Authors W. Front Matter Pages i-xii. Mythmakers: early literature. Pages Reporters: literature to Tale-tellers: literature to Lewis Balfour — , D.
His father had married Anne Mackintosh on 24 February Among his siblings were the physician and heart special. Catharines, Canada West, with his family in He studied at the Grantham Academy and went on to teach school in Grantham and Louth townships. In , with Robert Matheson, he became the owner of the St. Catharines News. He married Josephine Brodhead that same year. Balfour served as reeve for Amherstburg from to He ran unsuccessfully in the provincial riding of Essex South in but was later elected in that riding in an by-election after Lewis Wigle was elected to the federal parliament.
He is mentioned three times in works by Robert Burns. Galston is a village in Ayrshire a few miles north of Burns's farm at Mossgiel. Burns had been reproved by Dr Smith, and Burns retaliated by pillorying Smith twice, by name, in "The Holy Fair", where he says that "his English tongue and gesture fine are a' clean oot o' season". Reverend Smith married Marion Freer. He is buried in Galston Parish Church which was built during his ministry, opened on 18 June There is a memorial plaque to him and his widow, Marion Freer, on the.
Dictionary of Irish Archi. History A church has stood on the site for approximately years, but the current building was constructed and opened in The current church was redesigned in by the architect Sydney Mitchell. The church incorporates the tower from the old church, which had been designed by David Bryce and built in The interior has a neo-Byzantine design, with pink sandstone columns. The minister is currently the Rev. Rolf Billes. Mary Ellen Sigsbee , known as May, was an American artist. What will save the home? His first marriage was to William Balfour Ker, a fellow socialist.
The marriage was conducted against her father's wishes, after an Muscarella is an American actor. His earliest credited film appearance was in Eating Out 2: Sloppy Seconds in James has appeared in television commercials for Grupo Modelo in and Walmart in The second season of the British-American web television series The Crown, which follows the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth II, consists of 10 episodes and was released on Netflix on December 8, The son of a prosperous and influential gentry descent, he became a trader in India. Having made a fortune supplying the Royal Navy, he returned to Scotland to buy several landed estates, including Whittingehame in East Lothian where he built a classical mansion.
Balfour became a Tory Member of Parliament MP from to , but never achieved ministerial office. However, many of his descendants found fame and success, including his grandson Arthur Balfour, who served as prime minister from to As well as writing medical publications, Balfour also wrote historical fiction and fantasy novels, the majority of which were published from to In his youth Balfour was also a notable sportsman playing rugby union for Cambridge University in the Varsity Match and was selected to represent the Scotland national team.
He was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. Edward became king on his father's death in early However, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second.
The prime ministers of. James McAvoy born 21 April is a Scottish actor. He made his acting debut as a teen in The Near Room and made mostly television appearances until , when his feature film career began. His notable television work includes the thriller State of Play and the science fiction mini-series Frank Herbert's Children of Dune. In , McAvoy appeared in a lead role in Bollywood Queen. This was followed by a supporting role, the faun Mr. The critically acclaimed romantic drama war film Atonement e. Jennifer Kate Hudson born September 12, is an American singer and actress.
She rose to fame in as a finalist on the third season of American Idol, placing seventh. Born in the British colony of New Brunswick now a Canadian province , Law is the only British prime minister to have been born outside the British Isles. He entered the House of Commons at the general election, relatively late in life for a front-rank politician, and was made a junior minister, Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, in Law joined the Shadow Cabinet in opposition after the election.
In , he was appointed a Privy Councillor, and stood for the vacant party leadership. Despite never having served in the Cabinet, and despite trailing third after Walter Long and Austen Chamberlain, Law becam. A native of Atlanta, Murphy moved to Los Angeles as a teenager and pursued a career in acting.
Her breakthrough role was as Tai Frasier in Clueless , followed by supporting roles in independent films such as Freeway and Bongwater In the s Murphy appeared in Don't Say a Word alongside Michael Douglas, and alongside Eminem in 8 Mile , for which she gained critical recognition. Murphy also voiced Luanne Platter on the animated television series King of the Hill — Her final film, Something W.
In , he was nominated for a third Olivier Award for his performance in Caligula at the Donmar Warehouse. Sheen has become better known as a screen actor since the s, in particular through his roles in various biopics. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in , she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. Mary was queen consort of France from his accession in until his death in December Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August In February , Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden.
James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April , and the following month he married. He was not averse to the conspiracies of the period and was one of the conspirators involved in the notorious Raid of Ruthven, and Godscroft represents him as extremely violent on the occasion.
Sir Lewis does not seem, however, to have shared in the ruin which attended his co-conspirators, joining the College of Justice in He bore a principal part in the downfall of the Earl of Arran, and the return of the banished Lo. Javid was a candidate for Leader of the Conservative Party in the leadership contest, finishing in fourth place. Working in banking, he rose quickly to become a Managing Director at Deutsche Bank. Joseph Chamberlain 8 July — 2 July was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
He split both major British parties in the course of his career. Chamberlain made his career in Birmingham, first as a manufacturer of screws and then as a notable mayor of the city. As a self-made businessman, he had never attended university and had contempt for the aristocracy. He entered the House of Commons at 39 years of age, relatively late in life compared to politicians from more privileged backgrounds. Rising to power through his influence with the Liberal grassroots organisation, he served as President of the Board of Trade in Gladstone's Second Government — At the time, Chamberlain was notable for his attacks on the Conservative leader Lord Salisbury.
The 14 original Art Deco buildings, commissioned by the Rockefeller family, span the area between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, split by a large sunken square and a private street called Rockefeller Plaza. Five International Style buildings, built later, are located on the west side of Sixth Avenue and at the north end of Rockefeller Plaza. In , the site's then-owner, Columbia University, leased the land to John D. Rockefeller Jr. Originally envisioned as the site for a new Metropolitan Opera building, the current Rockefeller Center came about after the Met could not afford to move to the proposed new building.
Lloyd was permitted to remain at Chequers and was also allowed to keep 1, Carlton Gardens , normally the Foreign Secretary's London residence the chancellor's usual London residence of 11 Downing Street was not available, as Downing Street was being reconstructed at the time, requiring Macmillan to live at Admiralty House for most of his premiership. Macmillan, with bitter memories of his time as MP for Stockton in the s, wanted to be free of what he saw as the economic orthodoxy of the Treasury and Bank of England, and to generate economic growth, a view which he shared with many economic thinkers at the time.
The economy had been booming as a result of the expansionary measures taken in the run-up to the General Election , with consequent risk to inflation. Furthermore, the balance of payments was moving into deficit, with Britain's share of world manufacturing falling dramatically as continental Europe, now grouped into the EEC, recovered from the effects of the war.
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In Britain suffered the worst balance of payments crisis since , masked a little by the inflow of foreign money into London. The Treasury was already somewhat discredited. On 16 March Lloyd wrote to Macmillan complaining that No 10 was briefing the press than Macmillan was in real charge of economic policy, and indeed policy in other areas.
Lloyd arranged government funding for the National Theatre on the South Bank. This measure had actually been Macmillan's idea. By the summer a run on the pound was threatened. Some ministers suggested floating the pound, an option which Macmillan discussed in his diary on 23 July, although he rejected it as it would have irritated the Americans and would have had to be accompanied by deflation. Macmillan wrote to ministers on 28 July ordering public spending restraint. Cairncross , who had succeeded Robert Hall as the government's economic advisor, believed that Lloyd might have given some kind of private promise not to actually use it.
Lloyd also announced a Pay Pause on 25 July, until 31 March Labour moved into a 5 point lead in the opinion polls.
It mainly affected public sector employees such as nurses and teachers as many private companies had contractual arrangements for automatic pay rises or arbitration. Lloyd had announced that there would be a new economic planning body as part of his 25 July measures. There was a stormy meeting of the Cabinet on 21 September, at which only John Hare and Lord Hailsham supported him, but covert support for the proposal from Macmillan swung other ministers behind the scheme.
Lloyd did not get on with trade unionists. The TUC, which disliked the Pay Pause, agreed to cooperate only on condition that they were not expected to preach wage restraint. Henry Brooke was appointed to the new position of Chief Secretary to the Treasury in October so Lloyd did not have to spend all his time arguing with Cabinet colleagues about their planned level of expenditure. There was a big pay increase in the electricity industry in November , because of the strength of the unions and the weakness of the minister Richard Wood.
There was even a threat to strike by the workers who made cricket balls. The White Paper also condemned automatic wage increases because of cost of living increases and comparability between different types of work. On 14 February , over whisky at 10 Downing Street, Macmillan persuaded the railway union bosses to call off their planned strike, an achievement trumpeted by the press as "Mac's Triumph".
In April , on the eve of Lloyd's second and final budget, he faced a Cabinet rebellion over Schedule A tax a tax on the theoretical rental value of a house, paid by the homeowner. This was in line with current rates of growth in continental Europe, but the Treasury were sceptical that the UK could achieve it, rightly as it turned out. The question of the growth in public spending was left unresolved. Macmillan appears to have agreed that the budget could not be a popular one, but the Cabinet revolt, which Lloyd lacked the eloquence to counter, was an embarrassment to Macmillan as well, which added to Macmillan's irritation with Lloyd.
Many industrialists also felt that Britain's economic problems, especially her balance of payments deficit, should be solved by expansion, not by contraction, a view shared by Labour Leader Hugh Gaitskell , and by Roy Jenkins , who in the budget debate quoted the " Financial Times " to the effect that the budget had done nothing for exports or for investment. Macmillan, disingenuously, as he had already decided to sack him, wrote to Lloyd on 11 April congratulating him and asking him to begin preparing an expansionary budget for to help the Conservatives win re-election.
Bank Rate was cut to 4. Macmillan was pushing for a full-on incomes policy, led by the NEDC, in the hope that his growth policy would not lead to inflation. He addressed the Cabinet about economic policy on 28 May , stressing that he wanted Britain to achieve low unemployment, low inflation, high growth and a strong pound, and that this could best be achieved by an incomes policy to boost productivity.
Lloyd was sceptical. On 19 June Macmillan presented his ideas on incomes policy to three or four colleagues at Chequers. Macmillan urged a "guiding light" a target for wage increases as had been agreed at the beginning of the year , a Standing Commission on Pay but with power only to give advice, not to coerce wage settlements , abolition of Resale Price Maintenance in the end this would be done by Edward Heath in and creation of a Consumers Council; Lloyd was sceptical but the other ministers seemed in favour.
Macmillan had lunch with Butler on 21 June to discuss the impending reshuffle. Macmillan would have liked to appoint Lloyd Home Secretary , as he was moving Rab Butler from this post, but Lloyd had made clear when Macmillan became Prime Minister in January that as an opponent of capital punishment it would not be proper for him to accept that position because a person sentenced to hang was entitled to appeal to the Monarch for mercy, which in practice meant that the Home Secretary, to whom the task was delegated, had the final say on whether any execution should proceed.
Macmillan planned to break the news of his impending dismissal to Lloyd, but Butler leaked it to the press first — the news appeared in the "Daily Mail" on the morning of 12 July. Next morning, 13 July, Macmillan carried out the rest of his changes after hearing, from Lord Home, that Lloyd had tried in vain to get John Hare , Minister of Labour, to resign in protest. He sacked a third of his Cabinet in a brutal reshuffle which came to be known as the " Night of the Long Knives ".modulor.com.ua/includes/kaufen-hydroxychloroquin-und-plaquenil-online.php
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Unless one counts Butler's removal in December , Lloyd was the only Chancellor of the postwar era to be sacked outright until Norman Lamont in May Lloyd privately thought Macmillan too obsessed with unemployment, risking higher inflation. He was cheered to the echo when he reentered the Commons Chamber after his sacking, whereas Macmillan entered in silence from his own party and jeers from the Opposition, and was subjected to public criticism then almost unprecedented from his predecessor Lord Avon.
Once is more than enough. Having refused the offer of a peerage from Macmillan, on 20 July Lloyd was appointed a Companion of Honour. Lloyd left his black Labrador , " Sambo ", for whom there was no room in his London flat, behind at Chequers. At a meeting of the new Cabinet later that summer, Sambo came sniffing amongst the ministers searching for his master. Macmillan ignored the animal, which was likened by one observer to Banquo 's ghost. Lloyd did not regard his political career as over, and declined the chairmanship of Martins Bank and other City posts. He told him that sacking him had been a mistake and that he was looking for a way to bring him back.
Lloyd attributed this to Macmillan's ruthlessness and survival instinct. Lloyd became a popular figure with Conservative Party members after travelling the country in the bitter winter of the worst since to write his report on party organisation. After Macmillan's impending resignation was announced in October , Lloyd was one of those who pressed Alec Douglas-Home to stand for the party leadership.
He was also an influential figure with the Chief Whip Martin Redmayne. Lloyd was called back to the government in by Alec Douglas-Home. He refused the Home Office. He also refused the Chairmanship of the Party, as he felt he had done what he could and did not want to spend "another winter traipsing around the country". In the end he was appointed Leader of the House of Commons , a job which had already been promised to John Boyd-Carpenter. Lloyd helped to discourage Thorneycroft from standing for the Conservative leadership in He supported Maudling, who was defeated by Edward Heath.
He also visited Rhodesia , whose white minority regime had recently declared unilateral independence from the UK, in February There he met people, including 60 Africans, and impressed on Prime Minister Ian Smith that white minority rule could not last. On his return to the UK in time for the general election campaign in March , Lloyd was attacked both by the left for having seemed to condone the Smith regime and from the right for not having supported it.
He returned to the backbenches in , at his own request. Lloyd continued to serve on many committees and to campaign for the Conservative Party in North-West England. In the General Election organisational reforms made in response to Lloyd's report of bore fruit, especially in the North-West, and specifically the provision of more paid agents. The reforms were thought to have resulted in the gain of 10 seats, contributing to Heath's narrow victory.
Lloyd was sounded out for, but declined, the Washington Embassy. In , after the Conservatives had returned to power, Lloyd became Speaker.
Selwyn Lloyd - Wikipedia
He was elected Speaker by votes to 55, the opposition coming from those who thought the election was a stitch-up between the leadership of the two main parties. Mindful that the long hours required as Speaker had broken the health of several of his predecessors, he increased the number of deputy speakers to three to ease the burden. His preference was to let as many members as possible be heard, rather than err on the side of firmness, and he also practised what Thorpe describes as "selective deafness" rather than punish every unparliamentary outburst.
He retired as Speaker on 3 February ,  when he was raised to the peerage and appointed to be the Steward of the Manor of Northstead. He became an honorary fellow of his old college, Magdalene. In retirement he lived at Preston Crowmarsh , Oxfordshire. He did a great deal of charity work and was an active patron and generous host to the nearby Oxford University Conservative Association. He died at home of a brain tumour on 17 May Lloyd remained on very friendly terms with Eden, and the two men cooperated throughout the s and s, over Eden's memoirs and information which they gave, often anonymously, to historians about Suez.
In public they maintained the pretence that there had been no collusion with Israel. Richard Crossman told Hugh Thomas that any attempt to impeach Lloyd would come to nothing because Lloyd was personally popular. Thomas, who was married to Gladwyn Jebb's daughter, began with little sympathy for Eden and Lloyd and came to feel more so, especially as Lloyd told him that Suez was an issue that was simply not black and white. Nutting No End of a Lesson : and Harold Macmillan whose relevant volume came out in were also publishing memoirs. Lloyd insisted that this was perfectly legitimate and that this had been the view of Edward Grey and Ernest Bevin.
Nutting's book made Lloyd more determined to release his own memoirs in due course. Sir Donald Logan had to help finish the research as Lloyd by then was ill and could not concentrate for longer than ten or fifteen minutes at a time. He insisted that there had been no "collusion" as Britain had acted in good faith, and had not instigated the Israeli attack. Nigel Nicolson thought the book "pathetic".
Lloyd did not live to complete his memoirs, which he had planned to call "A Middle-Class Lawyer from Liverpool" after a famous sneer of Harold Macmillan's at his expense. Lloyd was respected for his cool and shrewd judgement. Ferdinand Mount wrote that he possessed "an exact appreciation of himself". In politics, he was loyal to his self-proclaimed social superiors who often did not display loyalty in return.
After his divorce he was a lonely man and was sometimes known to try to persuade less than keen civil servants to accompany him to the cinema on Saturday afternoons when the week's work was done. After his divorce, rumour sometimes circulated that Lloyd had homosexual inclinations. He entertained young servicemen at Chequers.
Lloyd's obituaries concentrated on his role in Suez. He would have preferred to have been remembered for his minority report on the Beveridge Report on broadcasting, and for setting up the NEDC. However, he acquired a higher reputation as Macmillan's Foreign Secretary.
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Sir William Hayter , who worked with Lloyd in Ankara during the Baghdad Pact conference in January , commented on how he had a higher regard for Lloyd after the latter had ceased to be Eden's assistant. Thorpe argues that he was not quite in the same league as Bevin or Eden but very much in the next rung.
Edmund Dell describes Lloyd as "not up to the job" of chancellor. He was less fortunate in the timing [Foreign Secretary during Suez then Chancellor at a time of relative economic decline] … there is no evidence that he understood economic arguments … he was a man tied to his brief, lacking the conviction or understanding to make an independent contribution".
However, the real problems with the British economy at this time were, in Dell's view, short-termism longer time was needed to get results and an overvalued exchange rate. Macmillan wanted the "open air cure" i. It was boycotted by the TUC, who claimed to have been inadequately consulted. It had no compulsory powers, but only powers to demand papers and interview people, and make criticisms of wage settlements which were deemed not in the national interest. Only three cases were ever referred to it.
Ferdinand Mount argues that Lloyd's obituary in The Times was wrong to call him unimaginative and that Lloyd was in fact an innovative chancellor. Macmillan, obsessed with economic expansion, constantly belittled Lloyd in his memoirs. In Mount's view, just as Suez was a watershed in foreign policy, so Macmillan's sacking of Lloyd was a watershed in economic policy, opening the way to the inflation of the s. Lloyd would sometimes later claim that he might have become Prime Minister if he had resigned as Foreign Secretary over Suez or if he had made more fuss over his sacking as Chancellor.
His biographer D. Thorpe dismisses this as "wishful thinking", arguing that Lloyd was not even in the same league as Joseph Chamberlain or Rab Butler , politicians who were - in different ways - of first-rank importance despite not becoming Prime Minister. Rather, he was "more Exeter rather than Balliol ", i. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Right Honourable. Anthony Eden Harold Macmillan. None — Conservative — Fettes College Magdalene College, Cambridge.
Lloyd, 'Suez A Personal Account', p. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required. The London Gazette Supplement. The London Gazette. This is impossible to reconcile with the more detailed account in Thorpe's biography, which has him attending meetings in London and exchanging messages with New York in this period.
It may be a confusion with his absence in New York between 1 and 16 October. Chancellors of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom. Foreign Secretaries of the United Kingdom. Defence Secretaries of the United Kingdom. Winston Churchill Clement Attlee A.