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Vietnam revised the target for secondary school enrolment to universal enrolment. It is necessary to also institutionalize the coordination of MDG implementation across different institutions. MDG-based planning and strong policy and programme coordination will contribute to the achievement of the MDGs. Such coordination helps to foster strong collaboration among Government, non-state actors and development partners. Unfortunately, funding is usually targeted at individual MDGs as is the case with agricultural subsidies.

However, in order to achieve substantial and systematic progress, the MDGs must be tackled in unison, in particular because they are mutually reinforcing. Examples of good practice in this area include countries that are setting up dedicated funds to help speed up the achievement of MDGs. Contextualization of MDGs: Whether a country decides to implement the above lessons is a matter of political commitment.

Thankfully there is a broad acceptance of MDGs on the continent. What is lacking to some degree is a genuine political commitment to the institutional and governance contextualization of the MDGs to create broad acceptance and political commitment for efficient implementation. If they are made stronger and more effective, they can be a powerful instrument in accelerating progress towards achieving the MDGs. Other than spending, there are many other advantages to decentralization. Local institutions are also more likely to monitor progress effectively.

Therefore, even where actual political and fiscal decentralization have not gone far, some countries are experimenting with having some MDGs implemented by sub-national organs. Targeted Interventions: The challenge of finding the resources to achieve the MDGs is recognized but can be partially mitigated by schemes that direct resources where efforts are likely to achieve greatest results.

In countries where universal coverage of social protection schemes is financially unfeasible, much progress can be obtained in reducing extreme poverty and hunger or improving immunization by targeting areas of greatest need. Geographical targeting, as an example, has proven effective in Latin America. There is a high correlation between geographical isolation and the MDG indicators.

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The MDG-disadvantaged are more likely to live in areas with less access to infrastructure, health, education, markets, public utilities, etc. By focusing on these areas a lot of progress could be made. The re-emergence of input subsidies in Africa is helping to roll back hunger.

Rather than using geographical targeting, they target a sector that supports most of the poor people. Countries as different as Kenya, Malawi, Mali and Senegal have adopted or expanded input subsidy schemes, which are credited for some of the recent successes in agriculture on the continent. Malawi received the MDG award for the success of its input subsidy scheme.

Despite their apparent success, the schemes are under intense scrutiny in various studies concerned with two fundamental questions: i do the benefits in terms of agricultural productivity and food security exceed what could be achieved by investing in other areas such as irrigation, research and extension services often starved in favour of the schemes; and, ii do these schemes crowd out the private sector, e.

It follows that lifting the plight of women will also yield significant dividends in achieving the MDGs. The OECD has collated evidence that shows that countries should address four key areas: [16]. The achievement associated with this policy has been immediate almost universally. Tanzania went further and abolished enrolment- related contributions by parents to perform even better in improving school enrolments and retentions.

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However, in a bid to increase the use of ITNs, the Government has also introduced a waiver of duty on the importation of ITNs into the country. Elle se pratique essentiellement dans des exploitations familiales. Les projections indiquent que les IDE pourraient continuer de baisser en Graphique 32 : Evolution des croissances sectorielles et de la croissance du PIB.

La perte atteint 19,7 points chez les inactifs. La lutte contre la faim est en bonne place dans les OMD. At the United Nations Millennium Summit in , the international community reached consensus on working to achieve eight critical economic and social development priorities by Promoting gender equality and empowering women is clearly embedded in the Millennium Declaration, and is one of the eight MDGs.

When women own and control resources and family assets, they have increased decision-making power in the household and are more likely to allocate resources to support the welfare of all family members, including by reducing poverty and hunger. Discriminatory attitudes and practices regarding the role of women in society, such as the low status of female-headed households and child-headed households, or the limited inheritance rights accorded to women, are significant barriers to their control over resources.

Women are also key players in the achievement of Goal 7, ensuring environmental sustainability. However, gender equality perspectives are poorly reflected across all the MDGs in their current formulation. Most have either inadequate or no gender-sensitive targets and indicators, making them difficult to achieve. Second, the targets for Goal 3 on gender equality and their indicators are limited. Third, the MDGs appear as stand-alone goals, blurring the multi-sectoral links between all goals, targets and indicators, including the cross-cutting gender link.

As a member state of the United Nations, South Africa is a signatory to this agreement. The eight MDGs are in their numerical order: 1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. To achieve universal primary education 3. To promote gender equality and empower women 4. To reduce child mortality 5. To improve maternal health 6. To ensure environmental sustainability 8. To develop a global partnership for development.

The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by countries, including Heads of State and Government, in September and from further agreement by member states at the World Summit Resolution adopted by the General Assembly. The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They enjoin the developed countries and the developing countries through a partnership that would be conducive to development and to the elimination of poverty. Previous reports: In , the Government of South Africa produced its first national report on progress made towards achieving the MDGs.

The report concluded that for a number of goals, targets and associated indicators, considerable progress towards the achievement of national development targets was made. This applied specifically to economic growth GDP , poverty reduction, gender equality, primary education and maternal health. A second MDG update was published for and updated in This was almost at the midway point between and This report provided a mid-term review of both the encouraging achievements and the challenges that remained on the path towards achieving the MDGs by Current report: As noted in the previous report, concerns were raised regarding the extent to which the MDG reports had been the outcome of consultative processes.

Therefore, in order to address the limitations of the past report and updates, the Country Report process was designed to be widely consultative and transparent, yet concerns that dogged previous reports continued to linger and as a consequence a lot of energy was directed, albeit in the latter part of the process, at ensuring that civil society to the extent possible participated in the process. The report notes that a variety of stakeholders were engaged on how to achieve domestication of MDGs in the country in a way that reflects local context.

As a result some of the globally designed targets and indicators were brought to relate to local reality through a series of methodology workshops at the national and provincial levels of government with all organs of state, although the report notes that civil society participation was sporadic and often erratic. Out of these meetings, however, emerged what was largely a government report.

Having noted this major limitation, CSOs and government agreed to engage with the report. This was held from 30 August to 1 September. The report is structured in such a way that it provides a general chapter on the development context in South Africa, with the eight MDGs sector reports summarised in the order of their official enumeration. The summary chapters for each of the MDGs contain the following sections:.

The Background introduces the Goal, provides a country position in relation to the goal and briefly outlines what the key targets and indicators are, as well as the information base. The section on Facts and Figures consists of a table of figures relating to the goal. On Insights, the rendition is on what the figures elicit.

The discussion part of the report synthesises the policy position with facts and figures as well as highlights, challenges and opportunities. This part further highlights the main causes and developmental effects of the observed status and trends, and provides evidence on policies and how they have led to an accelerated or reversal of progress towards the achievement of the MDGs.

The discussion part builds up to a conclusion. Then each goal has a programme of action that enjoins the state with all its arms to march towards achieving the MDGs. Description of outcome classification: From a methodological perspective, the report is intended to present an accessible and easy-to-grasp assessment of whether the stated goals or indicators are being achieved. This has been done by using the scale 'achieved', 'likely', 'possible' or 'unlikely'. Judgements about whether a priority area is achieved, likely,possible or unlikely, have mainly been based on the following factors: the observable trend; a change in trend for better or worse; whether an earlier target has been met; the distance from the final target; and the existing policy framework.

For example, an improving trend, the earlier target having been met, no break in the trend for the worse, no greater distance to the final target than previously to the earlier target, as well as a conducive policy framework led to a qualification of a target to be classified as 'likely'. By contrast, a classification labelled 'unlikely' indicates that significant additional steps will have to be taken to achieve the target. On the other hand, a target said to be 'achieved' is one that, given what the magnitude of the target was scheduled or estimated to be on current date, has already been achieved and finally, a 'possible' is classified as those indicators whose targets are on line for being achieved.

The attainment of democracy in brought the possibility for South Africa to address poverty and inequality and to restore the dignity of its citizens and ensure that South Africa belongs to all who live in it. This has entailed a systematic effort to dismantle the social and economic relations of apartheid and create a society based on equity, non-racialism and non-sexism. Through a policy commitment to 'continuity of change', each successive administration built on the development successes achieved, as well as to take stock of ongoing challenges and develop strategic responses to address these limitations to growth and development.

It identifies the development challenges facing South Africa and outlines the medium-term strategy for improving living conditions of South Africans. The MTSF base document is meant to guide planning and resource allocation across all spheres of government. National and provincial departments in particular need to develop their five-year strategic plans and budget requirements, taking into account the medium-term imperatives. Similarly, informed by the MTSF and their mandates, municipalities are expected to adapt their integrated development plans in line with the national medium-term priorities.

Linked to the five over-arching objectives, the MTSF has outlined ten priority areas that are intended to give effect to these strategic objectives. Within this framework the overall objective is to develop and implement a comprehensive development strategy that will meet the development needs of all South Africans. The MTSF also commits government and its development partners to a programme of gender equality, in seeking to ensure that the 'conditions have been created for the full participation of women in all critical areas of human endeavour'.

Domesticating the MDGs: The report has to be read in the context of these developments and thus additional indices and indicators have been included to elicit development endeavours the government committed to; thus the report articulates the extent to which the South African government through its priorities has owned the MDG agenda and through clear policies complied with the MDG imperatives.

It is plausible to conclude then that the South African Constitution and its development mandate explicitly takes the MDGs into account, and as a consequence there remain a greater possibility that despite many a challenge, South Africa has a plan in place and a winning chance in the fight against hunger, disease, ignorance, gender equality and making South Africa, Africa and the world a better place. The report below demonstrates how the MDGs have been domesticated into the current priority agenda of the government.

Below is a schematic layout that maps the MDGs on the national priorities. In this regard for instance, in working towards a comprehensive rural development strategy, the government will take a comprehensive and integrated approach that will reflect a range of MDG-related targets and indicators, including those on poverty, food security, education, gender, health, access to services and environmental sustainability.

Yet another policy terrain on ensuring primary education, a cocktail of practical steps for attracting, retaining and teaching children, is of providing for no school fees for schools servicing poorer communities, providing feeding schemes for such and further allowing for free transport. From the development focus of the MTSF the government has derived twelve outcome areas that set the guidelines for more results-driven performance. Improved quality of basic education; 2. A long and healthy life for all South Africans; 3.

All people in South Africa are and feel safe; 4. Decent employment through inclusive economic growth; 5. A skilled and capable workforce to support and inclusive growth path; 6. An efficient, competitive and responsive economic infrastructure network; 7. Vibrant, equitable and sustainable rural communities with food security for all; 8. Sustainable human settlements and improved quality of household life; 9. A responsive, accountable, effective and efficient local government system; Environmental assets and natural resources that are well protected and continually enhanced; Create a better South Africa and contribute to a better and safer Africa and world; An efficient, effective and development oriented public service and an empowered, fair and inclusive citizenship.

These outcomes provide strategic focus and do not cover the whole of government work and activities. This does not mean that the other work of government that is not directly related to outcomes should be neglected. Consultative workshops have also played a central role in both setting targets for and domesticating the indicators. The process for the preparation of the MDG is represented in the process flow below:.

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A National Methodology Workshop was held from 19 to 20 November The overall objective of the workshop was to adjust MDG indicators to reflect the local context by ensuring that the globally designed targets and indicators are in line with the local reality. This overall objective was to be achieved through five sub-objectives, namely: 1. To identify MDG indicators that might need twinning to enable both international comparisons and realistic interpretations of local reality.

In this case, the generic or standard MDG indicator would facilitate international comparisons while the local indicator would be used for monitoring national development. In this regard we have provided both measures in the report. To identify indicators which are relevant to South Africa but might be inappropriate to use for measurement in the context of South Africa. An example is the use of bed nets as a measure for controlling malaria when the local anti-malaria strategy uses house sprays.

To identify new targets and indicators for the goals to properly reflect the South African context, for example inclusion of the availability of classrooms among the indicators on education. To identify targets which might require disaggregation by sex and race to be more relevant and useful, e. To begin stakeholder consultation to encourage stakeholder engagement and participation in the development process by advocating for their own situations. Stakeholders have a specific role to play in development policy and decisionmaking processes.

Furthermore, they constitute a collective with a shared responsibility for development whilst the leadership role of government is legitimised by progressive delivery of and on constitutional, legislative and administrative prescripts. The outcomes of stakeholder involvement is stakeholder country ownership of the Millennium Development Goals Country Report through stakeholders defining what is important to them and their engagement in what counts. The MDGs were domesticated through focus groups for the more vulnerable members of society as well as workshops.

The overall outcomes achieved as a result of national, provincial and sector-specific consultative process have been:. A validation workshop was held on the 6 July The purpose of the workshop was to allow the SWGs and other stakeholders to interrogate the proposed draft goal reports. The second NCC meeting was held on 14 July where the various goal reports were presented.

The third NCC meeting was held on 2 August to validate the country report. The pre-eminence, stature and commitment of South Africa to global peace and wellbeing are well established and is appropriately captured in its priority area 'Create a better South Africa and contribute to a better and safer Africa and World'. This is an unambiguous expression and an explicit commitment to how South Africa will contribute to global partnerships.

There is no doubt that the world has a different view about South Africa and Africa. The world has witnessed that South Africa has the potential and indeed what it takes to address development challenges. It should therefore not be surprising that South Africa has played a major role in peace building and peacekeeping missions, specifically in Africa.

South Africa has committed constitutionally to eliminate all forms of discrimination and to building a more equal society. To achieve such a goal, gender and violence against women and children are cross-cutting and deserve attention and inclusion in all eight goals. Any development effort that excludes women is poised to suffer major setbacks. Women are the majority in the population and they influence decisions at a crucial level of the economic unit, namely the family, so their inclusion is a matter of necessity and informed national self-interest and not an act of generosity.

The South African government has made it its business to domesticate the Millennium Development Goals and locate in its policy specifically the needs of women and children. However, it is necessary that more is done. In this regard, government should take explicit and decisive steps to ensure that policies and interventions give effect to the implementation of all the MDGs, and pay acute attention to vulnerable people, who in the main are children and females, and to the needs of women and girl children.

The Government of South Sudan is taking a keen interest in reporting its baseline indicators as it embarks upon statebuilding and its drive to achieve the eight MDGs, starting in its first year as an independent and sovereign state. These strategies are the agreed frameworks for implementing and monitoring activities for improving on the current MDGs status.

The strategies have put emphasis on social and human development and sustainable economic growth. The SSDP, which is the first generation poverty reduction and economic growth strategy, developed immediately after the referendum that gave birth to South Sudan as an independent nation, provides a national framework for implementing actions required to attain the MDGs. The strategy puts emphasis on wealth creation and sustainable economic growth.

Economic growth creates jobs and increases the resources available for the government to allocate to poverty reduction, economic growth, and social and human development. To ensure that financial resources are directed to the priority areas of the SSDP, the government has set up an implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework to provide regular checks, balances and feedback on SSDP results and use the results to inform future strategies and budgets.

This, it is hoped, will impact on the progress for eventual attainment of the MDGs. This report outlines the current status and trends in providing basic services, improvements in human development outcomes and poverty reduction in South Sudan. It describes the policy and programming interventions that have been proposed by the government and implemented by the government and development partners alike, and identifies key challenges to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.

South Sudan has a troubled history, most of it characterized by domination by external powers, which has resulted in disfranchisement and underdevelopment, a situation that has gone on for centuries. This dark history has involved various kinds of subjugation, including Egyptian domination, slave trade and attempted forced conversion to Islam. The British colonialists then dominated the region with most of the South isolated from the North. However, there was hope that at independence the region would be integrated with the rest of British East Africa.

But the independence of Sudan in brought even further domination of the South with most administration positions in the South occupied by the northerners and the dream of joining the rest of East Africa completely lost. The South at that point thought that the only way to resist domination was some level of provincial autonomy, warning that failure to win legal concessions would drive the South to rebellion. But by , the seeds of rebellion had already been sown and southern army officers anticipating marginalization by the North, mutinied and formed the Anyanya snake venom guerrilla movement to demand justice, recognition, and self-determination, from the North.

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  5. As expected, at independence on 1 January the new constitution was silent on two crucial issues for southern leaders: the secular or Islamic character of the state, and its federal or unitary structure. The Anyanya I war lasted until March , when it ended with the signing of the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement with Sudan under General Nimeiri granting limited autonomy to the South, which ushered in a ten year period of peace for Southern Sudan. This brought an end to the year conflict between the North and the South, culminating in the January referendum and independence on 9 July These wars brought the social situation and economy of Southern Sudan to its knees with grave consequences including gross violations of human rights, displacements, destruction of property and socio-economic systems disruption.

    And following on from that, in the lead up to independence, the government expanded on this work, by formulating a medium-term development plan, the South Sudan Development Plan SSDP. This was developed through a consultative process involving hundreds of government officials and partners at all levels and covers the first years of statehood. It includes more than eighty development objectives of which twenty have been identified as high priorities. Building on the Core Governance framework, the SSDP includes a Medium-Term Capacity Development Strategy aimed at strengthening national capacities, building institutional and organizational structures and expanding human capital.

    Since , after the oil shutdown, the government has been fast-tracking key enabling peace-building and statebuilding aspects of the SSDP aimed at: a ensuring continuity of core functions; b mitigating the impact of austerity on vulnerable populations by buttressing frontline service delivery, and c increasing accountability and efficiency in the use of public financial resources. The government has also now formulated the South Sudan Development Initiative SSDI , which is aimed at making the SSDP actionable where priority projects mainly in the Enabling Environment sectors in the plan are costed and designed for implementation for the period South Sudan has a population of 8.

    There were rapid changes in the demographic structure of South Sudan following the signing of the CPA in , with a large number of returnees and increased household formation. Since the successful completion of the referendum in January , there has been a fresh wave of returnees primarily from the North. It is crucial that special provisions are made for these most vulnerable populations. The South Sudan economy is still largely subsistence, consisting predominantly of smallscale agriculture, livestock-raising and oil extraction, though in monetary terms the oil sector is the largest.

    There is little domestic commercial production, even for agriculture products, and export markets outside of oil. But even with serious attempts to diversify revenue sources triggered by the oil shutdown, it is expected that oil will continue to dominate government expenditure and exports with major implications for the welfare of the vulnerable sections of the population in case of a sudden oil shutdown as it happened in or even due to oil price volatility as it happened in Due to the oil sector, the GDP per capita for South Sudan is relatively high compared to the regional average figure B2.

    After the oil shutdown and the adoption of austerity measures, the budget approved for the fiscal year was modified into a four month February-June Austerity Budget i. In addition, the Ministerial Austerity Committee passed guidelines that spending agencies would follow in making their budgets, including eliminating expenditure in non-critical areas. With reserves of about SSP 4. The following sections outline the impact of the austerity measures on the different facets of the economy.

    But these funds are not 20 Percentage 0 From the end of , the annual inflation rate declined to about Impact on delivery of social services: The vast majority of the currently existing social services in the country are provided by NGOs, community-based organizations and development partners with minimal public intervention. Even under austerity the share is still in that range, therefore, these austerity measures have adversely impacted the welfare of the population.

    Reduced government expenditure, which in South Sudan made up the biggest share of total national expenditure, impacted on the livelihoods of the population that depended on it, for example members of the extended family with a public salaried worker. Moreover, with austerity budget, the probability of the government introducing social protection programmes such as the social cash transfer programme proposed in the SSDP is very slim. On the other hand, the South Sudan economy particularly the monetized and urban part is heavily dependent on imports for consumption and investment, including basic food stuffs.

    The South Sudan Pound is heavily supported by the foreign exchange reserves from oil and, because of the shutdown of oil production, the government ran down the reserves and this has put significant pressure on the exchange rate which has resulted in significant devaluation of the SSP.

    Consequently, the black market exchange rate had increased from 3. The significant reduction in government expenditure has also dampened economic activity which is putting an opposite pressure on prices. It should however, be noted that, due to low domestic production, inflation has always been a problem for South Sudan because most of the basic commodities consumed in the country are imported from East Africa.

    Therefore, there were four national goals underpinning the formulation of the SSDP, namely good governance, safety and security, increased prosperity, and enhanced quality of life.

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    These goals were to be achieved through intervention in twenty priority programmes spread over the four pillars. Resource allocation over the planning period was targeted at all these priority programmes to ensure efficient attainment of the goals of the plan. Considerable challenges still remaining in the security sector due to the ongoing low-level conflict between South Sudan and Sudan, necessitated maintaining the security resource. This has implications for progress in attainment of the MDGs.

    It means that public investment in areas that have an impact on MDGs attainment would be minimal, leaving the rest to the private sector which itself is nascent or to the humanitarian organizations which have traditionally taken the largest burden of social services provision. Inability to invest in MDG areas has in part been due to la ack of action plans with bankable projects in the productive and social areas of the economy.

    The government under the South Sudan Development Initiative has since designed a number of projects and programmes, costed and ready for implementation, into which resources are now being channeled. Therefore, under these historical, political and economic conditions, including the history of conflict, but also renewed optimism, this report seeks to ascertain the progress the country has made in attaining the MDGs. Ce constat est valable pour tous les autres secteurs. A despeito disso, em , o PIB por habitante ainda registou um valor superior a 6 vezes o calculado para La stagnation des indicateurs suffit-elle?

    La version finale du rapport tient notamment compte des contri- tions recueillies au cours de cet atelier. Their achievement will lead to a significant improvement in the welfare of the Swazi people and, a decade after the Declaration, the country remains fully committed to fulfilling this. This report documents the extent of progress towards MDG achievement in the country as of year A Macroeconomic Model Threshold 21 , currently being developed by the Ministry of Economic Planning and Development, further strengthens the report through its historical database and projection of future trends given the current strategies and policies of the country.

    The report highlights a number of important achievements, such as the introduction of the State Funded Primary Education Programme in , whilst also noting the challenges, including slow economic growth and the continued high incidence of HIV. It seeks to deepen national understanding of why progress is being made with some MDG indicators but not others and proposes ways forward. In this way, the report serves as an important document for stakeholders to expedite progress towards the timely achievement of the MDGs.

    The report-writing process went through many stages, the first being the establishment of an MDG Technical Team. Following this, the MDG Technical Team undertook data collection and consultations with stakeholders. This led to the production of a draft MDG Report which served as the basis for further stakeholder discussions. Two Stakeholder Review Workshops were subsequently held to receive the guidance, feedback and valued recommendations of stakeholders. The final report was completed in September A key feature of the MDG report-writing process was its inclusive nature, with all stakeholders participating - the Government of Swaziland, NGOs, civil society, private sector, donor community and development partners.

    Once finalised, this MDG Report will be translated into SiSwati and Braille - unlike preceding ones - ensuring its accessibility to a much wider audience. This summarises the likelihood of the country meeting each of the MDG Targets by and the state of the supportive environment for each of them. The overall development context in Swaziland is then outlined in broad terms, followed by eight sections that address each of the MDGs. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small landlocked country in Southern Africa.

    Major exports for the country include sugar, wood pulp and sott drink concentrates. The Kingdom's population stands at 1,,, of which 52 percent are under the age of 20 years and 78 percent reside in rural areas SPHC An important milestone in the country's recent history was the adoption of Swaziland's new constitution in However, it faces challenges similar to low-income economies. Key socio-economic indicators for the past 20 years are given below.

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    Table A: Key socio-economic indicators for the country, The Swazi economy performed very well in the 1 s, attracting large inflows of foreign direct investment FDI as the country enjoyed a regional advantage due to civil war in Mozambique and the continuation of Apartheid in South Africa. Economic growth was high and the country boasted impressive human development indicators. However, over the past decade or so there has been a marked reversal in several development trends as captured in the country's declining Human Development Index HDI score.

    Swaziland's HDI score for is actually lower than what it was in , although there has been an improvement in recent years table B. Increased competition for FDI from Apartheid-free South Africa and war-free Mozambique has significantly diminished growth opportunities. In terms of ease of doing business, Swaziland ranks th in the world Doing Business Report and this has hindered the country's ability to attract and retain FDI.

    Changes in the international trade environment have also compounded matters with the phasing out of many preferential trade arrangements. These include those that benefited the textile and garment sector as well as those which ensured a high price for the country's sugar exports to the European market. More recently, the country has been affected by the global economic and financial crisis mostly through its second round effects. Zander Blom Images 1. Biography Christian Boltanski lives and works in Malakoff, France.

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