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Venetian Lady Costume

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The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the midth. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in and only at the beginning of his reign. The name "tiara" refers to the entire headpiece, no matter how many crowns, circlets or diadems have adorned it through the ages, [1] [2] while the three-tiered form that it took in the 14th century is also called the triregnum , [3] [4] triple tiara , [5] [6] [7] or triple crown.

From to , the papal tiara was solemnly placed on the pope's head during a papal coronation. The surviving papal tiaras are all in the triple form, the oldest being of A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on papal documents, buildings and insignia. The papal tiara originated from a conical Phrygian cap or frigium.

Names used for the papal tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum , pileus , phrygium and pileum phrygium. A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, which by about became two crowns. The first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century. The first years of the 16th century saw the addition of a little globe and cross to top the tiara. The third crown was added to the papal tiara during the Avignon Papacy — , giving rise to the form called the triregnum. After Pope Clement V at Avignon , various versions of the three-crown tiara have been worn by popes also in Rome down to Pope Paul VI , who was crowned with one in Under Boniface VIII — the hood of the regnum was lengthened and the circlet was greatly enriched with precious stones, while toward the end of his papacy a second circlet was added.

The increased length had the symbolical meaning of dominion of the una sancta ecclesia over the earth, and demonstrated the meaning of the papal unam sanctum. In the inventory of the second year of Boniface's papacy the head-dress, which is now usually referred to as a tiara, is described as enriched with 48 rubies balas , 72 sapphires , 45 praxini or emeralds , numerous little balas rubies and emeralds and 66 large pearls.

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At the summit was a very large ruby. After his death in there was a period of eleven months before a new Pope succeeded. The Archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen and took the title of Clement V. He removed the papal seat from Rome to Avignon and the tiara was brought to Lyons from Perugia for his coronation on 14 November In the inventory which was taken in —16 Boniface VIII's tiara is again described and can be identified by the mention of the large ruby, which is recorded as missing.

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  4. It is described as having three circlets corona quae vocatur, regnum cum tribus circuitis aureis. It therefore must have been between the taking of the two inventories in and that the second and third circlets were added to the tiara. It was during this period that the fleur-de-lis was used to decorate the circlets.

    Sylvester , and became venerated and considered as a relic. This was no doubt suggested by the Donation of Constantine , but it now came to be used only at the coronation of Popes, starting with Gregory XI in and his successor Urban VI in It was used at no other ceremonies and was kept in the Lateran Treasury.

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    It was last used at the coronation of Nicholas V —55 , and in it was stolen and no more is heard of it". Twining also notes the various allegorical meanings attributed to the three crowns of the papal tiara, but concludes that "it seems more likely that the symbolism is suggested by the idea that took shape in the 13th and 14th centuries that the Emperor was crowned with three crowns--the silver crown of Germany at Aix-la-Chapelle, the iron crown of Lombardy at Milan or Monza and the golden imperial crown at Rome and therefore the Pope, too, should wear three crowns.

    Like a bishop's mitre, a papal tiara has attached to it two lappets , [21] [22] [23] [24] a pair of streamers [24] or pendants that in Latin are called caudae or infulae. All extant tiaras have them placed at the rear. The Catholic Encyclopedia describes the lappets on a bishop's mitre as trimmed on the ends with red fringe.

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    Pope Paul VI was crowned with a tiara at the papal coronation. As happened sometimes with previous popes, a new tiara was used, donated by the city of Milan , where he was Archbishop before his election. It was not covered in jewels and precious gems, and was sharply cone-shaped. It was also distinctly heavier than the Palatine Tiara previously in use. Peter's Basilica and ascended to the altar, on which he laid the tiara as a sign of the renunciation of human glory and power in keeping with the renewed spirit of the council.

    It was announced that the tiara would be sold and the money obtained would be given to charity. Some Traditionalist Catholics considered highly controversial Pope Paul's abandonment of use of one of the most striking symbols of the papacy, the papal tiara, and continued to campaign for its reinstatement. His immediate successor, Pope John Paul I , decided against a coronation, replacing it with an "inauguration".

    After John Paul I's sudden death, Pope John Paul II told the congregation at his inauguration: "This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes. Paul VI's Apostolic Constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo on the manner of electing the Pope, still envisaged that his successors would be crowned.

    Though not currently worn as part of papal regalia , the papal tiara still appears on the coats of arms of the Holy See and the flag of Vatican City.

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    Later in his reign John Paul II approved depictions of his arms without the tiara, as with the mosaic floor piece towards the entrance of St Peter's Basilica, where an ordinary mitre takes the place of the tiara. Otherwise, until the reign of Benedict XVI the tiara was also the ornament surmounting a Pope's personal coat of arms, as a tasseled hat under which a Instruction of the Holy See forbade the placing of a mitre, a second hat [35] surmounted those of other prelates.

    Pope Benedict XVI's personal coat of arms replaced the tiara with a mitre containing three levels reminiscent of the three tiers on the papal tiara. Each year, a small papal tiara is placed on the head of the famous bronze statue of Saint Peter in St. Although often referred to as the Papal Tiara, historically there have been many, and twenty-two remain in existence.

    Many of the earlier papal tiaras most notably the tiaras of Pope Julius II [39] and that attributed to Pope Saint Silvester were destroyed, dismantled or seized by invaders most notably by Berthier's army in , or by popes themselves; Pope Clement VII had all the tiaras and papal regalia melted down in to raise the , ducats ransom demanded by the occupying army of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Over twenty silver tiaras exist, of which the earliest, the sole survivor of , was made for Pope Gregory XIII in the 16th century.

    The tiara provided by the last was made from elements of former papal tiaras destroyed after the capture of Rome, and was given to Pius VII as a 'wedding gift' to mark Napoleon's own marriage to Empress Josephine on the eve of his imperial coronation.

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    8. Others were a gift to a newly elected pope from the See which they had held before their election, or on the occasion of the jubilee of their ordination or election. In some instances, various cities sought to outdo each other in the beauty, value and size of the tiaras they provided to popes from their region. Pope Paul VI, whose bullet-shaped tiara is one of the most unusual in design, was the last pope to wear a papal tiara though any of his successors could, if they wished, revive the custom.

      Most surviving tiaras are on display in the Vatican, though some were sold off or donated to Catholic bodies.

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      Some of the more popular or historic tiaras, such as the Belgian tiara, the tiara and the golden tiara, have been sent around the world as part of a display of historic Vatican items. Most of the surviving three-crown papal tiaras have the shape of a circular beehive , with its central core made of silver. Some were sharply conical, others bulbous. Except for that of Pope Paul VI, all were heavily bejewelled.

      The three crowns are marked by golden decorations, sometimes in the form of crosses, sometimes in the shape of leaves. Mark, drawing him into the endless passionate dance. The streets and squares are crowded with crowds, they almost fall into the gondolas, which peacefully sway in shallow canals. Slender bridges barely hold disguised in fancy dresses of visitors of the most ancient Italian city. Literally, you can not even ride an apple, it will cling to a lush skirt or a pointed male boot.

      Masks cover faces and shadows, lowered from under the eyelashes. Eyes grow thick in the juicy twilight mist, resembling small fireflies in an open forest. The very first masks were used not to hide a person, but to create a distance and the ability to communicate socially is not equal.

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      Today, the mask is a soft mystery of the shape and image of the face, the dazzling charm of evening dance. This effect is further supported by the headboard: Once set up concealed a PSU in floral pattern eyes of the wearer. The headboard itself consists of a simple Haarreif which passed through several loops the actual headboard holds securely in place.

      In keeping with the Venetian costume held in Bordeaux, it seems like a tiara. Seven spikes, arranged in a star shape are crowned at the top of teardrop-shaped metal parts, which also run halbrund the Haarreif along. The skirt of the Venetian costume fit thanks to the wide elastic band on each figure without pressing. Rear he is semi-circular cut down to his ankles, he runs forward to a kind of mini skirt and can show you so much leg. Black laps left and right secured to the hip, additionally emphasize the female figure.

      This does not affect the cleavage naked, but is not overloaded, we recommend our Gothic necklace with pearls and stone ; And of course the Fan made lace black missed out on any Venetian costume.