- The brutal brilliance of Genghis Khan
- Yassa: Genghis Khan's Coming of Age Tale
- Genghis Khan - Children, Descendants & Quotes - Biography
- Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World
The problem with medieval sources is that they mainly look at the population decline via census when examining atrocities such as the mongols. It doesn't initially examine other factors such as disease ie. Like you said the nazis didn't kill everyone in WW2 which is true but their actions in europe led to the death of around 40 million within the continent whether that be through direct persecution or unnatural deaths brought about by the movement of nazi forces which resulted in collateral loss.
This is the same metric used to judge the mongols from a historical standpoint except the nazis inflicted the same number of casualties whether directly or indirectly within a much shorter period. He has a list of numerous credible sources on the Mongol empire's death toll with each one breaking down war casualties and some giving reasons behind them. An average is then given from the tally of sources.
It should make for an interesting read. Thanks Brian. Bear in mind that I did say "as many as 40 million". However, I did unequivocally say that he slaughtered more than Hitler and Stalin. I used a credible source for the numbers, but as they're all based on estimates, I've now edited it slightly based on your recommendation I added the words "may have". If merely instigating a war is enough to be blamed for all who died, Khan's numbers may be higher still.
Even so, there are two sides to every conflict, and many unnecessary atrocities were committed by the allies. With Stalin, the estimates are so varied, it's hard to know. If I can remember, when it came to the source I was using, I either used "confirmed dead" or the midpoint between the upper and lower estimates. Overall nice article Thomas. But I really have to disagree with 8. Sources which examine the 40 million dead were from the entire period of the mongol conquests which lasted long after Ghenghis Khan covering a period of over years. And many credible sources now put the majority of the 40 million dead as victims of disease when the Black death hit china in the 13th century.
So in the final analysis Hitler and Stalin were worse than Khan. Hitler alone led a war that killed 40 million within 6 years time and Stalin on his own may have killed up to 60 million in less than 30 years time. An interesting read. He surely was a great military strategist and admnistrator-hence we know of him even today!
Nice article and fascinating facts. I read a John Man book about Genghis Khan and seems like it was really interesting era. Thanks unen. They probably do it because Genghis is the only Mongolian that most tourists have heard of. I like your point and agree with it though. I would rather learn about other Mongolians. The Central Square has been named after him in The name of the square was named after the hero of the Mongolian People's Revolution, Sukhbaatar. The massage is that the Mongols push too hard to rename everything after him.
It is completely ridiculous for my eyes. I didn't know that about Tibet actually. It seems he was into nation building, which may be quite a modern practice generally. An interesting point, thank you. Hi Thomas: On the comparative atrocities, you got the point. And 40 million is a much bigger chunk of the world in his time than now! On Tibet: Just to be clear, and I think you understand this already , the Tibetan lineage is not descended from Genghis Khan in a biological or cultural sense.
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He put the lineage into power in a political way, so as to create a peaceful, neutral nation on one border. Thanks Sid. He was certainly a master of war techniques. As he conquered other civilizations, he learnt their methods for war. Ah, I didn't know that about Tibet. I suppose there are many descendants of Khan that retained their power. I have edited 8 to include the generally accepted figure of 40 million dead from Ghengis Khan's atrocities.
I'm not sure why he wasn't included on that wiki page. Perhaps his campaigns didn't fit the single event categories on the page. Stalin and WW2 may have higher numbers. However Stalin ranges from 8 million to 61 million. It's not confirmed to be higher than 40 million, and to take a midpoint would put it lower.
That can't really be blamed on Hitler. So I think 8 is accurate, but if I missed the point, let me know. This is a very fine hub, and an introduction to a subject I've long wondered about. It links to my own interests in a number of ways. The current Dalai Lama is the 14th. No problem Educateurself. I was just reading about the Hazara people on wikipedia. You have some fascinating Mongolian roots and are right to be proud of them. I think I was quite neutral in my assessment of Temujin, so hopefully I didn't cause any offense! Thanks Thomas for this hub because I am also mongolian hazara and we are descendants of Genghis Khan.
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HubPages Inc, a part of Maven Inc. As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, owlcation. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so. Thomas Swan more. A Portrait of Genghis Khan. The Life of Genghis Khan 1. Genghis Khan's Empire.
Genghis Khan, Forefather. Genghis Khan's Burial Place. Genghis Khan on His Horse. The Tribes of the Mongol Plains. At the age of 10, he killed one of his half-brothers in a fight over hunting spoils. Temujin Becomes Khan. A Bust of Genghis Khan in Mongolia. Genghis Khan's Son, Ogedei Khan. Political Science. Thank you so much. This has helped me with my research paper.
Keep posting interesting facts like these Hi Thomas, a very nice hub. I just wanted to add the facts 41, The international airport has been named after him in Thanks for commenting and discussing.
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The brutal brilliance of Genghis Khan
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This is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. ComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. While spiritual inspiration motivated his armies, the Mongols were probably driven as much by environmental circumstances.
Food and resources were becoming scarce as the population grew.
Yassa: Genghis Khan's Coming of Age Tale
In , he led his armies against the kingdom of Xi Xia and, after two years, forced it to surrender. In , Genghis Khan's armies struck the Jin Dynasty in northern China, lured not by the great cities' artistic and scientific wonders, but rather the seemingly endless rice fields and easy pickings of wealth.
Although the campaign against the Jin Dynasty lasted nearly 20 years, Genghis Khan's armies were also active in the west against border empires and the Muslim world. Initially, Genghis Khan used diplomacy to establish trade relations with the Khwarizm Dynasty, a Turkish-dominated empire that included Turkestan, Persia, and Afghanistan. But the Mongol diplomatic mission was attacked by the governor of Otrar, who possibly believed the caravan was a cover for a spy mission. When Genghis Khan heard of this affront, he demanded the governor be extradited to him and sent a diplomat to retrieve him.
Shah Muhammad, the leader of the Khwarizm Dynasty, not only refused the demand, but in defiance sent back the head of the Mongol diplomat. This act released a fury that would sweep through central Asia and into eastern Europe. In , Genghis Khan personally took control of planning and executing a three-prong attack of , Mongol soldiers against the Khwarizm Dynasty. The Mongols swept through every city's fortifications with unstoppable savagery.
Those who weren't immediately slaughtered were driven in front of the Mongol army, serving as human shields when the Mongols took the next city. No living thing was spared, including small domestic animals and livestock. Skulls of men, women, and children were piled in large, pyramidal mounds. City after city was brought to its knees, and eventually the Shah Muhammad and later his son were captured and killed, bringing an end to the Khwarizm Dynasty in Scholars describe the period after the Khwarizm campaign as the Pax Mongolica.
In time, the conquests of Genghis Khan connected the major trade centers of China and Europe. The empire was governed by a legal code known as Yassa. Developed by Genghis Khan, the code was based on Mongol common law but contained edicts that prohibited blood feuds, adultery, theft and bearing false witness. Also included were laws that reflected Mongol respect for the environment such as forbidding bathing in rivers and streams and orders for any soldier following another to pick up anything that the first soldier dropped.
Infraction of any of these laws was usually punishable by death.
Genghis Khan - Children, Descendants & Quotes - Biography
Advancement within military and government ranks was not based on traditional lines of heredity or ethnicity, but on merit. There were tax exemptions for religious and some professional leaders, as well as a degree of religious tolerance that reflected the long-held Mongol tradition of religion as a personal conviction not subject to law or interference. This tradition had practical applications as there were so many different religious groups in the empire, it would have been an extra burden to force a single religion on them.
With the annihilation of the Khwarizm Dynasty, Genghis Khan once again turned his attention east to China. The Tanguts of Xi Xia had defied his orders to contribute troops to the Khwarizm campaign and were in open revolt. In a string of victories against Tangut cities, Genghis Khan defeated enemy armies and sacked the capital of Ning Hia.
Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World
Soon one Tangut official surrendered after another, and the resistance ended. Genghis Khan hadn't quite extracted all the revenge he wanted for the Tangut betrayal, however, and ordered the execution of the imperial family, thus ending the Tangut lineage. Genghis Khan died in , soon after the submission of the Xi Xia. The exact cause of his death is unknown. Some historians maintain that he fell off a horse while on a hunt, and died of fatigue and injuries.
Others contend that he died of respiratory disease. Genghis Khan was buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe, somewhere near his birthplace—close to the Onon River and the Khentii Mountains in northern Mongolia. According to legend, the funeral escort killed anyone and anything they encountered to conceal the location of the burial site, and a river was diverted over Genghis Khan's grave to make it impossible to find. Before his death, Genghis Khan bestowed supreme leadership to his son Ogedei, who controlled most of eastern Asia, including China.
The rest of the empire was divided among his other sons: Chagatai took over central Asia and northern Iran; Tolui, being the youngest, received a small territory near the Mongol homeland; and Jochi who was killed before Genghis Khan's death. Jochi and his son, Batu, took control of modern Russia and formed the Golden Horde. The empire's expansion continued and reached its peak under Ogedei Khan's leadership.
Just when the Mongol armies had reached the gates of Vienna, Austria, leading commander Batu got word of the Great Khan Ogedei's death and was called back to Mongolia. Subsequently, the campaign lost momentum, marking the Mongol's farthest invasion into Europe. At a young age, Kublai had a strong interest in Chinese civilization and, throughout his life, did much to incorporate Chinese customs and culture into Mongol rule.
Kublai rose to prominence in , when his eldest brother, Mongke, became Khan of the Mongol Empire and placed him as governor of the southern territories. Kublai distinguished himself by increasing agricultural production and expanding Mongol territory. After Mongke's death, Kublai and his other brother, Arik Boke, fought for control of the empire.
After three years of intertribal warfare, Kublai was victorious, and he was made Great Khan and emperor of the Yuan Dynasty of China. We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.
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