- Tour de France 12222: route and stage analysis
- 'Highest in history': Discover the route for the Tour de France - The Local
- Tour de France 12222 classifications
- 'Highest in history': Discover the route for the 12222 Tour de France
In , the organizers changed the rules of the classification to what they are today.go here
Tour de France 12222: route and stage analysis
This classification was added to the Tour de France in the edition , with Francesco Moser being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall. The Tour de France awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification, although this was not done between and Two riders have won the young rider classification three times in their respective careers: Jan Ullrich and Andy Schleck. The most combative rider wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white next day.
An award goes to the most aggressive rider throughout the Tour. Already in a sort of combativity award was offered, when Sports Populaires and L'Education Physique created Le Prix du Courage , francs and a silver gilt medal for "the rider having finished the course, even if unplaced, who is particularly distinguished for the energy he has used.
It was initially not awarded every year, but since it has been given annually. Eddy Merckx has the most wins 4 for the overall award. The team classification is assessed by adding the time of each team's best three riders each day. The competition does not have its own jersey but since the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow.
Until , the leading team would wear yellow caps. As of , the riders of the leading team wear yellow helmets. There has been an intermediate sprints classification , which from awarded a red jersey  for points awarded to the first three to pass intermediate points during the stage. These sprints also scored points towards the points classification and bonuses towards the general classification. The intermediate sprints classification with its red jersey was abolished in ,  but the intermediate sprints have remained, offering points for the points classification and, until , time bonuses for the general classification.
From there was a combination classification ,  scored on a points system based on standings in the general, points and mountains classifications. The design was originally white, then a patchwork with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was also abolished in The rider who has taken most time is called the lanterne rouge red lantern, as in the red light at the back of a vehicle so it can be seen in the dark and in past years sometimes carried a small red light beneath his saddle. Such was sympathy that he could command higher fees in the races that previously followed the Tour.
In and the organisers excluded the last rider every day, to encourage more competitive racing. Prize money has always been awarded. From 20, francs the first year,  prize money has increased each year, although from to the first prize was an apartment offered by a race sponsor. The first prize in was a car, a studio-apartment, a work of art, and , francs in cash. Prizes only in cash returned in Prizes and bonuses are awarded for daily placings and final placings at the end of the race.
The Souvenir Henri Desgrange , in memory of the founder of the Tour, is awarded to the first rider over the Col du Galibier where his monument stands,  or to the first rider over the highest col in the Tour. A similar award, the Souvenir Jacques Goddet , is made at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet , at the memorial to Jacques Goddet , Desgrange's successor.
The Tour directors categorise mass-start stages into 'flat', 'hilly', or 'mountain'. The first prologue was in The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage. This stage rarely challenges the leader because it is flat and the leader usually has too much time in hand to be denied. But in , Pedro Delgado broke away on the Champs to challenge the second lead held by Stephen Roche. He and Roche finished in the peloton and Roche won the Tour.
'Highest in history': Discover the route for the Tour de France - The Local
In modern times, there tends to be a gentlemen's agreement: while the points classification is still contended if possible, the overall classification is not fought over; because of this, it is not uncommon for the de facto winner of the overall classification to ride into Paris holding a glass of champagne. In the last stage was a time trial. Greg LeMond overtook Laurent Fignon to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history.
The climb of Alpe d'Huez has become one of the more noted mountain stages. During the Tour de France it was the scene of a Riders complained of abusive spectators who threatened their progress up the climb. Another notable mountain stage frequently featured climbs the Col du Tourmalet , the most visited mountain in the history of the Tour. Col du Galibier is the most visited mountain in the Alps. To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town.
The race may start with a prologue too short to go between towns in which case the start of the next day's racing, which would be considered stage 1, would usually be in the same town. In director Christian Prudhomme said that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside France three times and within France twice. With the switch to the use of national teams in , the costs of accommodating riders fell to the organizers instead of the sponsors and Henri Desgrange raised the money by allowing advertisers to precede the race.
The procession of often colourfully decorated trucks and cars became known as the publicity caravan. It formalised an existing situation, companies having started to follow the race. The first to sign to precede the Tour was the chocolate company, Menier , one of those who had followed the race. Preceding the race was more attractive to advertisers because spectators gathered by the road long before the race or could be attracted from their houses. Advertisers following the race found that many who had watched the race had already gone home. Menier handed out tons of chocolate in that first year of preceding the race, as well as , policemen's hats printed with the company's name.
The success led to the caravan's existence being formalised the following year. The caravan was at its height between and the mids, before television and especially television advertising was established in France. Advertisers competed to attract public attention. It bellows, it plays ugly music, it's sad, it's ugly, it smells of vulgarity and money. On top of that come the more considerable costs of the commercial samples that are thrown to the crowd and the cost of accommodating the drivers and the staff—frequently students—who throw them.
The number of items has been estimated at 11 million, each person in the procession giving out 3, to 5, items a day. Together, they weighed 32 tonnes 31 long tons; 35 short tons. Numbers vary but there are normally around vehicles each year. Their order on the road is established by contract, the leading vehicles belonging to the largest sponsors. The procession sets off two hours before the start and then regroups to precede the riders by an hour and a half. Vehicles travel in groups of five. Their position is logged by GPS and from an aircraft and organised on the road by the caravan director—Jean-Pierre Lachaud [n 9] —an assistant, three motorcyclists, two radio technicians, and a breakdown and medical crew.
The first three Tours from — stayed within France. No teams from Italy, Germany, or Spain rode in because of tensions preceding the Second World War after German assistance to the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War it was widely expected Spain would join Germany in a European war, though this did not come to pass. Henri Desgrange planned a Tour for , after war had started but before France had been invaded. The route, approved by military authorities, included a route along the Maginot Line.
The first German team after the war was in , although individual Germans had ridden in mixed teams. Plans to enter East Germany in were abandoned. It would be difficult to find accommodation for 4, people, he said. Our movement, which is nationalist and in favour of self-government, would be delighted if the Tour came to Corsica.
Most stages are in mainland France, although since the mids it has become common to visit nearby countries:  Andorra , Belgium , Germany and the former West Germany , Ireland , Italy , Luxembourg , Monaco , the Netherlands , Spain , Switzerland , and the United Kingdom have all hosted stages or part of a stage. The following editions of the Tour started, or are planned to start, outside France: .
The Tour was first followed only by journalists from L'Auto , the organisers. The race was founded to increase sales of a floundering newspaper and its editor, Desgrange, saw no reason to allow rival publications to profit. The first time papers other than L'Auto were allowed was , when 15 press cars were allowed for regional and foreign reporters. The Tour was shown first on cinema newsreels a day or more after the event. They used telephone lines. In they broadcast the sound of riders crossing the col d'Aubisque in the Pyrenees on 12 July, using a recording machine and transmitting the sound later.
The first television pictures were shown a day after a stage. The national TV channel used two 16mm cameras, a Jeep, and a motorbike. Film was flown or taken by train to Paris. It was edited there and shown the following day. The first live broadcast, and the second of any sport in France, was the finish at the Parc des Princes in Paris on 25 July The first live coverage from the side of the road was from the Aubisque on 8 July Proposals to cover the whole race were abandoned in after objections from regional newspapers whose editors feared the competition.
In the first mountain climbs were broadcast live on television for the first time,  and in helicopters were first used for the television coverage. The leading television commentator in France was a former rider, Robert Chapatte. At first he was the only commentator. He was joined in following seasons by an analyst for the mountain stages and by a commentator following the competitors by motorcycle. Competition between channels raised the broadcasting fees paid to the organisers from 1. The two largest channels to stay in public ownership, Antenne 2 and FR3 , combined to offer more coverage than its private rival, TF1.
The two stations, renamed France 2 and France 3, still hold the domestic rights and provide pictures for broadcasters around the world. The stations use a staff of with four helicopters, two aircraft, two motorcycles, 35 other vehicles including trucks, and 20 podium cameras. Domestic television covers the most important stages of the Tour, such as those in the mountains, from mid-morning until early evening.
Coverage typically starts with a survey of the day's route, interviews along the road, discussions of the difficulties and tactics ahead, and a minute archive feature. The biggest stages are shown live from start to end, followed by interviews with riders and others and features such an edited version of the stage seen from beside a team manager following and advising riders from his car.
Radio covers the race in updates throughout the day, particularly on the national news channel, France Info , and some stations provide continuous commentary on long wave. The Tour was the first to be broadcast in the United States. The combination of unprecedented rigorous doping controls and almost no positive tests helped restore fans' confidence in the Tour de France. This led directly to an increase in global popularity of the event. The Tour is an important cultural event for fans in Europe.
Millions  line the route, some having camped for a week to get the best view. Crowds flanking the course are reminiscent of the community festivals that are part of another form of cycle racing in a different country — the Isle of Man TT. The book sold six million copies by the time of the first Tour de France,  the biggest selling book of 19th-century France other than the Bible.
There had already been a car race called the Tour de France but it was the publicity behind the cycling race, and Desgrange's drive to educate and improve the population,  that inspired the French to know more of their country. Patrick Le Gall made Chacun son Tour In , three films chronicled a team. By following their quest for the points classification, won by Cooke, the film looks at the working of the brain.
It was directed by Bayley Silleck, who was nominated for an Academy Award for documentary short subject in for Cosmic Voyage.
Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle is an minute short of This minute documentary has no narration and relies on sights and sounds of the Tour. After the Tour de France there are criteria in the Netherlands and Belgium. These races are public spectacles where thousands of people can see their heroes , from the Tour de France, race. The budget of a criterium is over , Euro, with most of the money going to the riders. Jersey winners or big-name riders earn between 20 and 60 thousand euros per race in start money. Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since Early riders consumed alcohol and used ether , to dull the pain.
In , the "Tour of Shame", Willy Voet , soigneur for the Festina team, was arrested with erythropoietin EPO , growth hormones , testosterone and amphetamine. Police raided team hotels and found products in the possession of the cycling team TVM. Riders went on strike. After mediation by director Jean-Marie Leblanc , police limited their tactics and riders continued. Some riders had dropped out and only 96 finished the race. It became clear in a trial that management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping. Further measures were introduced by race organisers and the UCI , including more frequent testing and tests for blood doping transfusions and EPO use.
In , Philippe Gaumont said doping was endemic to his Cofidis team. In the same year, Jesus Manzano , a rider with the Kelme team, alleged he had been forced by his team to use banned substances. Doping controversy has surrounded Lance Armstrong , who until the invalidation of his 7 victories was the most successful and arguably most prominent athlete to compete in the Tour, generating tremendous publicity for the Tour and the sport of cycling with his comeback from cancer and his charity Livestrong , which has raised hundreds of millions of dollars to support cancer survivors.
Tour de France 12222 classifications
He said he had used skin cream containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores. Favourites such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned by their teams a day before the start. Seventeen riders were implicated. American rider Floyd Landis , who finished the Tour as holder of the overall lead, had tested positive for testosterone after he won stage 17, but this was not confirmed until some two weeks after the race finished.
Following his plea that other cyclists admit to drugs, former winner Bjarne Riis admitted in Copenhagen on 25 May that he used EPO regularly from to , including when he won the Tour. On 24 July Alexander Vinokourov tested positive for a blood transfusion blood doping after winning a time trial, prompting his Astana team to pull out and police to raid the team's hotel.
His Cofidis team pulled out. The same day, leader Michael Rasmussen was removed for "violating internal team rules" by missing random tests on 9 May and 28 June. Rasmussen claimed to have been in Mexico. The alleged lying prompted Rasmussen's firing by Rabobank. After winning the Tour de France , it was announced that Alberto Contador had tested positive for low levels of clenbuterol on 21 July rest day. Postal Service cycling team , implicating, amongst others, Armstrong. The report contained affidavits from riders including Frankie Andreu , Tyler Hamilton , George Hincapie , Floyd Landis , Levi Leipheimer , and others describing widespread use of Erythropoietin EPO , blood transfusion, testosterone, and other banned practices in several Tours.
One rider has been King of the Mountains , won the combination classification, combativity award, the points competition, and the Tour in the same year— Eddy Merckx in , which was also the first year he participated. Twice the Tour was won by a racer who never wore the yellow jersey until the race was over. In , Jan Janssen of the Netherlands secured his win in the individual time trial on the last day. The Tour has been won three times by racers who led the general classification on the first stage and holding the lead all the way to Paris.
Maurice Garin did it during the Tour's very first edition, ; he repeated the feat the next year, but the results were nullified by the officials as a response to widespread cheating. Ottavio Bottecchia completed a GC start-to-finish sweep in And in , Nicolas Frantz held the GC for the entire race, and at the end, the podium consisted solely of members of his racing team. While no one has equalled this feat since , four times a racer has taken over the GC lead on the second stage and carried that lead all the way to Paris.
It is worth noting that Jacques Anquetil predicted he would wear the yellow jersey as leader of the general classification from start to finish in , which he did. That year, the first day had two stages, the first part from Rouen to Versailles and the second part from Versailles to Versailles. No yellow jersey was awarded after the first part, and at the end of the day Anquetil was in yellow. The most appearances have been by Sylvain Chavanel , who rode his 18th and final Tour in Prior to Chavenel's final Tour, he shared the record with George Hincapie with In light of Hincapie's suspension for use of performance-enhancing drugs, before which he held the mark for most consecutive finishes with sixteen, having completed all but his very first, Joop Zoetemelk and Chavanel share the record for the most finishes at 16, with Zoetemelk having completed all 16 of the Tours that he started.
Photo: AFP. This was no accident," Prudhomme said. Route designer Thierry Gouvenou, however, said he felt Thomas's teammate and four-time champion Chris Froome may be stronger next year. Get notified about breaking news on The Local. Heatwave: Which Paris Metro lines have air con and which are hotter than hell? Heatwave: Where are the hottest and coolest places in France this week? With so many difficult climbs for the sprinters, I wonder who the 'iconic' Paris sprint will feature.
If it is anything like this year, it is unlikely there will be few 'true' sprinters. Perhaps Prudhomme and Co. Become a Member or sign-in to leave a comment. From our sponsors Five unusual things you can do in Malta Malta may be a small island but size can be deceiving. Five ways expats can benefit from international health insurance. How and why learning a new language messes with your old one.
How spending time abroad can lead to a great business idea. More news Froome set for Tour de France start after being cleared over 'anti-doping' case. Seven things to know about the soon to be extinct Tour de France podium girls. Froome amazed with yellow as Matthews wins stage. One-day classics specialists set to shine at Tour. Elite French anti-terror police to follow Tour de France riders. Tour de France route revealed: And there's few mountains. Gustave Garrigou. Country: France Team: Alcyon—Dunlop Year s : Despite complaints from racers, Tour organizers considered the Pyreneean stages such a success that they added the Alps in Odile Defraye.
Philippe Thys. Firmin Lambot. Ottavio Bottecchia. Topical Press Agency Getty Images. Lucien Buysse. Country: Belgium Team: Automoto—Hutchinson Year s : Buysse rode selflessly for Bottecchia in and was rewarded with a chance to win the Tour for himself in Nicolas Frantz. Maurice De Waele. Country: Belgium Team: Alcyon—Dunlop Year s : Second in and third in , De Waele overcame several flat tires—riders were then required to change their own flats—and illness to win in AFP Getty Images.
Country: France Teams: Alcyon—Dunlop, France Year s : , The year brought a change to the Tour: National and regional teams, instead of sponsored trade teams, would now compete. Keystone-France Getty Images. Antonin Magne. Country: France Team: France Year s : , Third behind Leducq in , Magne took advantage of new three-minute time bonuses given to stage winners—as well as a mysterious letter tipping him off to the tactics of a competitor—to win in , his first of two victories.
Imagno Getty Images. Georges Speicher. Country: France Team: France Year s : Historians consider the French team at the Tour to be one of the strongest collections of pre-war riders ever assembled. Romain Maes. Gino Bartali. Jean Robic. Universal Getty Images. Fausto Coppi. Country: Italy Team: Italy Year s : , Despite a growing rivalry, the Italians brought both Bartali and Coppi to the Tour, hoping the two could coexist well enough the win the nation another title. Hugo Koblet. Louison Bobet.
Roger Walkowiak. Country: France Team: France Year s : Walkowiak continued the run of French success, but he was not a popular champion. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below. More From Tour de France.
'Highest in history': Discover the route for the 12222 Tour de France
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