Guide Il fiore del Re (Italian Edition)

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Your ongoing donations are essential for The LiederNet Archive to continue in its mission of providing this unique resource to the world, so if you didn't get a chance to contribute during the overhaul drive, your help in any amount is still valuable. Ballarini , "Die Lotosblume", from Sechs Lieder , no. Ivanov , "Die Lotosblume" [ sung text not yet checked against a primary source ] by Charles Edward Ives - , "Die Lotosblume", , published , also set in English [ sung text not yet checked against a primary source ] by John [Jacques] Jacobsson - , "Die Lotosblume", op.

Orlov , "Die Lotosblume" [ sung text not yet checked against a primary source ] by Moses Pergament - , "Die Lotosblume", published [voice and orchestra] [ sung text not yet checked against a primary source ] by Louis Rakemann , "Die Lotosblume ", op. Forberg [ sung text not yet checked against a primary source ] by Eduard Rappoldi - , "Die Lotosblume", op. Also set in English, a translation by Harmony Twitchell Mrs. In the following sonnet, Amico elaborates on this advice, claiming that the lover should swear that he will give her so many florins that he will trans- form her into a great baroness LUI, Re then commands Amante that he should weep before her and assert that he cannot live without her LUI, If the tears do not come naturally, then Amico suggests artificial means: Downloaded from foi.

LUI, By mentioning shallots and onions vv. Here, the poet more closely follows his source than before for he alI but renders Jean de Meun' s language into Italian. However, Durante places saliva last, reversing Jean's order,17 thereby bringing into reliefits digestive function. Throughout the section, Amico speaks oflove in its most bodily terms. He makes misogynistic statements when telling the lover not to concem himselfwith the lady's sentiments.

Later, he reiterates this prescription, using direct, sexuallanguage: "E quando tu "ssarai co "Bei soletto,! The poet uses transparent double- entendres connoting the lover's penis "duro," V. Finally, he instructsAmante to dissemble as much as possible, particularly if the woman is a virgin. LXV, By referring to sexually experienced women as having had their "soi! Casciani and Kleinhenz note that the term "plowing" is replete with sexual connotations within the text, but it also refers extratextually to the act of writing, particularly in a comic manner Building upon that Downloaded from foi.

Falling betweenAmico's monologue and the following section, several sonnets communicate the intervening action. One of these in particular deserves attention because it represents the first of two instances in which the author refers to himself. The translator' s self-reference has provoked much commentary regarding whether the author actually was named "Durante," or whether this consti- tutes a senhal.

Not only might this suggest Amante's patience, but it also implies his sexual yearnings by denoting his unsatisfied erection. Pertile argues that the name constitutes the key to understanding the entire work, revealing the irreverent spirit in which the poem was written and in which it asks the readers to interpret it The poet imbues this particular son- net with phallic imagery and therefore the narrative context reinforces Per- tile's reading. At the end ofthe second quatrain, again ex- plaining that they have sworn allegiance to him such that any who oppose him be laid low: "[ By reiterating the concept ofbringing down something vertical "abattuto," "aterrato" , Durante establishes a sexualized subtext, giving further relevance to his name.

By preparing the sonnet in this fash- ion, the poet allows the reader to see the ambiguities in the name "Durante. Falsembiante does not speak about passion, but only about hypocrisy and he quickly transforrns his discourse on falsity into a critique ofthe mendicants. He first appears wearing the robe of"good Downloaded from foi. What this means is not entirely c1ear: Faisembiante may be referring to Albertus Magnus, a Dominican.

In the Roman de la Rose, Faux Semblant does not slander all clergy, but onIy those who do not take their religion seriousIy: "J'entens de faus religieus,l Des felons, des malicieus" vv. To be sure, Durante's Falsembiante also makes such a distinction, but the manner in which he expresses this seemingIy taints all ofthem in his mono- logue.

He c1aims to speak ill only ofthose who behave unscrupulously, and in the process he implies that alI of them do. Arnold Williams notes that hypocrisy was one ofthe favorite charges against the brothers during the Middle Ages He mentions that when he sees vagabonds starving and cold in the streets, instead of offering assistance, he curses them: Downloaded from foi. Jean de Meun says much ofthe above as well, stressing the potential criminality ofthe poor e. Important1y, Falsembiante's utterances fly in the face ofmajor elements ofthirteenth- century Christianity.

The praise of the wealthy and the slander against the indigent separate Falsembiante from the ideology ofthe mendicant Orders which predominated in the late Duecento. Given the prevalence of ecclesiastical terminology used in relationship to love throughout the Fiore, it reflects on the notion of passion expressed by the work as a whole. Therefore, although Durante employs this allegorization as a direct challenge to the Church, it functions intratextually to further undermine "tragic" literature.

In one passage, Durante demonstrates criticaI self-awareness of the poetics appropriated herein. Baranski points out that in sonnet CIII, Durante imbues Falsembiante's speech with lexicon from the literary trea- tises "Il Fiore e la tradizione delle translationes" In this passage, Falsembiante seems to indicate Durante's work ofboth recalling and alter- ing the originaI text, the Roman de la Rose. Furthermore, terms like "umili" and "piane" are found repeatedly in the criticaI tradition as ways to describe the comic style.

Importantly, none ofthis terminology appears in the French poem. Falsembiante's philosophy of dissemblance encapsulates the ideology of love presented by the poem as a whole. His riame alone, denoting "false appearances," corresponds strongly to the Fiore' s attitude towards relation- ships between the genders.

Therefore, the other four portions re1y upon Falsembiante's monologue to enhance each specific signification and to compose together the overarching message of the poem. Her words constitute a philosophy of love, and she too does not present passion as a mystical union or noble enterprise. Her monologue appears entirely devoid ofthe spiritual, devoting itself entirely to a material conception of love. She communicates a cut- throat message to her charge, encouraging her to use her position in order to exploitthe lover as much as possible. UnlikeAmico, however, herrecom- mendations do not have the purpose of achieving sexual conquest, but in- stead of causing the lover to spend lavishly upon the woman.

While Amico espouses a sensual opinion on love, La Vecchia adopts an economie per- spective. In the process, she confirms Amico's assertions about women's desires and he confirms hers about the lust of meno This portion comprises the counterpart to the second segment resulting in a structural symmetry within the work as a whole. Durante offsets the purely masculine point of Downloaded from foi. Throughout her monologue, La Vecchia stresses not only that the woman should profit from her lover's devotion, but that she should leave the loverpenniless.

She explicitly relates the woman's economie benefits to the lover's soci al decline. Jean de Meun's Old Woman also talks about the lover's potential economie gains, but La Vecchia repeats this advice throughout the entire discourse. Nancy Regalado notes the thirteenth- century French proverb that wine, women, and dice alllead a man to pov- erty: "Par vin par fame par dez, si vient toust homme a povretez" In Italian literature, these same three causes reign supreme when poets discuss their dejected circumstances. In other instances as well, Angiolieri discusses therelationship ofeconomics and love.

Whereas Angiolieri and other men portray themselves as lovers spending themselves into destitution, La Vecchia counsels that the female beloved take advantage ofhis veneration ofher. She suggests that women think only oftheir own gain and consciously force their lovers into privation. Like the first segment, this one does not constitute the monologue of an allegorical character, but instead relates the actions ofthe Iover and his allies to attain the flower.

Everything about this closing portion speaks of a bodily and material understanding of love. Throughout the conclusion, Durante uses obvious symboIism and double- entendres to underscore the physical nature of the outcome.

(pseud-) Gioacchino da Fiore.

When Schifo impedes the woman from receiving the Iover, Venus arrives and lays seige to the tower. CCXXV, Again, Durante relates J ean de Meun' s poetry into Italian without changing much in this passage Ce. As the guardians flee the fortress, Amante is now free to ap- proach the flower. In the following sonnet, he describes his diffi- culty in passing the walking stick through the window because the latter is too narrow: Downloaded from foi. CCXXIX, The symbolism can be ignored no longer in the subsequent sonnet, as the lover tries repeatedly to push the stick through, but the purse on the end impedes its passage.

This passage resembles Jean de Meun's vv. The language of nonfulfillment does not appear in the French text thereby drawing the readers' attention to the Italian work' s problematic implications about physicallove. In the end, the lover plucks the flower. By paring the poem down to its most crass elements, Durante presents an ideology of passion diametrically opposed to those authors writing amorous literature. Durante pens a type of ars amandi, which stresses the notion that love constitutes a game of mutuaI deception by alI those involved. Although Durante portrays almost exc1u- sively the male lover's point ofview, and depicts the woman's role in inter- course as passive, La Vecchia's discourse suggests that she is also a wilIing participant in this.

The Fiore presents the ideology that men present them- selves as gentle lovers merely to veil their carnaI desires; women, to conceal their yeaming for wealth. This explains why the portion dedicated to his monologue forrns the work's structural center. Both Amante and the flower seem to have learned the Downloaded from foi.

They reveal themselves to be less than honest, demonstrating the importance of dissemblance for lovers. There may be several reasons for Durante to speak in this manner, but one ofthem is to question the poetic tradition which was in the process of conflating the amorous and mystical registers at the proba- ble time of the work's translation. Both Gianfranco Contini27 and Luigi Vanossi note the echoes ofthe Fiore in the verses of Angiolieri, Rustico di Filippo and other poeti giocosi or vice versa. Angiolieri is famous for satirizing the dolce stil nuovo,28 however he does not represent the only comic poet to do so.

In ltalian literature ofthe thirteenth and four- teenth centuries, the problematization ofthe amorous tradltion is not unique to Ser Durante but instead appears to have been a literary ideology shared by other ltalian comic poets. The sonnets ofthe Fiore may have simply comprised the fullest development of the parody of love. I would like to thank and aclrnowledge aH the participants of that session. She performs a reading of the "candida rosa" in the Empyrean as Dante's revision ofthe Roman de la Rose "Con- sider the Rose".

The artistic decision to switch to other poetic forms within the comic style awaits further scholarly study. He is mentioned solely as indicative of the cultural currency surrounding the sonnet's formo 6 Although this particular passage appears vague about this fact, Dante is quite specific that the fourth book will deal with the comico Later within this chapter he writes: "Si vero cornice, tunc quandoque mediocre quandoque humile vulgare suma- tur: et huius discretionem in quarto huius reservamus ostendere" II, iv, 6.

It does not prove that Durante was born it that city, only that he knew how to imitate Sienese lexemes. In other words, it denotes the high style, that which is dia- metricalIy opposed to the comico IO AlI citations ofthe Roman de la Rose are from Daniel Poirion's edition. AI1 information about the Roman de la Rose is derived from that edition. AlI citations reproduce the text exactly as it appears in that edition; alI brackets and material therein are Contini' s.

The Commedia is cited from Petrocchi's edition.