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In Elkhorn Slough, an estuary in California, nutrient loading from agriculture led to a sharp decline in eelgrass in the area between and Hughes et al. The recovery of eelgrass in the estuary in and again in coincided with the return of sea otters. Sea otters generated a four-tiered trophic cascade that ultimately resulted in the reduction of epiphytes, which reduce seagrass growth through shading Hughes et al. This is because in many cases marine predator populations are already severely depleted Dulvy et al.
A re-occurring issue with quantifying how predators impact ecosystems is that measures of stability and resilience are inherently multifaceted Donohue et al. One of the goals of understanding stability and resilience is to aid in the recovery of ecosystems, which in itself is a multifaceted problem. Managers tasked with restoring ecosystems by promoting predators should establish baseline data, and set clear measurable targets e. Only through quantifying recovery targets can the impacts of disturbances associated with the loss of predators be quantified, and mitigated Donohue et al.
The body of literature documenting trophic cascades in coastal plant communities provides opportunities to investigate variability in trophic cascade strength, direction, and persistence. We used a meta-analysis to assess and compare the strength and direction of trophic cascades in kelp forests, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangroves. To summarize our results we used data from 68 field and lab studies 31 kelp, 23 salt marsh, 5 seagrass, 5 seagrass epiphytes, and 4 mangrove. Studies used in the analysis can be found in the supplementary information. When results were reported as a time series, we used the final sampling event.
Although studies that crossed predator manipulations with other treatments e. In seagrass, several studies exist where the effects of herbivore exclusion on seagrasses were measured, but the link between predators and herbivores was only inferred Heithaus et al. However, in all four ecosystems, cases existed where predators had negative impacts on coastal plants; although these studies generally examined the effects of intermediate predators. Interestingly, in seagrass systems the effects of predators on consumers and seagrass and seagrass epiphytes were highly variable, and not significantly different from zero.
This could suggest that globally, trophic cascades may be relatively weak in seagrass systems. This could suggest that ecosystem services in these three systems are more susceptible to changes in predator populations, while ecosystem services in seagrasses are less vulnerable. Comparison of trophic cascade strength for kelp, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass, and seagrass epiphytes.
The larger the effect size on primary producers the stronger the trophic cascade strength. The dotted line represents the relationship. By examining the characteristics of the available trophic cascades studies in coastal plant communities Supplementary Table S1 , we identified research bias that constrained our ability to make broad generalizations about how changes to the strength or direction of predator effects will influence these systems.
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First, studies on seagrass and mangroves were extremely limited. This suggests that either the scientific community lacks interest or funding for studying trophic cascades in these systems, or there is publication bias. If there is a tendency to not publish non-significant results, publication bias could be masking evidence that trophic cascades are not prevalent or are weak in these systems. The potential for publication bias is an artifact that plagues all meta-analyses. Only a few studies that met our selection criteria were conducted in Europe 4 and Asia 3 , and no studies were conducted in South America or Africa, which encompass the most heavily fished areas of the world Kroodsma et al.
Third, the study of large-bodied vertebrate herbivores and predators was limited. No studies looked at top-down effects on a vertebrate herbivore, despite well-known effects of sea turtles, sirenians, and fish on benthic primary production, especially in subtropical and tropical systems Poore et al. Although over half of our studies included the examination of vertebrate predators, such studies were completely missing for salt marshes and mangroves. Furthermore, few studies investigated the effects of top predators. Thus, the paucity of trophic cascade studies in coastal plant communities may stem from our inability to manipulate the most threatened group of predators, large-bodied coastal predators such as sharks, marine mammals and seabirds.
Fourth, if predators cannot be experimentally manipulated we must rely on the occurrence of natural trophic cascades. However, historical declines in top predator populations have already rendered them ecologically extinct in many systems. Without pre-decline data on system characteristics, we can only infer the importance of predators from correlations, anecdotal evidence, rare cases of predator recovery, or studies on the few remaining pristine coastal systems with healthy marine predator populations.
Although these types of studies were more common for kelp forests, they were rare for seagrass, mangroves, and salt marshes, highlighting the need for long-term data set in these systems. Above we have discussed how predators can help protect the ecosystem services provided by coastal plant communities.
However, our meta-analysis highlighted that the availability of studies in all four coastal plant systems is far below the volume needed to make broad generalizations about trophic cascades in these systems. Thus, the prevalence of top-down control in marine ecosystems is still debatable, especially for seagrass and mangroves. Furthermore, even if one concedes that top-down control is common in coastal plant communities, arguments about whether predators predominantly have positive or negative effects on plant communities remains an open question. Although marine predator conservation is important for multiple reasons e.
However, this brings up a troubling question, if the science is not currently sufficient to make broad generalizations, can it get there in time to make a real contribution to our conversations about predator conservation in coastal communities? This leaves coastal scientists with a conundrum. We can choose to wait, methodically building the evidence for or against predator effects on coastal plant communities, with a specific focus on increasing studies in seagrass and mangroves, underrepresented regions, and large-bodied predators and herbivores.
However, conservation decisions must be made while there is still an opportunity to do so, otherwise the results of such studies will become obsolete Martin et al. Our other option is to be more aggressive in our recommendations about predator conservation, despite our less than perfect knowledge about their effects in coastal plant communities. TA designed the study and drafted the first version of the manuscript.
TA and EH collected and analyzed the data. All authors contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We would like to thank B. Pooberts for her insightful comments regarding the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Plant Sci v.
Front Plant Sci. Published online Sep 3. Trisha B. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Edited by: Francisco I. Atwood, ude. Received Dec 1; Accepted Aug Remove all crows captured except for about five to be left in the trap as decoys. Remove captured crows after sunset when they are calm to facilitate handling.
Should any nontarget birds be captured, release them unharmed immediately. Euthanize captured crows humanely by carbon dioxide exposure or cervical dislocation. A well-main-tained decoy trap can capture a number of crows each day, depending on its size and location, the time of year, and how well the trap is maintained. A recent study in Israel of hooded crows Corvus corone , which are about the same size as American crows, indicated that decoy crows were more important than bait to trap success. Using one hooded crow decoy bird, however, appeared to be as effective as using three to four, and fleshy baits did increase success in some cases.
To prevent hooded crow escape, the ladder gap width of the American model was reduced from 18 to 12 inches 45 to 30 cm , and 1. The potential response of American crows to such trap modifications is unknown but merits study. Shooting is more effective as a dispersal technique than as a way to reduce crow numbers. Crows are wary and thus difficult to shoot during daylight hours. They may be attracted to a concealed shooter, however, by using crow decoys or calls, or by placing an owl effigy in a conspicuous location.
Generally, the number of crows killed by shooting is very small in relation to the numbers involved in pest situations. However, shooting can be a helpful technique to supplement and reinforce other dispersal techniques when the goal is to frighten and disperse crows rather than specifically to reduce numbers.
For more details on dispersal, see Bird Dispersal Techniques. Crow hunting during open season can be encouraged in areas where crows cause problems. The helpfulness of hunting as a control technique varies depending on crow movements, the season in which the damage occurs, and other factors. Another consideration is that crows tend to be more wary of people when they are hunted and thus more easily dispersed from roosting or other areas where their presence is a problem. Further study is needed to better understand the relationships between hunting and wariness, and whether a pattern exists that might be used to improve crow management programs.
Gratitude is extended to the authors and the many researchers and observers who contributed to this body of knowledge. I extend special appreciation to R. Altman, retired Oklahoma State University extension wildlife specialist, for his contributions as co-author of the first edition of this chapter. I also thank M. Beck, R. Case, R. Kelly, and R. Ross for comments and helpful advice on the first edition; J.
Andelt provided typing and technical assistance. I gratefully acknowledge M. Beck, C. Brown, R.
Case, and R. Knight for valuable reviews of this second edition. Arvin, J. Arvin, C. Cottam, and G. Mexican crow invades south Texas. Auk Bent, A. Life histories of North American jays, crows and titmice. Dover Pub. Chamberlain-Auger, J. Auger, and E. Breeding biology of American crows. Wilson Bull. Conover, M. Protecting vegetables from crows using an animated crow-killing owl model. Dimmick, C. Efficiency of conditioned aversion in reducing depredation by crows. Good, E. The life history of the American crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos Brehm. Goodwin, D. Crows of the world.
Comstock Publ. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. Gorenzel, W. Tape-recorded calls disperse American crows from urban roosts. Friend, ed. A field guide to wildlife diseases, Volume 1. General field procedures and diseases of migratory birds, US Dep. Ignatiuk, J. Breeding biology of American crows in Saskatchewan parkland habitat. Johnsgard, P. Birds of the Great Plains, breeding species and their distribution. Nebraska Press, Lincoln. Kalmbach, E. Crow-waterfowl relationships. US Dep. The crow in its relation to agriculture.
Washington, DC. Kilham, L. The American crow and the common raven. Press, College Station. Knight, R. Grout, and S. Nest-defense behavior of the American crow in urban and rural areas. Condor Knopf, F. Flocking pattern of foraging American crows in Oklahoma. This can result in a resurgence of pests see Aphidius colemani. In almost all instances the host organism is killed and further beneficials are produced. One notable exception is the commercial use of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt , as most products contain dead bacteria and it is their protein toxins that kill the target pest with little if any establishment in the treated area.
There are several named isolates of Bt that have activity against a range of seriously economically damaging pests. These include various Lepidoptera caterpillar , Coleoptera beetles; specifically, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata , and Diptera mosquitoes, fungus gnats, and blackflies [Simuliidae] but not Homopteran aphids. Through the techniques of genetic engineering, the Bt toxin gene has been transgenically transferred into various plant genomes.
As the Bt toxin is produced throughout the plant, any target pest larva feeding on the plant will rapidly perish. The technique is considered environmentally beneficial as it replaces the widespread use of several pesticides. However, there is an argument that the presence of pest organisms feeding on plant material helps in recycling nutrients back to the soil.
Chapter 5 gives details of nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and viruses as beneficial organisms. Conservation or Preservation Biological Control This method is based on exploiting existing natural enemies by modifying the environment to encourage establishment and survival of greater numbers of beneficials. This may involve developing areas that act as refugia for beneficial organisms by providing suitable plants and sites for overwintering and early pollen production.
In order to aid the survival of natural enemies, cultural practices may also need to be changed by stopping the use of certain pesticides that may be broad spectrum and have long persistence. Also, some horticultural nurseries plant small areas with specific plants to encourage beneficials and their pest hosts that can migrate into the greenhouse. These provide an additional degree of control of the pests of the crops.
Generalist predators such as lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea are sometimes used on hedges surrounding the holding. These predators feed on most soft-bodied prey such as aphids, young leaf hopper nymphs, moth eggs, etc. This is done to reduce the number of. Figure 1. A wide strip of uncultivated ground creates refugia for many insects and spiders.
In many predatory insects only the larval stage actively feeds on prey; the adults survive on insect honeydew, plant nectar, and pollen. However, with predators such as ladybirds, the larval stages and adults actively feed on prey. It also helps to establish these extremely useful beneficials. This technique can also be used by many home gardeners Figure 1. Several low growing herbs from the Lamicaceae family, including mint Mentha spp. The presence of early flowering, pollen-producing plants will allow predatory mites and insects to establish in high enough numbers to prevent major pest outbreaks.
Many of the Umbelliferae, such as fennel Foeniculum vulgare , angelica Angelica archangelica , carrot Daucus carota , and parsnip Pastinaca sativa , are grown for medicinal and food uses, but all provide an excellent source of nutrition for beneficial insects. Fully planted refugia should contain a few plants from each of the preceding types; several weeds such as nettles can also be included.
Stinging nettles Urtica dioica will allow the common nettle aphid Microlophium carnosum , which is host specific Figure 1. Some dead wood, ideally with loose bark, will provide a suitable overwintering site for adult ladybirds and other beetles. Loosely packed straw in a flowerpot or a small bundle.
The pest may have been imported on plants or other products from almost any country or state and consequently requires beneficials from that locality. Once introduced, there is an expectation of long-term or even permanent establishment to maintain the equilibrium. Large colonies of aphids, which can appear during the spring months, produce sticky honeydew laden with kairomones that attract and feed many parasitoids and predators. Biological control organisms may then be able to locate the pest. Subsequent generations of beneficial organisms may then provide sustained pest control for the whole season.
Augmentation biological control involves the periodical release of beneficial organisms to control a pest population, frequently using commercially reared agents. There are approximately different species of beneficial arthropods in commercial production throughout the world van Lenteren ; some are released in very large numbers to gain a rapid pest control effect.
Microbial pathogens are applied in this way, often using vast populations that are often produced using fermentation type processes Figure 1.
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Inoculative Control The aim is to establish the biocontrol agent on a short-term basis. Such agents may be native or introduced under license or permit. This method is used more extensively in greenhouse and interior settings than in large-scale open field crops. On the other hand, the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis tends to be used more as a curative treatment following the first signs of spider mite damage on plants. Sussex, UK.
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The minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma spp. To introduce the numbers required over a short period, the parasitoids can be produced on artificial eggs, stored for several months with little loss of viability, and released in biodegradable packs distributed by light aircraft.
These, together with cultural and physical control methods, are integrated to produce the best possible pestand disease-control strategy. There are several factors driving this evolving science, including the arrival of new pest organisms that may originate from other countries, without native natural enemies to control them.
Also, existing pest populations can gain tolerance or resistance to chemical pesticides, resulting in reduced levels of pest control. New local or. Many marketing organizations, in particular supermarket chains, their suppliers, and crop protection specialists, collaborate in global G. P global good agricultural practice, www. The products include many food items agricultural and horticultural , livestock, and flowers.
Regular audits are done to ensure these criteria are met; some are more restrictive about the use of pesticides than national and international regulations. However, some pesticides are acceptable and can be used in certain circumstances. Harmful pesticides may also be used if applications are separated by space and time i. This usually involves spraying the head or top of plants where the pest accumulates in highest numbers. This situation applies with adult whiteflies, which are found mainly on the newest growth where they lay their eggs.
The parasitoid Encarsia formosa cannot attack adults, requiring the third larval instar for successful parasitism. Thus, although difficult, it would be perfectly safe to treat the heads of plants with a pesticide to reduce the number of adult whitefly while having minimal effect on parasitoid activity lower in the crop canopy. Short persistence products, such as natural pyrethrum, soap, and plant-derived pesticides, that are. In many organic production units, beneficials are introduced to augment the existing population of natural enemies.
However, the rate of beneficials introduced is higher than comparable areas grown using IPM techniques and selective conventional pesticides. When the pest population has increased to the desired numbers, the beneficial organism is introduced, often in very high numbers over a short period of time to produce a synchronous population. These are allowed to develop to a predetermined stage before the plants are processed to remove the beneficial these processes are often well guarded secrets without causing undue harm to the beneficial. After any remaining pest organisms are removed, they may be stored under precisely managed conditions before they are packed for transport and distribution by the user.
Arthropod biocontrol organisms have been found by several means, but all involve good observation among a known pest population. However, pathogenic biocontrol organisms are actively searched for in order to find the most active strain. Different strains of the same organism may be marketed under different trade names. The whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa is usually reared on the glasshouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, which in turn is reared on tobacco plants.
When they were first commercialized in the s, whole leaves of parasitized black pupal scales were wrapped between sheets of tissue paper and posted to users. Later, the leaves were cut in small 2 cm sections that were stuck to a card for hanging on plants. Several parasitoid wasps are now produced. Before a potential biocontrol agent becomes a commercial product, it must be evaluated for efficacy against the target pest and nontarget organisms.
This is particularly important for non-native organisms that may become a pest if they escape from the treated area. The next step is the successful and economic rearing of the organism, which includes collecting or harvesting, storage, packaging, and transport so that the biocontrol agent arrives in a healthy, viable condition. Many predators and most parasitoids are reared on their normal host organism; this frequently involves producing clean, healthy plants and infesting them. The parasitoids are packaged for distribution as either pure mummies or as emergent adults with an inert carrier material such as sawdust or vermiculite.
Predatory insects such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza pupate away from the leaf on which they developed. Lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea are frequently distributed in a buckwheat husk carrier material that forms half-moon shells in which the predatory and cannibalistic larvae hide. Several predatory mites not Phytoseiulus persimilis are produced on a factitious host, usually a mite that feeds on bran or dried fruit and that is not a plant pest. By this method vast numbers can be produced in a relatively small space under almost laboratory conditions, and they can be packaged in tubes or bags containing the factitious mite and vermiculite.
The predatory mite P. Many of these mites can be packaged in small sachets that contain a complete breeding population with the factitious host, its food source, and the predatory mites. These are known as continuous rearing system or controlled release system CRS sachets as they can produce predatory mites continuously over a 6- to 8-week period to inoculate and protect plants against various pests. The predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris, which is used against thrips, can be distributed in several methods, including, loose material for hand or machine application, sachet applications as single units, twin units, and some in extremely long lines of up to m long for use on bed-grown crops.
The various methods of introduction have been developed to meet the needs of various cropping situations. For example, when used on cucumbers, the single sachet of A. Machine-applied A. The long strips of A. The CRS can thus protect a crop of chrysanthemums and many other crops for the majority of their growing period by making just a single application.
Parasitoid wasps of aphids, caterpillars, whiteflies, etc. However, they are frequently introduced to commercial crops before the pest can be detected on plants and are thus used as a measure to prevent establishment of emerging or migrating pests. As the pest numbers increase due to migration from other plants or outside, the beneficials are already present and high levels of control are achieved. Frequently, fresh introductions of these parasitoids are made each week to maintain the control with an increase in rates made to areas of higher pest levels. IPMcompatible pesticides or increased numbers of beneficials can be applied to treat any increases in pest levels.
Many smaller scale producers and amateur growers wait until the pest is present before introducing the beneficials, frequently applying a short persistence or physically active pesticide. Monitoring plants should be done by visual assessment of leaves, stems, and, if necessary, roots.
Sticky traps are available in a range of colors to catch various flying insects. They work by the light reflected from the surface, which attracts adult flying insects to the sticky surface. For winged aphids, leaf hoppers, thrips, and whiteflies, the traps should be hung vertically but for adult flea beetles, leaf miners, scatella and sciarid flies, horizontal traps that are sticky side up are best. Pheromone lures Figure 1. Most of these use a sex attractant to catch males and are specific to. Specific lures are available for numerous moth species, citrus mealybug, Western flower thrips, various midge species, and a few other major pest organisms.
Linen tester type lenses are convenient as they can be folded away and prefocused from the lens to the target area; as such, they may be placed directly over a target that can be viewed through the lens. Close inspection of pest colonies can often reveal the eggs of a predator or the first signs of parasitoid activity. Further inspection over a period of days will invariably show biological control in action. In many instances the natural enemies of these pests lag behind. Frequently, where a suitable biological control agent is known, governmental regulations can severely restrict its use.
Beneficial organisms are now being released under license schemes whereby the user must hold a copy and abide by its strict wording. Licenses are issued by the country or state wishing to introduce a nonindigenous biocontrol agent, usually following risk assessments to evaluate its potential environmental impact.
Many older pesticides have been withdrawn and more recent ones, such as the neonicotinoid products, are under scrutiny due to their long persistence and potential food chain activity on nontarget organisms. Since all commercial agricultural and horticultural production throughout the EU must include an element of IPM as a method of pest and disease management. The use of microorganisms bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.
There is a worldwide trend to reduce the use of conventional,. IPM brings together all methods of pest and disease control, including cultural techniques, monitoring, the use of resistant cultivars natural selection or genetic modification where allowed , and the regulated use of pesticides. Biological control becomes the next line of defense, either by introducing. As a general guide, the majority of fungicides are safer to beneficial insects and mites; however, they may have serious side effects to fungal pathogens used to control insects, mites, or plant diseases.
It is always advisable to contact suppliers of the products to be used as they would have the most recent side effects data. Pests and their associated natural enemies occur on plants whether grown as arable crops Figure 2. These growing systems vary in size, from extremely large areas of monocultured arable crops to smaller. The larger scale arable crops are highly mechanized Figure 2. Protected crop systems are intensively managed throughout much of the cropping cycle, frequently with additional heat and carbon dioxide inputs.
The three cropping systems discussed in this chapter are relevant worldwide. Such systems have a major effect on pest occurrence and distribution, so they are very relevant in. Figure 2. For example, a mixed cropping, large private garden with a small glasshouse, vegetable plot, and soft and top tree fruit can have the same pest spectrum in each of these systems as the largest farm, orchard, or protected nursery. However, with a greater variety of plants in a confined locality, there inevitably comes a wider range of pests and their natural enemies. Climatic factors are also important and, although many cereal pests occur only on cereals or grasses and are unable to survive on other plants, pests on protected crops grown in cool temperate regions may be found outside on the same or similar plants in the tropics and warm temperate climates.
Figures 2. Such areas are not sprayed with pesticides and have a wider range of plants, which support a more diverse fauna. The development of organic farming has also added to local. Introduction Arable crops that are grown in fields—often extensively some with minimum tillage and generally with an annual harvest—include cereals Figure 2.
Note closer proximity of hedges and woodland. New cultural systems go toward the provision of an optimum environment for beneficial insects where prey species are sufficient to enable their reproduction, as well as minimal hazards such as the use of harmful pesticides.
They may also provide suitable overwintering sites within striking distance of the host plants Figure 2. From both an ecological and economic point of view, arable crops differ from orchards and protected crops in several important ways as far as their value as a haven for beneficial insects and spiders is concerned. Arable crops have considerably lower gross margins than the others, so the costs of inputs per hectare are relatively low.
This is the most important influence on the management of beneficial insects and it is why the approach to IPM is so. Arable Production and Biologicals Arable crops are grown extensively over very large areas, often without windbreaks or hedgerows. Favorable conditions for the overwintering of beneficial organisms may not therefore occur. In the spring, the distance from overwintering sites is important as many beneficial species, particularly carabid beetles, overwinter in the soil beneath hedgerows and woodlands Figure 2.
A critical requirement for overwintering sites is the provision of the sugars, nectar, or insect honeydew required to enable flight activity, particularly in spring.
If beneficial insects are slow to distribute within a crop, pest numbers can increase in their absence and growers are more likely to apply a protective pesticide as a routine measure. This is particularly so with winged aphids in cereals, as they can arrive in large numbers and may risk the introduction of barley yellow dwarf virus. There is then considerable pressure to spray a pesticide to control them and, in doing this, destroy the beneficials. Pyrethroids are the cheapest group of agrochemicals and are therefore generally the most widely used on arable crops.
They have a short harvest interval, so crops can be harvested almost immediately after application without harm to the consumer. The introduction of commercially raised beneficial insects and the regular use of compatible and probably expensive pesticides, together with the necessary management time required to monitor the predator—prey relationships, is generally too costly to be economically viable in most arable crops. Many countries collect data from farmers and growers to produce tables relating to crop production. This consistently indicates that fungicides are the most extensively used pesticides on most British arable crops.
Where an insecticide is applied, it is usually a synthetic pyrethroid for the. In an unmanaged natural ecosystem, the natural enemy populations usually build up after the peak in the prey pest population. The delay in buildup can allow some pest damage to occur early in the life of the crop.
The delicate balancing act that the grower faces is to decide whether this damage is economically significant enough to warrant spraying or whether it is safe to delay spraying and allow the beneficial insects to build up and to control the pest. However, if the natural enemies are not present in sufficient numbers. More importantly, this harmful effect is likely to last on the sprayed leaf for up to 12 weeks after the day of application. Unfortunately, pyrethroids do not have such a persistent harmful effect on the pests and may need to be sprayed more than once. This will prevent the successful migration of beneficial insects into the sprayed area and delay their impact as biological control agents for the target pest.
The registration requirements for many broad-spectrum insecticides include unsprayed margins, or buffers, as mitigation to protect the adjacent habitats, including hedgerows, from contamination by spray drift. For many years regulatory authorities have monitored and funded various research projects to determine the environmental impact of pesticide usage in arable crops. The Boxworth Project in the s GreigSmith examined the effects of intensive pesticide use in winter wheat on populations of small mammals, birds, invertebrates, and plants.
After monitoring over a 5-year period, this work indicated that insects and spiders were particularly vulnerable to pesticide usage, while some species of carabids ground beetles and springtails disappeared altogether. Cereal crops sown early in the autumn may be sprayed with a pyrethroid for the control of aphids. The nontarget fauna that could be exposed to pesticides at this time are the autumn- and winter-active carabids Bembidion obtusum, Nebria brevicollis, Notiophilius biguttatus, and Trechus quadristriatus and staphylinids, springtails, mites, and lycosid and linyphiid spiders Cilgi and Vickerman Ironically, carabids, staphylinids, and spiders are important predators of aphids, the target pest of the insecticide sprays.
Carabids are also very susceptible to slug control chemicals such as methiocarb. Again, carabids are natural enemies of slugs and, while slug pellets protect plants from slug damage, they also kill the natural enemies of slugs. Carabid Beetles The ecology of carabids has been studied extensively, and there is sufficient information about the life cycles of the most abundant species to determine when and how to capture them.
The open mouth should be protected to exclude rain and other large animals, such as toads, from falling in without preventing insects from entering. Preferably, the ground should fall away from the mouth of the container to reduce the risk of flooding. Traps should be examined daily or contain a liquid preservative e. Window traps are used to monitor the movement of flying carabids. These are vertical pieces of clear, rigid Perspex supported at various heights above the ground that obstruct. Studies have shown, however, that spiders, staphylinids, and carabids are able to recover from autumn- and winter-applied pesticides by the following summer Vickerman However, further applications of pyrethroids in the summer would prevent this resurgence.
Monitoring Levels of Beneficial Insects In order to assess the potential contribution of natural enemies, they must first be captured and identified. Choosing the appropriate. They collide with it and fall into a trough of preserving fluid below the window. The traps should be placed strategically in natural flight paths, such as between trees. Alternatively, sweep nets that consist of strong metal hoops about 40 cm in diameter, with a 30 cm handle and a calico collection bag fixed to the hoop, can be used to collect beetles in the canopy. The net is swept to and fro in front of the collector while walking through the crop or area to be monitored.
Static traps, consisting of yellow painted saucers filled with water and a few drops of detergent, are used to catch several flying insects, such as hoverflies Figure 2. The beetle Demetrias atricapillus climbs to the upper leaves and into cereal ears and is more likely to be caught in a sweep net or suction sampler Figure 2. Suction traps usually consist of a motorized vacuum tube that can be placed over plants or the ground to lift surface-dwelling insects, mites, and spiders and deposit them in a collection container.
The larvae and adults of D. Hence, the activity of the natural enemy should be known in order that samples be taken at the appropriate time of day for a nocturnal or diurnal beetle. Suction trap sampling and sweep nets will also collect other flying natural enemies of aphids such as lacewings, hoverflies, and parasitoid wasps. Staphylinid Beetles These can be predators, fungivores, or detritivores and can occur in very high numbers in arable crops. The ecology of many species is not known. While pitfall traps are a useful and cost-effective way of determining the beneficial arthropod fauna of particular fields, it is worth noting that.
Certain staphylinind species e. Linyphiid Spiders These are perhaps one of the most important predatory groups in arable ecosystems Nyffeler and Benz Despite their potential to support a rich spider fauna, individual fields have been found to show considerable variation in the numbers of individuals and species present. Toft showed in the UK that, in some arable fields, spiders were as abundant as in natural habitats, whereas in the US Nyffeler, Sterling, and Dean reported sparse spider populations from agricultural fields.
Samu et al. These dominant species were found in every field sampled in different regions of Hungary. While the exact species composition may differ between countries, a similar pattern has been observed throughout Europe Luczak The most common linyphiid spiders found in arable crops in northern Europe include Erigone atra, E. Some of these spiders can also be reared in the laboratory, which opens up. Spiders have a high dispersal ability using wind currents, which makes them a valuable natural enemy in the large fields that are characteristic of arable systems.
Integrated Crop Management ICM There are now strong commercial pressures in many countries to reduce inputs in arable crops. This has led to the development and evaluation of less intensive and more ecologically sustainable crop husbandry methods. The success of such systems depends upon their being economically feasible. Recognition of both the pests and the beneficials is the first step to a more sustainable farming future. The future of farming lies in maintaining profitability. A factor in profitability might be the use of environmentally sound systems, such as ICM or organic production.
Such systems would integrate the use of genetic resistance and chemical, biological, cultural, and physical controls to reduce crop protection inputs. In the future, the genetic manipulation of crops and pests and biologicals might also be a factor. Recognizing the potential value in the marketplace of such systems, research into integrated production methods in Europe has made rapid progress in recent years.
In some countries farmers and growers are able to have their environmental farm policy and pest control strategies accredited by independent audit. This may be part of the marketing requirement to enable producers to supply directly to the large multiple retail outlets supermarkets. Conservation Strategies Using Headlands and Beetle Banks These strategies are a valuable tool in ICM strategies and are a less expensive means of introducing natural enemies into a crop, especially where low gross margins inhibit the mass release of commercially raised beneficial insects.
Beetle banks, which are grass ridges, can be positioned in the middle of large fields to form refuges for spiders and staphylinid and carabid beetles. This enables predators to overwinter more effectively in midfield refuges Figure 2. FRUIT Introduction The natural parasites and predators found on fruit crops are surprisingly similar, irrespective of whether the crop is strawberries Figure 2. The same predators and parasitoids feature as antagonists of aphids and mites, scale insects, and leaf rollers tortrix moth larvae in almost all crop systems and in various countries.
In support of these developments, the Countryside Stewardship Scheme offers payments to farmers; these further encourage conservation plans as part of the land management program on a farm. Although there are often geographical differences as to which are the relevant species, it is usually insects in the same genus that attack key pest species. For this reason many of the species descriptions given in this book are equally applicable throughout most temperate regions of the world.
Fruit Production and Biologicals Fruit crops can range in size from trees in a small plot to a hundred or so plants or up to many hectares of continuous culture. Plant size also varies from well spaced, large, mature trees to densely planted, multirow blocks of small plants. The ground under the plants may be bare earth, neatly mown grass, or mixed vegetation. The margins and boundaries may be old, diverse hedgerows; coniferous or deciduous windbreak trees; mechanical windbreaks; or simply a barbed wire fence.
With such a range of possibilities, it is difficult to generalize about fruit crops. While many pest species will be attracted to orchards irrespective of their configuration, their natural enemies may be more discerning. Immaculate rows of small trees with bare earth beneath them Figure 2.
That does not mean that weed-free crops are inherently unsuitable for beneficial arthropods. However, if pest numbers fall within the crop, then the predators may leave altogether rather than move to nearby food on other plants. It is not usually practical to buy and release beneficial arthropods in fruit orchards. Predators in fruit crops fall into two distinct types: residents and colonists.
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The resident species are present throughout the whole of a growing season and are established and well placed to feed on the early pest individuals as they arrive in an orchard. Residents tend to be nonflying and polyphagous and will occur whether or not there is an apparent source of prey.
Two important residents in fruit orchards are often earwigs and spiders. Although earwigs may be considered to be a pest since they can damage the surface of fruit—particularly in crops such as peaches and apricots—they are also predators of aphids and mites and can occur in very high numbers in orchards. Since they are active at night and hidden in crevices during the day, earwigs are often overlooked. The colonists include predatory bugs of the families Anthocoridae, Miridae, and Nabidae together with coccinellid beetles, hoverflies, and lacewings. Colonists tend to be adult flying insects that overwinter as adults and seek shelter among bark and holes in trees or in hollowed dead stems of perennial plants, from where they migrate to and from the orchard.
Initially feeding on early spring flowers, they are attracted to an orchard because of the presence of prey usually in the form of a pest outbreak. Since colonists are usually highly mobile, they can occur in extremely high numbers. For some colonists, such as hoverflies and some lacewings, only the larval life stage is predatory; for others, such as predatory bugs and ladybirds like Coccinella septempunctata, both the larvae and the adults are predatory.
Fruit crops can be managed so as to nurture field resident populations of natural enemies and to provide an environment where. By and large, fruit growers prefer bare soil around their trees to avoid alternative hosts for specific insect and mite pests. The Challenge of Biocontrol Not surprisingly, the first step to enhancing naturally occurring biological control agents is to carefully examine the use of pesticides Figure 2. In the winter months applications of broad-spectrum products such as pyrethroids and organophosphates may not be damaging to beneficial populations because the majority will be hidden away in crevices or present as eggs and relatively protected in the bark of trees.
Broad-spectrum pesticides can have a place in an IPM program if they are used at the right time of year. For a grower to determine the likely risk to nontarget arthropods from a product, he should consult the label and seek confirmation from the literature, websites, or an advisor as to the likely impact. Their findings are published in terms of a classification from 1 to 4 1 being harmless with.
Extremely large numbers would be needed and they would be unlikely to be seen again. The key to establishing biological control in commercial fruit crops is to encourage and enhance populations of the naturally occurring predators and parasitoids. While these results are useful, they must be treated with some caution. Products found to be harmless can be considered low risk in the field, whereas those found to be harmful in laboratory tests require further evaluation to determine the magnitude and duration of any side effects that would occur in a crop system.
Sulfur, commonly applied as a fungicide in France, is particularly damaging to populations of predatory mites such as Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius syn. Neoseiulus californicus. Since these are relatively immobile mites that can be important predators of spider mites, their presence is desirable. Fungicides containing the active ingredient mancozeb are not harmful to predatory mites after the first application, but typically affect them adversely after a fourth or fifth treatment in a single season.
Among the acaricides a number of products are relatively selective e. Insect growth regulators do not give immediate control often working only when the pest molts and for this reason have sometimes been avoided by growers looking for a quick kill with a dramatic knockdown. Where aphids are a problem, the use of selective aphicides can result in minimal disturbance of nontarget insects. When broad-spectrum insecticides are used to control a particular pest problem, it is usually preferable to select a product that is relatively short lived.
Products such as chlorpyrifos are highly efficacious insecticides and will certainly kill most pest and beneficial mites, spiders, and insects in a treated crop. However, they will undergo relatively rapid chemical degradation and the leaves and fruit will no longer be toxic to immigrant predators and parasitoids after about 10 days. Larger orchards will be less readily recolonized than smaller ones. Intelligent selection of pesticides is a critical component to optimize the role of natural enemies in pest control. While it is easy to recommend using a small number of relatively selective pesticides, it is very dangerous for IPM to become totally dependent on them.
For several years, in a range of fruit crops in southern Europe, IPM relied heavily on treatments with the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron and phosalone, together with the actions of beneficial arthropods. But eventually the pests became resistant to these two products. Faced with uncontrollable pests, the growers resorted to broad-spectrum products.
While they were aware of the value and importance of natural enemies, getting a satisfactory crop is of paramount importance. Unfortunately for growers, the pests may also develop cross resistance to many products, particularly in populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.
In parts of southern France the codling moth is now unaffected by many insecticides and resistance is a serious problem. Repeated applications of broad-spectrum organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid products have devastated populations of virtually all the main biological control agents. Interestingly, some predators in a few localities have also been. Careful choice of crop protection products is critical to maintaining biodiversity within fruit crops. These include toxicity to man, toxicity to key natural enemies, toxicity to other natural organisms, pollution of ground and surface water, ability to encourage pests, selectivity, persistence, incomplete information on any of the above, and the necessity for use.