 3 were Hungarian. The winner, Viktor Wittmann won European fame for himself and shining glory for Hungarian avionics: he flew km miles within 15 hours, 50 minutes, 18 seconds. Three of its most famous founders:. An open-minded construction engineer and pilot, prime mover of the MSrE Club, played a leading role in the rebirth of Hungarian aeronautics in the early 20s.

Lajos Rotter While still a university student, achieved outstanding international success with his dissertation for a Swiss helicopter competition. At the Olympics, with his masterpiece "NEMERE" he flew a km miles goal-distance world record to great international acclaim. Aircraft engineer, father of the inventor of the magic cube , was the creator of Hungarian sail-plane mass production which enabled pilot training in large numbers.

He designed 24 sail plane archetypes, 5 motor-powered planes, 4 glider UL-aircrafts. Over of his machines were produced. Became world famous by both his aircraft designs and his performance as a pilot. The moral success of this journey was significant; all known aviation journals mentioned it. The aircraft was rebuilt as an old-timer, and is still flying today.

His world records: in he flew non-stop for 9 hours 21 minutes in a circular course on his light, low-performance machine. In , he flew with the same plane to Rome, where they painted its later name ROMA on the aircraft. This successful flight evoked immense international acclaim. World famous aerodynamicist, one of the greatest scientists of our age. In he was commissioned to organise and manage the Aeronautic Research Institute in Aachen, Germany.

During the 1st World War he already designed a tethered observation helicopter. In he was invited by the California Institute of Technology to organise the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory in Pasadena, of which he became the director in His scientific work is preserved in over scientific papers and books. He created the Theory of Edge Surface and in connection with this, the theory for the design and measurement of wing surface for supersonic flights.

Based on his results he is regarded as the father of supersonic flight. In he was the first to receive the greatest scientific award of the United States, the National Medal of Science. His chief works were published in all major languages. The most successful Hungarian powered aerobatic pilot of all times, many times Hungarian, European and World champion. To this day, an active member of the FAI World Grand Prix powered aerobatic pilot team, holder of several Gold Medals, and one of the most sought after airshow pilot of Europe.

This was an achievement never before attained in Hungarian sport flying, and constitutes the most shining pages of Hungarian civilian flying history. In in Fairford, England, Maj. With special thanks to Mr. Attila Szabo and Mr. He landed near Jaffa, on the Mediterranean coast, on December 27th, - at a time when Palestine was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. His last stop in Europe was the Ottoman Empire capital Constantinople today Istanbul in Turkey , after which he flew over Ottoman territory around the eastern Mediterranean, finally reaching Egypt via Beirut and Jaffa.

As Turkish pilots wanted also to prove their ability to perform long-distance flights, the "Cairo Expedition" was announced at the beginning of The aim was to complete a travel of about 2,km from Istanbul in Turkey to Alexandria in Egypt, through Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. The Deperdussin managed to reach Palestine and landed near Jaffa on March 9th, but when taking off to continue the journey, it crashed into the Mediterranean; one pilot drowned in the accident, while the other survived.

British military forces trying to conquer Palestine had to confront German airplanes, which came to the help of the Turkish army. By the end of the war, the British captured the entire land of Palestine. In , the League of Nations gave the U. The minority Jewish population in Palestine started to show interest in aviation in the mid s.

The next step was obviously to train pilots on single-engine light planes. This activity commenced at the Palestine Flying Service, which operated three Taylorcraft light planes. The first 11 graduates received their private pilot licenses in April First graduates of the Aviron flying school received their licenses in July Aviron grew bigger with the years, merged with Palestine Flying Service and acquired more aircraft. By January , already 95 private pilot's licenses were obtained in Palestine.

Aviron also assisted the Jewish underground military organization "Haganah" in defense operations. The first local airline - Palestine Airways - started operating inland flights in July with two Shorts S. Later it acquired a Shorts S. Between July and the end of the British mandate in May , 22 commercial and private aircraft were registered in Palestine.

Following the UN resolution in November to divide Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states, effective upon the termination of the British Mandate in May , there was an outbreak of severe hostilities. The need for air power became critical to the Jews' survival, and from this dire necessity was borne the Sherut Avir "Air Service" - an illegal, clandestine Jewish air force. Only 10 light planes were available then in Jewish hand. Additional aircraft were acquired from every possible source. When the state of Israel was founded in May 14th , Sherut Avir had already 25 aircraft.

In less than a year the Israeli Air Force introduced into service aircraft of 30 different types - an outstanding achievement from the operational and maintenance aspects. Those included heavy bombers, fighters, large and small transports, trainers and various other types. Aviation progress in Israel was very rapid over the years, in almost every aspect.

Notable aeronautical milestones in the first years are:. Israeli defense companies have been developing and manufacturing for years combat aircraft, business jets, all kinds of missiles, UAVs, space launchers and satellites. Israel has become a world leader in many aerospace fields. The first Italian who flew did so on board a balloon in Exactly years after Paolo Andreani's flight, the Army of the young Italian state was equipped with a number of balloons that took part in the first Italian expedition to East Africa in Experimentation with aircraft in Italy was given a push by the visit of the French pioneer Delagrange , and by Wilbur Wright, who flew in Italy and gave lessons on flying practice to two young Italian aviators.

After that, aeronautical flight received a tremendous increase in activity and expansion, culminating in the first national event, the aerial circuit of Brescia in While it is difficult to say who was the first designer and which was the first design of an Italian aircraft, it is important to note that the country was the first nation to employ aircraft for military applications-using it for observations photography as well as the launching of hand-bombs during the Libyan War in At the beginning of World War I, the Italian aircraft industry was almost nonexistent and the Armed Forces were equipped with a very poor fleet 60 aircraft, 5 airships, and 12 seaplanes.

However, aircraft were used for the launching of propaganda leaflets over Vienna in The Italian aircraft industry started to take its first steps in when Gianni Caproni built a factory to produce large bombers. But the industry expanded tremendously during the war. By the end, 12, airplanes and 25, engines had been produced. Italy had become the fourth aeronautical power in the world, after France, the United Kingdom, and Germany.

The end of the war necessitated a re-conversion of the aeronautical industry in order to ensure the continued employment of the , people involved. Caproni was the first to promote and encourage the construction of large civil airplanes. But commercial airline companies had not yet been established in the country and the Italian industries had to market themselves to the foreign market.

For this reason, Ansaldo Aviazione and Caproni organized several demonstration trips to European and South American countries. The period between the two wars was characterized by great Italian exploits in sorties, air cruises, records, and sport victories. Among these were: speed record for seaplanes, as yet unbeaten Macchi, ; the two air cruises through the Atlantic under Italo Balbo's leadership South America, ; North America, ; and the Schneider Cup for seaplanes, which was won four times by the Italians.

The events of World War II were unsuccessful for Italy and its military aviation, essentially because of the overwhelming superiority of the Allied fleets in the central and final periods of the war. At the end of the conflict, the Italian aviation industry no longer existed. In commercial activities, Alitalia is one of the most prestigious companies in the world.

It started in with a very small fleet, and now its aircraft travel everywhere in the world. The Italian aeronautical industry had and still has its major representative in Alenia, the former Aeritalia. The first airplane flight in Japan was likely on 29 April , when a propeller-driven unmanned plane took off and flew about 10 meters at a height of one meter and 36 meters at a height of six meters the following day.

The plane's inventor was Tyuuhaci Ninomiya, known as a genius of kite-making in his neighborhood. The airplane was called "Crow Type Flying Machine" and was a monoplane with a tail similar to that of a crow, 61 centimeters long and 59 centimeters wide with a three-wheel landing gear and a four-blade propeller driven by twisted rubber strings.

After the success of this model airplane, Ninomiya tried to develop a manned airplane and wrote a letter to the Japanese Army for support, but his request was denied. When he learned of the success of the Wright Brothers, he was discouraged and never returned to the aviation field, even though he received a letter of apology from the Japanese Army. The first human flight in Japan was made on 5 December in a glider. Shirou Aibara of the Japanese Navy. A boy flew onboard their biplane with a box-type tail.

The plane was 6. It flew 15 meters at a height of four meters on 5 December after a ground run by the power of several people. Five days later, Le Prieur took off with a ground run pulled by an automobile and flew about meters. The first flight of a Japanese-made powered airplane was made on 5 May The plane was designed and built by Sanji Nagahara, a Japanese Navy engineer and was 10 meters long, 9. It flew approximately 60 meters on 5 May Because its flying quality was so stable, it flew to many cities throughout Japan for demonstrations.

While the people of the Netherlands experimented with hot air balloons in the 18th and 19th centuries, avation attracted little interest in the country until , when a handful of people, convinced that aviation had a bright future, founded the Dutch Aeronautical Society later the Dutch Royal Aeronautical Society. The society tried to promote interest in aviation by procuring a number of balloons and gliders in , and its activities stimulated aviation in the early years of the century.

The first flying display was, however, organized in by a private citizen using a two-seat Wright Flyer. Soon, the first Dutch civil aviators began flying in Bleriot, Anoinette, and Curtiss airplanes, and the aviators numbers increased steadily after the first flying school was established in That same year Dutchmen built their first airplanes. The first was a replica of a Bleriot monoplane, but Dutchmen soon began flying in their own designs.

Army aviation began in July , followed by the Naval air service in The Netherlands was neutral during World War I, so the Dutch armed forces did not benefit from the substantial progress in aviation technology that was made during that period. Because of the limited interest in aviation before the war, many Dutch aircraft designers went abroad. Frits Koolhoven went to the United Kingdom in He returned to the Netherlands in and started his own factory in His most successful aircraft was the FK51, but his factory was bombed in by the German Luftwaffe and never restarted.

The most famous Dutch entrepreneur was Anthony Fokker. He was educated in Germany, where he built his first airplane in Fokker produced 7, airplanes for Germany during the First World War. After that war he smuggled aircraft, engines, and other parts to the Netherlands and started his own factory at Sciphol near Amsterdam. During the war production came more or less to a standstill, but the Dutch government decided that aircraft production in the Netherlands should resume after the war. The government consolidated industrial activities into one company, Fokker.

The new Fokker developed a number of military training aircraft S to S It also engaged in the assembly and license-production of military aircraft Seafury, Meteor, Hunter, F, F-5 and later participated in the co-production of the F Fighting Falcon. The company also developed the successor to the DCthe F27 Friendship. After the F27's first flight in , planes were sold, making it the most successful civil turboprop aircraft in the Western world. A much-improved derivative, the Fokker F50, was offered in the s. However, the merger ended in failure. Fokker gave it another try with DASA in the early 90s, but the Fokker Aircraft Company went bankrupt, even though its products were well liked and backlog orders still existed.

The STORK Company bought the surviving Fokker "Aviation" Company, which now employs more than 3, people and specializes in the production of major components, electric- and power distribution systems, and advanced aerospace materials as well as maintenance. The Fokker Aviation Group is a partner in several global aircraft projects and-following a government decision in participates in Airbus projects.

Helicopter design and development also thrived in the Netherlands. The first Dutch helicopter was flight tested from to Although the helicopter was of modern design, including the use of a tail rotor, it never went beyond the prototype stage. A second Dutch helicopter was developed in the s. After an experimental period, the Netherlands Helicopter Industry was formed in to develop and manufacture the "Kolibrie" helicopter. This machine featured ramjet engines at the rotortips and self-adjusting blades. This helicopter had excellent flying characteristics, but high fuel consumption and noise levels limited its application and only a small number were produced.

The latest development related to helicopters is the acquisition by the Dutch RDM company of Boeing civil helicopters in the United States in KLM was one of the first carriers to promote the idea of creating transatlantic mega-carriers by associating with Northwest.

This cooperation is currently extended to Alitalia. This group is now one of the four leading mega-carriers in the world and Schiphol Airport has become one of the leading gateways to Europe. NLR provides technological support to the industry, government, and operators. The pioneer of aeronautics in Portugal was a Jesuit monk, Gusmao, who interrupted his studies at Coirnbra University to ask the monarchy for help in developing his flying machines. Gusmao put a fabric bag over a fire to collect warm air inside and let the bag fly up.

In both demonstrations, one indoor and the other outdoors, the "hot air balloon" caused fires when it struck combustible objects. In one case it reached a height of 4. In spite of the court's jokes about the events and the drawings of a "passarola" a bird-like flying ship it is unlikely that Gusmao went any further in this field; he instead devoted himself to other inventions, like a device to remove water from flooded ships.

Airships and dirigibles came to Portugal through the army, after their use in France, at the end of the 19th century. The first airplanes flew in Portugal in , again with French influence. The Portuguese contribution of an expeditionary force in France during World War I marked the beginning of military aviation in Portugal. In the period between the wars there were many notable flights. The longest leg, between Guinea, Africa, and Recife, Brazil, was longer than the aircraft's range, requiring fueling from a ship in the mid-South Atlantic near a group of cliffs called Fernando de Noronha.

The critical task of navigating to this precise point was performed using the Aeronautical Sextant," which Coutinho developed from the naval sextant used by Portuguese navigators more than years before. Other flights connecting Portugal to its colonies scattered around the world were made, all at about the same time by aviation pioneers from several nations. The history of aviation in Romania began very early, with the work of Conrad Hass , an artillery engineer and chief of arsenal of the town of Sibiu.

Hass wrote about the construction and the flight tests of multistage rockets, apparently the earliest writings in existence about the science of rocket engineering. One of the first suggestions for equipping a dirigible with a jet engine dates back as far as , when Romanian inventor Alexandro Ciurcu , together with Frenchman Just Buisson, suggested that an aerostat built and exhibited with an electric engine at the Paris Exhibition of Electricity in be provided instead with their jet cylinder. Ciurcu built and tested their original first jet engine on a small ship running on the Seine River in Paris in and on a rail car in In February , the work of Traian Vuia , "Projet d'Aeroplane-automobile," was published.

On this original aircraft, designed and built by Vuia and containing only the third aircraft engine made to that date, Vuia performed the first flight of a heavier-than-air aircraft in the history of aviation. It took off at Montesson, near Paris, on 18 March , flying by the power of its engine with no auxiliary equipment. Henri Coanda constructed the first jet aircraft in the world, named the Coanda, in The aircraft was exhibited at the International Aeronautical Show Paris, and Coanda tested the engine near Paris.

He performed the first reactive flight, but it ended in an accident: the aircraft side-slipped, fell, and burned. Coanda also was the constructor of the first twin-engine aircraft in the history of aeronautics He used two Gnome engines with seven rotating cylinders each, connected on the same shaft and driving a single four-blade airscrew. Rodrig Golieseu built and flew his "Avioplan" in It was the first airplane to have a full cylindrical fuselage.

Between and he flight tested his "Aviocoleopter," the first aircraft to have a toroidal wing. Between and , Vuia built and tested near Paris two helicopters, with mechanical drive from the engine to the lifting rotor in the case of the second aircraft , practically proving that the rotating wing can ensure lift and propulsion. In his helicopter was patented in France and England. In Hermann Oberth published a study, "The Rocket in the Interplanetary Space," in which he put forward the theoretic basis of the operating possibility of the liquid-fueled rocket later tested in a laboratory.

Most of Oberth's work was done in the Romanian cities of Sighisoara and Medias between and Romanian aerospace history got a boost in , when astronaut Dorin Prunariu made a space-flight on board the Soyuz T4- Saliut 6- Soyuz 40 orbital complex. Russia's huge territory, devoid of the usual transportation systems, inspired its scientists and engineers to dream about new transportation systems, especially air systems, in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The Russian Academy of Science, established in in St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, began by studying aero- and hydrodynamics. Russian and foreign scientists participated. Euler, member of Russian Academy from , published his famous equations, the base for calculation parameters of arbitrary flow, in In D.

Bernoulli, honored member of Russian Academy, issued a paper in Strasbourg, France, with the well known equation of Bernoulli. The achievements of 18th-century scientists served as a basis for the 19th century flying machines, but also for calculations of characteristics lift, drag, strength. In naval officer Alexander Mozhayski began to design an aircraft and in he constructed it.

His design had good flying characteristics, but three steam engines with 30 horsepower did not permit it to achieve take off velocity. Mozhayski didn't get beyond ground testing. He tried to get more powerful engines, but was unsuccessful as piston engines were not available. Around that time many other Russians were involved in studying flight. Zhukovsky , called "the father of Russian aviation," wrote about stability of motion, hydraulic shock in water pipe, the flight of birds, and optimal angel of attack of airplanes.

In a report about attached vortexes, he established a concrete function between circulation of flow and lift and later added boundary condition. Between and , as a professor at Moscow University, his research laboratory installed wind tunnels and he lectured on aerodynamics, mechanics of flight, and others topics. Russia also had the first aviation research center in the world, the Kouchinsky Institute.

Other leaders in the Russian aviation industry were: C. Chaplygin, who developed the theory of lift for wing of limited span; V. Vetchinkin, the author of the theory of stability in flight; and B. Stechkin, the author of the theory of the jet-engine. Another Russian, Sikorsky, developed the helicopter in The first flight on the Sikorsky biplane occurred one year later.

It is impossible to determine how much truth there is to the story of Marin, but it seems that he did achieve some gliding flight, surviving after structural failure and a crash landing. The first balloons were seen over Spain soon after At first they were usually unmanned, but in the last decade of the 18th century, experimenters or showmen occupied the balloon car. In , a Spanish-built balloon, intended to serve as a military observation post, was demonstrated before King Carlos IV at El Escorial.

The balloon had been designed by the French chemist Joseph Louis Proust, who was professor of the Royal Artillery College of Segovia and held the rank of captain. Officers and cadets of the college had helped in the construction. Leonardo Torres Quevedo, a Spanish engineer and inventor, devised the funicular suspension, a fully flexible system that permitted the use of short cars in rigid Zeppelin airships. The Torres airship has a trilobed envelope when inflated. The prototype was built in the Spanish military's Aerostatic Service facility and tested in The French Astra company acquired the rights of the Torres Quevedo system and built the airships under the name Astra-Torres.

During the First World War, the Allied navies successfully used a large quantity of Torres airships about 20 of the French and more than fifth of the British were used mainly for anti-submarine patrol. Several pioneer constructors built their airplanes with varied success in Spain in the years prior to World War I. The first two Spanish civil pilots obtained their brevets in France in , and in a military flying school was established in Cuatro Vientos near Madrid. In Febuary , the Servicio de Aeronautica Militar was created, and before the end of the year a squadron was reconnoitering and bombing in Morocco.

Although the construction of wood and fabric airframes was relatively easy, the engines had to be imported. When the war began, Aeronautica Militar asked two Barcelona automobile manufacturers, La Hispano-Suiza and Elizalde, to build engines to cover the needs of the service, which was no longer fulfilled by foreign manufacturers.

On 17 January , the first successful flight of a rotary wing aircraft took place at Getafe. The Autogiro C. The Autogiro concept was a revolutionary one. The idea of the helicopter, although not practically developed until much later, was well understood. However, the phenomenon of autorotation of a rotor with positive blade pitch was a discovery of la Cierva that exceeded the foresight of the aeronautical experts of the time. The inventor continued to improve his designs until his death. The experience gained with the Autogiro was invaluable for the development of the helicopter.

In , at the age of 26, Emanuel Swedenborg of Sweden developed an interest in building a flying machine, which was documented in an article, "Sketch of a Machine for Flying in the Air," published two years later. Swedenborg's design looked like a classical flying saucer with flapping wings. Additional efforts to build an aircraft in the country were made between and near Stockholm by Carl Rickard Nyberg. He experimented with a steam-engine driven aircraft, but none of his designs proved flight-worthy.

The experimental aircraft produced by these men during the early 20th century also were unsuccessful. The first successful flight in Sweden didn't occur until 19 July , and it was achieved by a French aviator. Also in , the first Swedish-built aircraft, the Grasshopper, took flight. The following summer, he left Malmen, and his hangers were taken over by the Swedish army.

The former school became the first permanent base for army aviators. At the outbreak of the war in , Sweden had just eight military aircraft that were used primarily for reconnaissance. Between the wars, the Swedish Air Force developed slowly because of both weak leadership and lack of support from the old branches of the Army and Navy.

However, with Hitler in power in , it became easier to obtain funding for military purposes and the Swedish military aviation industry came under increased pressure to become more effective.

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On 18 May the reconnaissance aircraft L 10 later redesignated as B flew for the first time. The S 17 would later to become the first original aircraft produced by Saab. Purchasing from abroad was nearly impossible, though Italian fighters filled some gaps. Saab began production of the B 18, a twin-engined bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, and also began design of the J 21 fighter. The Swedish Air Force also formed a workshop at Bromma airport in Stockholm to produce a small fighter plane called the J Commercial air operations began in Sweden in March , when former army pilot Capt.

The Luftwaffe shot down two Swedish DC-3s during this period. Air Force and modified by Saab to carry 14 passengers. The "Flying Barrel," or Saab J 29, was the first swept-wing jet fighter built by Saab and the first of its kind in Europe. The Swedish Air Force purchased of the planes, while the Austrian Air Force purchased an additional 30 during the s. The Saab 35 Draken interceptor and reconnaissance aircraft later replaced the J Production of the Saab 35 Draken was quite significant, as this was the first double delta aircraft and the first combat aircraft sold by Sweden to other air forces.

Denmark purchased the Draken for ground attack and reconnaissance, Finland as an interceptor, and the Austrian Air Force purchased a refurbished Draken for air surveillance and interceptor roles. Saab continued to design and build military aircraft and commercial aircraft until In Wilbur Wright himself paid Cayley the following tribute: "About years ago, an Englishman … carried the science of flight to a point which it had never reached before and which it scarcely reached again during the last century.

Because of his choice of low wing aspect ratio on structural grounds, such gliders achieved lift-to-drag ratios as low as three and perhaps as high as seven. Initially, Cayley saw his gliders' cruciform tail units as supplying merely steering and re-trimming for different flight speeds , but in his later designs-notably the governable parachute of with its duplicated tail-there began to emerge an appreciation of the stabilizing function of the tail. Cayley introduced many innovations-wing dihedral and the tension wheel undercarriage for example.

1909 in aviation

As early as , he brought forth the suggestion that the shape of the rear of a body is as important as the front in determining resistance, so that a streamlined tail is beneficial. Two men who benefited from Cayley's teaching were William Henson and John Stringfellow, whose designs and steam-powered models of the s extended Cayley's concept by the inclusion of propeller propulsion and externally braced high aspect ratio wings.

The next major advance in the understanding of resistance came in from George Gabriel Stokes, whose re-working of the Newtonian viscosity concept supplemented the earlier work of Navier and others in France by introducing the idea that internal stresses within a flow are proportional to the fluid's rate of strain. In Stokes used the resulting Navier-Stokes equations, coupled to the no-slip condition imposed at the surface of a slow moving sphere, to produce the first finite drag prediction to overcome the earlier inviscid flow zero drag paradox of Euler and d'Alembert.

Stokes must also be credited with first stating publicly the theorem, obtained from William Thomson later, Lord Kelvin that gives the vital connection between vorticity and circulation, and with providing in the beginnings of the method of singularities later exploited in and by William John Macquorn Rankine in the calculation of the inviscid flow about bodies. In the Aeronautical Society now the Royal Aeronautical Society was founded in London and in the first wind tunnel was built for the society's use by Francis Herbert Wenham, who had earlier lectured to the society on the advantages of high aspect ratio wings with multiplane layout and propeller propulsion.

This tunnel was used solely to explore the lift and drag characteristics of flat surfaces.

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However, in a second wind tunnel, using steam ejection, was used by Horatio Phillips so as to demonstrate the improved lifting qualities of mildly cambered surfaces. The understanding of lift itself took a further step forward with the analysis of Lord Rayleigh. He combined the inviscid flow field about a circular cylinder with that of a vortex centered at the cylinder, thereby producing a side, or lifting, force.

This effect had been noted as early as by Isaac Newton in discussing the swerving flight of spinning tennis balls, had been demonstrated by Robins in by the imposition of a spinning motion on an oscillating pendulum bob, and had become more widely recognized through the work of Magnus in Berlin in in which a spinning cylinder was exposed to an air jet. Lord Rayleigh also introduced the crucial correction to the common rule in a series of analyses between and , which established an additional dependence on the Reynolds and Mach numbers.

The importance of the Reynolds number itself had already begun to emerge from observations published in dealing with transition in pipe flows carried out by Osborne Reynolds at the University of Manchester. Many of these ideas began to come together in the work of Frederick William Lanchester between and In the early s Lanchester not only recognized the crucial role of viscosity in the explanation of drag but independently of Prandtl discovered the presence of the boundary layer.

From his crude model of this "inert layer," as he called it, he was nonetheless able to predict correctly the dependence of laminar flow skin friction on Reynolds number.

His definitive work emerged in , predicting lift, induced, and form drags with reasonable accuracy, from which he was able to deduce that airplanes would experience both minimum drag and minimum power conditions. All of these scientific advances proved crucial to the future, post-Wright, development of the airplane and some were beneficial to the British pioneers of the pre-Wright era. For example, the efficacy of mildly cambered surfaces also became evident to the expatriate American inventor Sir Hiram Maxim after his own extensive whirling arm and wind tunnel tests.

Armed with further test results from a wide variety of propeller configurations, he constructed a man-carrying machine that would lift itself from the ground and succeeded at Baldwyns Park, Kent, in However, this massive machine, having a wing span close to that of a Vulcan bomber and powered by two ingenious kW steam engines driving enormous pusher propellers of 5.

Repairs enabled the continuation of tests until , after which Maxim abandoned the project. He had made virtually no provision for control in the air. The hang-glider of Maxim's one-time assistant, Percy Sinclair Pilcher, benefited considerably from the advice and gliding experience afforded by the German hang-gliding pioneer, Otto Lilienthal, near Berlin in and Pilcher progressed with varying success through four gliders of his own design and the fourth, the Hawk of , like its predecessors, incorporated the Lilienthal practice of radiating rods for the wing structure for ease of ground transit and the dubious choice of an up-hinging tail unit.

Although Pilcher enjoyed some success with this glider, the structural failure of its tail assembly in caused a crash that killed him. Prior to this, he had been working on a powered development of the Hawk design, using a petrol engine driving a pusher propeller, but there is no indication he intended to attempt aerodynamic control. Official interest in powered flight in Britain came about through the activities of an American, Samuel Franklin Cody, who had developed an ingenious system of man-lifting kites as an artillery observation and reconnaissance system. Appointed chief kiting instructor to the British Army and based at the Balloon School at Farnborough, Cody had successfully built and tested by a form of biplane kite-glider that appears to have incorporated aerodynamic control.

He went on to develop the powered airplane in which, it is generally conceded, he achieved the first sustained airplane flight in Britain in October The biplane was powered by a 37kW Antoinette engine and was designed around the Wright-type layout of forward elevator and rear rudder, but it used a single surface mounted centrally over the upper wing for roll control and a tricycle undercarriage with outrigger wheels at the wingtips. Meanwhile, John William Dunne had placed his faith in achieving aerodynamic stability with a tailless airplane using swept-back biplane wings.

A glider of this configuration was tested on behalf of the Army at Blair Atholl in and Dunne achieved some success later with a powered machine. Far greater success was achieved through Farnborough's recruitment of Geoffrey de Havilland, who had successfully flown a powered machine of his own design in The history of the airplane is rooted in several centuries of European research into the forces operating on a body immersed in a fluid stream, culminating in years of active flight experimentation, from the work of the Englishman Sir George Cayley , to that of the German gliding pioneer, Otto Lilienthal By , however, leadership in aeronautical research had passed to the United States, where pioneers like Octave Chanute and Samuel Pierpont Langley were setting the stage for the achievement of powered, heavier-than-air flight.

Christine's Stunning Night Landing!

On 6 May , Langley, the third secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, succeeded in launching the first reasonably large, steam-powered model aircraft on flights of up to three quarters of a mile over the Potomac River. Later that year, Chanute, a prominent American civil engineer and internationally recognized authority on the problems of flight, led a band of experimenters into the sand dunes east of Chicago, where they flew a series of gliders, including a very advanced biplane that pointed the way to the future of aircraft structures. Wilbur and Orville Wright , the proprietors of a bicycle sales, repair, and manufacturing shop in Dayton, Ohio, wrote to the Smithsonian Institution and to Octave Chanute in , requesting information on aeronautics and announcing their decision to begin their own experiments.

The Wrights were superb self-trained engineers who developed an extraordinarily successful research strategy that enabled them to overcome one set of challenging problems after another, the full extent of which few other experimenters had even suspected. They moved toward the development of a practical flying machine through an evolutionary chain of seven experimental aircraft: one kite , three gliders , , and and three powered airplanes , , and Each of these aircraft was a distillation of the lessons learned and the experience gained with its predecessors. In the fall of , puzzled by the failure of their earliest gliders to match calculated performance, the brothers built their own wind tunnel and designed a pair of brilliantly conceived balances that produced the precise bits of data required to make accurate performance calculations.

The brothers made the first four sustained, powered flights under the control of a pilot near Kitty Hawk, N. Over the next two years they continued their work in a cow pasture near Dayton, Ohio. By the fall of , they had achieved their goal of a practical flying machine capable of remaining in the air for extended periods of time and operating under the full control of the pilot.

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The air age had begun. Unwilling to unveil their technology without the protection of a patent and a contract for the sale of airplanes, the Wrights did not make public flights until , at which point they emerged as the first great international heroes of the century. American aeronautical hegemony was short-lived, however. Faced with the threat of war, European leaders invested heavily in the new technology. Government officials and wealthy private citizens encouraged the development of aviation by sponsoring speed, altitude, and distance competitions; by purchasing aircraft in considerable numbers; by establishing aerial units in their armed forces; and by creating aeronautical laboratories and funding research and development efforts.

The United States, the birthplace of aviation, did not invest in aeronautics, and fell woefully behind Europe. By , the U. Army could boast a grand total of six active pilots, while the entire U. A motorcycle builder from Hammondsport, N. He won the first James Gordon Bennett trophy in with a speed of just over 47 miles per hour. In spite of the Wright Brothers' legal efforts to curb his activity, he had, by , established himself as a supplier of training aircraft to the U. Americans flew into combat in World War I aboard aircraft that had been entirely designed, and for the most part manufactured, in Europe.

By the Armistice, however, U. Moreover, the advanced American designs that would have seen combat had the war continued into were available for record flights in the immediate post-war era, such as the first transatlantic flight by the giant U. Navy flying boat, NC From the legendary barnstormers to the earliest airmail operators, the pioneers of American commercial aviation began business with war surplus equipment and help from the federal government.

Postwar congressional investigations underscored the problems of a limited market and high research and development costs faced by American airframe and engine manufacturers. Recognizing the growing importance of the airplane to national defense and international prestige, federal officials took a series of steps to strengthen, support, and regulate the aviation industry between and Established by Congress in , the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics NACA conducted programs of research and development that, by , had demonstrated the value of basic research in flight technology.

Technical reports issued by the agency introduced U. NACA engineers experimented with wing flaps and other high-lift devices and explored innovative construction techniques and new materials. Congressional leaders also took steps to establish a market for American manufacturers. The Kelly Air Mail Act of authorized the use of private companies for the delivery of air mail, providing a vitally important government subsidy to the first American air carriers in an era when paying passengers were few and far between.

The postal subsidies not only supported the industry, but also provided federal administrators with a means of shaping the development of the domestic airline system. The Air Mail Act of enabled New Deal officials to force a restructuring of the entire aviation industry. Procurement Acts for the Army Air Corps and the Navy air arm that passed in sought to provide American manufacturers with fair access to the military market.