Manual The Life of Sir Isaac Newton

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Revolution in Mathematics

  1. Biography of Sir Isaac Newton, Influential Scientist
  2. Biography of Isaac Newton, Discovered Laws That Govern the Universe
  3. I Thought Newton Only Discovered Gravity
  4. Top 10 facts
  5. Sir Isaac Newton: Biography & Contributions

Mathematics — the study of numbers, shapes and quantities. Motion — when something moves. Physics — the study of matter and energy and how they interact. Telescope — a piece of equipment that magnifies what you see through it, making things appear bigger and closer.

Telescopes are often used to look at stars, moons and planets. Start your trial for FREE today! Access thousands of brilliant resources to help your child be the best they can be. Isaac Newton is best known for 'discovering' gravity , but he worked on so many different topics that our understanding of the world was changed forever by his work..

Newton had many roles in his life beyond his scientific research: he was Warden and Master of the Mint, and President of The Royal Society, as well as a member of parliament MP. Newton was born very early premature and his family thought he would die, but he actually went on to live to the age of Newton was a grumpy man and often argued with people.

Biography of Sir Isaac Newton, Influential Scientist

Newton discovered that white light is made up of a range of colours. Newton had other ideas! Newton initially studied for a law degree at Cambridge University. Newton owned more books on history than on science. When he was an MP, Newton only ever spoke one sentence — and that was to ask for a window to be closed! Newton was knighted by Queen Anne on April 16, Isaac Newton is born.

He also conceived of an "orbital cannon" that would poke out of a huge mountain, up in space, and with just the right amount of gunpowder could put a cannonball into orbit. This was not something Newton actually imagined building, but rather a way to think about his theories. It all led to his seminal work, published in , called the "Principia" — considered by many as the greatest science book ever written.

Newton's research stopped in when he had a nervous breakdown. Later, recovered, he spoke out against King James II, who wanted only Roman Catholics to be in powerful government and academic positions. When James was later driven out of England, Newton was elected to Parliament. He had a second breakdown in , then retired from research.

Isaac Newton died in The manuscript, which had been hidden in a private collection for decades and turned up at an auction at Bonhams, provided the recipe for "philosophic" mercury, which was considered a step in the process for concocting a mysterious substance known the philosopher's stone; this material was thought to have supernatural powers — the ability to turn any metal into gold and to grant immortality.

The manuscript will be available online for enthusiasts to explore.

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Live Science History Reference:. Isaac Newton laid the blueprints for his three laws of motion, still recited by physics students, in His laws are still used by physics students today: An object will remain in a state of inertia unless acted upon by force. When Newton arrived at Cambridge, the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century was already in full force. The heliocentric view of the universe—theorized by astronomers Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo —was well known in most European academic circles. Yet, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was steeped in Aristotelian philosophy and a view of nature resting on a geocentric view of the universe, dealing with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught the standard curriculum but was fascinated with the more advanced science. All his spare time was spent reading from the modern philosophers. The result was a less-than-stellar performance, but one that is understandable, given his dual course of study.

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It was during this time that Newton kept a second set of notes, entitled "Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae" "Certain Philosophical Questions". The "Quaestiones" reveal that Newton had discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the Scientific Revolution. Though Newton graduated without honors or distinctions, his efforts won him the title of scholar and four years of financial support for future education. In , the Great Plague that was ravaging Europe had come to Cambridge, forcing the university to close. After a two-year hiatus, Newton returned to Cambridge in and was elected a minor fellow at Trinity College, as he was still not considered a standout scholar.

In the ensuing years, his fortune improved. Newton received his Master of Arts degree in , before he was During this time, he came across Nicholas Mercator's published book on methods for dealing with infinite series. Newton quickly wrote a treatise, De Analysi , expounding his own wider-ranging results.

Biography of Isaac Newton, Discovered Laws That Govern the Universe

He shared this with friend and mentor Isaac Barrow, but didn't include his name as author. In August , Barrow identified its author to Collins as "Mr. Shortly afterward, Barrow resigned his Lucasian professorship at Cambridge, and Newton assumed the chair. Among the dissenters was Robert Hooke , one of the original members of the Royal Academy and a scientist who was accomplished in a number of areas, including mechanics and optics.

While Newton theorized that light was composed of particles, Hooke believed it was composed of waves. Hooke quickly condemned Newton's paper in condescending terms, and attacked Newton's methodology and conclusions.

I Thought Newton Only Discovered Gravity

Hooke was not the only one to question Newton's work in optics. But because of Hooke's association with the Royal Society and his own work in optics, his criticism stung Newton the worst. Unable to handle the critique, he went into a rage—a reaction to criticism that was to continue throughout his life. Newton denied Hooke's charge that his theories had any shortcomings and argued the importance of his discoveries to all of science. In the ensuing months, the exchange between the two men grew more acrimonious, and soon Newton threatened to quit the society altogether.

He remained only when several other members assured him that the Fellows held him in high esteem. Isaac of all trades. English scientist and mathematician Isaac Newton is most famous for his law of gravitation, and was instrumental in the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Photo by UniversalImagesGroup. The rivalry between Newton and Hooke would continue for several years thereafter.

Top 10 facts

Then, in , Newton suffered a complete nervous breakdown and the correspondence abruptly ended. The death of his mother the following year caused him to become even more isolated, and for six years he withdrew from intellectual exchange except when others initiated correspondence, which he always kept short. During his hiatus from public life, Newton returned to his study of gravitation and its effects on the orbits of planets.

Ironically, the impetus that put Newton on the right direction in this study came from Robert Hooke. In a letter of general correspondence to Royal Society members for contributions, Hooke wrote to Newton and brought up the question of planetary motion, suggesting that a formula involving the inverse squares might explain the attraction between planets and the shape of their orbits.

Subsequent exchanges transpired before Newton quickly broke off the correspondence once again. But Hooke's idea was soon incorporated into Newton's work on planetary motion, and from his notes it appears he had quickly drawn his own conclusions by , though he kept his discoveries to himself.

Sir Isaac Newton: Biography & Contributions

In early , in a conversation with fellow Royal Society members Christopher Wren and Edmond Halley, Hooke made his case on the proof for planetary motion. Both Wren and Halley thought he was on to something, but pointed out that a mathematical demonstration was needed. In August , Halley traveled to Cambridge to visit with Newton, who was coming out of his seclusion.

Sir Isaac Newton's life

Halley idly asked him what shape the orbit of a planet would take if its attraction to the sun followed the inverse square of the distance between them Hooke's theory. Newton knew the answer, due to his concentrated work for the past six years, and replied, "An ellipse. Upon the publication of the first edition of Principia in , Robert Hooke immediately accused Newton of plagiarism, claiming that he had discovered the theory of inverse squares and that Newton had stolen his work.

The charge was unfounded, as most scientists knew, for Hooke had only theorized on the idea and had never brought it to any level of proof.

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  8. Newton, however, was furious and strongly defended his discoveries. He withdrew all references to Hooke in his notes and threatened to withdraw from publishing the subsequent edition of Principia altogether. Halley, who had invested much of himself in Newton's work, tried to make peace between the two men. While Newton begrudgingly agreed to insert a joint acknowledgement of Hooke's work shared with Wren and Halley in his discussion of the law of inverse squares, it did nothing to placate Hooke. As the years went on, Hooke's life began to unravel.