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  1. Historical Fiction Series Reading List
  2. HMP: Al-Ghazali
  3. The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.
  4. Terrorism and Violent Extremism Awareness Guide

Islam is submission to Allah as I understand it. I refuse to believe that a most gracious and merciful God wants people to do many of things done in the name of Islam. I think if people look within to what their own God-given conscience tells them then they will act differently. It seems to me that too many people are submitting to their own understanding of a book rather than submitting to God. You are right the linguistic beauty is seen in the original language.

Your society is not a standard to look up to, human values are subjective, true values are from Allah and they manifests through our submission to Him, some of which is innate, because God created that too. Wish you all the best, you are close to Islam. After all, to prove it, you would need to have nativelike fluency in all the languages of the world and need to know all the literatures of the world both present and past to make a valid comparison. I wish you all the best too. Nazir above has done a good job of that :.

Just one example of this — in Saudi Arabia, women are not allowed to drive a rule which is now undergoing some change I hear. Another example — Saudi Arabia is led by a monarchy and royal family. This goes for any text by the way, religious or secular, fiction or non-fiction. The same text can also be used to back up carrying out countless good deeds which are highly encouraged and praised and recompensed in goodness for by God. So what is the spirit of Islam then, you may ask?

As Nadia pointed out, it is ultimately submission to the will of God. The essence or spirit of it is that it is ultimately good for humanity. If we choose to follow, it is better for us; if not, there is no compulsion on us. That is our choice — the choice to do good or evil, to obey God or not to obey Him.

I have been reading a book by Tariq Ramadan and I like the peaceful, positive message he appears to take from the teachings and actions of Muhammad. Anyway, the overall result is that the Muhammad that Tariq describes is not really recognizable to me as the one in the Koran and other source material. At least at the moment anyway. There are examples of things that I think are fundamentally wrong, that Islam at least appears to endorse.

I mentioned slavery in an earlier post. I can certainly see why slavery was part of the Islamic world for most of its history and maybe still would be without pressure from the West. I understand completely what you are saying about Saudi Arabia. What is that driving thing all about?

Maybe a problem of today is that Saudi is incredibly rich thanks to their oil. Their idea of Islam is extremely well funded and is widely advertised because of this. Anyway thanks again for your helpful post and your best wishes. My best wishes go to you and everyone else here. Hello, just stumbled upon this good discussion and I am grateful for the insights. Meanwhile, can someone teach me Shahid? These Al Shabaab are asking people to recite Shahid hope thats the name and if you do not they shoot or slit your throat. Thank You. Why do you Muslims refer to scholars all the time.

Most are not academic scholars at all and if you need one to understand the koran then its a shame. Indeed people do cherry pick and in the case of Quran its the reverse. But this is not what this verse says when you read all of it. In fact, it says almost the exact opposite when you read the whole thing.

So what we have is a so called holy book which needs scholars to understand it and does not stand scrutiny. On the other hand Christianity teaches love so i would encourage all you Muslims to change your belief structure to a peaceful loving doctrine. There is a very good reason why wherever there is violence there are Muslims hand in glove. Jayakallah for the article, The following link explains 8 more verses in detail. In fact it is so easy to explain and justify these verses.

A simple read through of few verses before and after the quoted verses gives the context. Read the Quran yourselves and decide if it is tough to understand or easy. Your email address will not be published. Leave this field empty. Loving Allah and trusting the Wisdom and Purpose in everything He throws your way- even if it hurts. It is a time to learn. The Messenger of Allah said that the faith in our hearts wears out the way our clothes wear out. Deterioration, maintenance, and renewal are part of the cycle. For some of us, refreshing faith becomes secondary to just keeping it.

I believe that our discussions about faith tend to be overly simplistic. They revolve around a few basic concepts, and are more or less summed up with:. None of these statements are technically untrue. The sweetness of faith is a joy that is beyond any other gratitude, for any other thing in this world. Righteousness in the sight of Allah will put you on the path to the good life in the afterlife.

Making dua can be the solution to your problems. And neither of those is true either. Allow me to elaborate. Yet, our Ummah still has sick and disabled children. Many righteous people stand up, and are then ostracized for their faith. Many people speak truth in the face of a tyrant only to be punished for it. Many of us live with complete conviction, with unshakeable belief in the existence and wisdom and mercy of Allah, and still find ourselves unhappy and afraid of what He has willed for us. No, but our spiritual education is.

In order to fix it, we have to be upfront with each other. We have to admit that we can be happy with Allah and still find ourselves devastated by the tests He puts before us, because faith is not a protection from struggle. No one ever told me. Everyone told me — Make dua! The prayer of a mother for her child is special!

Allah will never turn you down! You can assume whatever you like about my character, but bad things do happen to good people, even when they pray. You can try your hardest and still fall short. You can pray your whole life for something that will never come to you. When we talk about prayer and hope, we prefer to talk about Zakraiyyah — who begged Allah for a child and was gifted with one long after anyone thought it even possible.

But we also need to talk about Abu Talib. But Abu Talib died without accepting Islam, was there something wrong with the Prophet, that Allah did not give him what he asked for? Was he not good enough? Did he not pray hard enough? Astaghfirullah , no. So if Prophets of God can ask for things and still not get them, why are we assuming otherwise for ourselves? If we can understand that faith is not a contract for which we trade prayers for services, then maybe we can cope better when fate cannot be bargained with.

Life is not simple. Faith is not simple.

Historical Fiction Series Reading List

The will of Allah is not simple, no matter how much we want it to be, and when oversimplify it, we create a Muslim version of Prosperity Gospel without meaning to. Have faith, and God will reward you in this life and the next. He grew up a slave and spent years in prison for a crime he did not commit. Good people are not guaranteed good lives. Islam is what we need, not a system of practices that we use to fulfill our needs. Nor can we understand, or even begin to cope with- what He Tests the rest of us with either. We have to be real in our talk about faith, because otherwise we set each other up for unrealistic expectations and lack of preparation for when we face hardship.

Faith is not protection from hardship. Faith is part of hardship. And hardship is part of faith. We certainly tested those before them. But give glad tidings to those who are patient in adversity. Allah tests each of us differently, but in every single case — every single time — a test is an invitation to success. Hardship is the process through which we prove ourselves. Experiencing it— and then drawing closer to Allah through it —is how faith is tested as well as strengthened.

If we can change how we perceive hardship, then we can also change how we perceive each other. On our cultural subconscious, we still see worldly failure as being equivalent to spiritual failure. So when we see people who are homeless, we assume fault. When we see people facing depression or divorce, we assume fault. We even look at refugees and victims and special needs children and we look for fault. Fault is how we place blame. Blame is how we know whose mistake it is.

Instead of faulting each other for what Allah tests us with, we could respect each other for the struggles we all endure. We could see each other with more compassion for our challenges, and less aversion when Allah tests us with dealing each other. Allah tests those that He loves. When He raises the difficulty level, Allah is extending a direct invitation for you to climb higher.

There is only one true failure in this life, and that is dying on the wrong side of Siraat ul Mustaqeem, because if close your eyes and wake up in Jahannam, no success in this life can compensate for that. And I do not feel bitter, because my test is my honor. Even when I do feel scared. Being scared in not a failure either.

Neither is being unemployed. Being unmarried is not a failure. Being childless is not a failure. Being divorced is not a failure. Nothing unpleasant or miserable or unexpected is a failure. Not even sin is failure, because as long as you are alive, your sin stands as an invitation to forgiveness. The bigger the sin, the greater the blessings of repenting from it.

Everything that goes bad is the opening of the door for good. A major sin can be the first step on a journey that starts with repentance and moves you closer to Allah every day thereafter. Sin only becomes failure when it takes you farther away from Allah, rather than closer to him. Addiction is not a failure. Depression is not a failure. Poverty is not a failure.

Jahannam is the only failure. Everything else is a gap in expectations. That good deeds are the guarantee to the good life, and that prayer equals problem solved? Allah has all the knowledge, Allah has the wisdom, Allah is the best of Planners — how are you assuming that your wishes supersede His will? Even when you put your wishes in the form of a prayer? Allah has always, and will always be in control of this world. And that means your world too. Lots of special needs parents struggle with guilt.

I meet them often — and every single parent has asked the question- directly or indirectly-. Can you hear the presumption in there? That the parents were good, so why did something bad happen? They were expecting for good deeds to equal the good life. That is a presumption of control. I am not proposing that we lose hope in Allah and despair of His mercy. Allah hears your prayers, and in His wisdom, sometimes he grants us exactly what we want. In His Wisdom, sometimes he grants us exactly what we need. I am proposing that we put trust in the wisdom of Allah, and understand that when He tests us, that is part of his mercy, not a deviation from it.

Even when we ask Him to take it away. So verily, definitely, for sure- with hardship there is ease. Again, Inna — for sure, with hardship there is ease. But did you mean that this hardship will end, and then things will be good again? Like as soon as things have been hard for a while, Allah will make them easy again?

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With this hardship, there is ease. But that hardship, will bring you ease. When my son was diagnosed with autism, my husband and I had to drop everything. We dropped our plans to save, to travel, and to live the charmed life of neurotypical parents whose only fears are that their children may grow up and NOT become Muslim doctors. We spent our earnings and our savings and our time and our nights and our tears and Alhamdulillah, we learned patience.

We learned perspective.

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We learned compassion. We really learned what we thought we already knew — about unconditional love and acceptance. We learned to be bigger than our fears, and smaller than our own egos. We learned to give and take help. We learn to accept what wisdom our cultures could offer us, and respectfully decline what did not. We learn to set boundaries and make rules that did justice by our children and our family, regardless of whether they were popular. With hardship comes ease. The seed that our challenges planted has grown into something beyond us. With our hardship came ease for ourselves and others as well.

When I was diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome , my health issues were upgraded from challenging to permanent. I had to rethink how I lived, how I planned, how I dressed, and even — my relationship with Allah. But if I had never been sick, I would never have started writing. When it hurt, I wrote. When I was scared, I wrote.

When I was lonely, I wrote. And by and by the grindstone of fear and sickness and frustration sharpened my skills. Where I am today both spiritually and professionally — is actually a direct result of both autism and chronic illness. It just means being Muslim, no matter the circumstances. That means loving Allah and trusting the Wisdom and Purpose in everything He throws your way — even if not loving everything He throws your way. You may hate your circumstances, and you may not be able to do anything about them, but as long as you trust Allah and use your hardships to come closer to him, you cannot fail, even if this life, you feel as if you never really succeeded.

Our test are an invitation, an opportunity, an obstacle — but not a punishment or divine cruelty. And when we know that those tests will come, and some may even stay, then we can be better prepared for it. Trust Allah when He says that He does not burden any soul with more than it can bear.

He told us so in Surah Baqarah Ayah Remember that when you are afraid, and Allah will never cause your fear to destroy you. Take your fear to Allah, and He will strengthen you, and reward you for your bravery. Remember that when you are in pain. Allah will never cause your pain to destroy you. Take your pain to Him, and He will soothe you and reward you for your patience. Take it all to Allah — the loneliness, the anxiety, the confusion. The struggles in your life are a test, and whether you pass or fail is not determined on whether you conquer them, only on whether you endure them.

Expect that they will come, because having faith is not protection from struggle. Faith is protection from being broken by the struggle. I ask Allah to protect us all from hardship, but protect us in our hardships as well. I ask Allah to grant us peace from His peace, and strength from His strength, to patiently endure and grow through our endurance. Co-written by Shaykh Osman Umarji.

HMP: Al-Ghazali

As writers on MuslimMatters, it came as a surprise when the website we write on marked itself zakat-eligible on its fundraiser for operations in Ramadan. This website has previously highlighted the misuse and abuse of zakat for vague and dodgy reasons, including instances of outright fraud by nonprofit corporations. We have lamented the seemingly inexorable march from zakat being for living human beings in need to financial play-doh for nonprofit corporate boards.

There continue to be strong interests in favor of more putty-like zakat to benefit the interests of the organizations that are not focused on reducing poverty. See Assistance and Reporting section. The objective of the different community awareness programs implemented by police services is to engage all communities in the social problem-solving process to ensure the safety and security of the Canadian public. The following graphics show the percentage of originating agencies reporting at-risk situations compared to the leading agencies taking charge of these situations.

While the police report a significant number of cases, ultimately, referring cases to the appropriate agency results in a lighter caseload for the police. Note: In the graphics, the figures next to the agencies represent the number of at-risk situations. The Hub Model is an evidence-based collaborative problem solving approach that draws on the combined expertise of relevant community agencies to address complex human and social problems before they become policing problems. The basic principle is that if something bad is predictable, it is also preventable.

The Hub itself is a twice-weekly, ninety-minute discussion among front line professionals representing multiple human service disciplines serving the city of Prince Albert and its surrounding feeder communities. It connects people at risk to the services that can help them make positive choices in a timely fashion. The average length of time devoted to discussing each single at-risk situation is about nine minutes, and an immediate intervention plan is developed for each situation. In light of the threat of radicalization leading to violence, each of us has a role to play in preventing violent behaviour.

Law enforcement is not the only way to combat this phenomenon. All Canadians should be aware of the possibility that someone close to them could become radicalized to violence. Being better informed, having a better understanding and knowing the resources available will help Canadians to be more resilient and better equipped to face the situation. This section outlines some of the early warnings of radicalization leading to violence and signs of terrorist planning activities. Changes in behaviour are often open to interpretation.

For that reason, it is important to look for a "cluster" or pattern of changes. The presence of any of the indicators identified in this document on its own does not necessarily indicate criminal activity; however, the likelihood increases as more indicators are present. All signs must be considered in context. If you have any doubts or would like to report a suspicious incident, please contact the resources available in your area see Assistance and Reporting section.

He liked helping people. He was my oldest son. It all happened so fast… He changed environment and friends. I had small doubts, but I never would have thought that he could leave everything, leave us… Since then, our life has changed completely and we still don't understand what happened. Although their ideologies, motivations, political convictions and religious beliefs may differ, terrorists share one thing in common — they always go through phases of radicalization and planning of their violent actions.

Throughout this process, indicators can be observed by friends, relatives or various stakeholders. Threats to national security can come in any form and early identification is possible. Timely and appropriate reporting of threats can make a difference and ensure safety and security for all of us. To this end, it is necessary to raise public awareness families, educators, friends, various stakeholders, etc. The early signs of radicalization to violence and of planning an act of violent extremism and terrorism are outlined in this section and can be detected based on:.

Changes in behaviour can be observed when a person becomes radicalized to violence or prepares to commit an act of terrorism. In the case of lone actors, indicators are more often difficult to detect. In general, indicators of the radicalization to violence process are characterized by changes related to:. The use of the Internet in the radicalization to violence process is outlined in the Radicalization section. However, note that particular attention should be paid to the amount of time young people spend on the Internet, to the sites they visit and to their communications on social media.

The Internet knows no border or limit and is accessible to all. Symbols in the form of emblematic signs such as logos, tattoos, flags, etc. Whether it is to participate in humanitarian aid or to visit family members, travelling to a conflict area is dangerous. Making an informed decision is paramount. The Government of Canada advises Canadians against all travel in these areas. Outbreaks of violence can occur with little or no notice and travellers risk being at the wrong place at the wrong time. A person who becomes radicalized to violence may intend to leave the country to join a terrorist organization abroad.

The Government of Canada prohibits travelling to a conflict area in order to join a terrorist group. As a family member or stakeholder, you could observe a number of indicators that suggest the person is planning to leave. The Government of Canada takes the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and recommends avoiding all conflict areas.

The planning of any act of terrorism exposes indicators that can become apparent in the days, weeks or months prior to an attack. The discovery of one or more indicators, when considered in a broader context, could help prevent an attack or threat. A "safe house" can take many forms: it can be used to store chemicals, material and weapons or it can serve as a meeting place, an observation site, etc.

There are suspicious indicators that can help detect terrorist activities, such as terrorist literature and propaganda, timing devices or chemicals for bomb-making. This section of the guide identifies the leading national and international extremist groups, organizations, movements and symbols. They fall into three main categories: extremist right-wing groups, extremist left-wing groups and groups driven by a single motivation.

Beatings, brutality, abuse, from as far as I can remember violence is what I was taught. I grew up trying to do the only thing I knew and identified with; I had been so deeply wounded. Violence is now part of the past and I do everything I can to stay away from it. Unfortunately, I cannot forget. Right-wing extremism can be defined as the various movements that either by tradition, patriotism, nationalism, fascism, or adhesion to a counter-revolutionary ideology, are hostile to both the socialist and liberal conceptions of society.

A significant number of extreme right groups have been observed in Canada over the years; however, it is important to understand that these groups have few members and that the members often change groups or belong to several groups at the same time. When new groups are created, it does not necessarily mean that new members join the movement. Extreme right groups, often led by charismatic leaders, can be short-lived or serve as facades.

Rightwing extremism encompasses a large, loose, heterogeneous collection of groups and individuals espousing a wide range of grievances and positions; these groups can sometimes be in conflict with each other. In general, members of extreme right groups are proud of the ideology behind their movement and tend to keep a high profile. Ku Klux Klan symbol. It is considered as the 'granddaddy' of the right-wing extremist movement. The name of the organization is derived from the Greek word kuklos, which translates to English as "circle".

The group changed the Greek word slightly to kuklux and added the word klan to note the Scottish heritage of the group's first members. Today, the KKK is a marginalized organization, replaced by neo-Nazi groups. In Canada, the KKK has long been a concern for the security services mainly because of its paramilitary tendencies. It held training camps and its objective was clearly related to racial war.

While the Ku Klux Klan has almost disappeared, its symbolic significance remains considerable. In Canada, the KKK is mostly known for their acts of intimidation and racist incidents: violence, letters of threat, burning crosses to scare their detractors and demonstrations against immigrants, Asians, Catholics and French-speaking people. Some members have been involved in homicides or attempted murders. Their objective was to increase tensions between the Jewish and Arab communities.

The same year, a man was beaten, stoned and thrown in a river in Winnipeg because he was homosexual. At least one of the four murderers was a member of the KKK. The members of the KKK wear a distinctive white costume: a robe and pointed hat that only shows the eyes. One of their well-known intimidation tactics is to burn giant wood crosses in public locations.

The group also uses the confederate flag and the Celtic cross as their symbols. The Church of the Creator logo. The organization describes itself as a religion, the white race's religion. This complex doctrine is called "Creativity". It was designed with the idea that Odinism a Viking religion and the Christian identity were completely lost. The ideology of the group is based on Racial Holy War RaHoWa , a name also given to the musical group of one of its historic leaders. In the United States, the group is considered to be extremely violent.

The members are responsible for several murders and openly call for violence. In Canada, the group took part in confrontations related to musical events. The then leader, George Burdi, was found guilty of kicking a female left-wing militant in the face during a concert. The group has a red and black flag featuring a large "W", a crown and a halo in a white circle.

Heritage Front logo. The Libyan President, Muammar Gaddafi, funded left and right wing groups that shared his anti-Jewish, anti-capitalist and anti-communist vision. Extreme right groups in need of funds and support easily forged ties with the regime. A few years later, HF became the most important advocate of white supremacy in Canada. The group had two branches: political and military.

It is no longer active today. Some members of the HF participated in violent confrontations along with members of The Church of the Creator, while several members belonged to both groups.

Sam Harris: Islam Is Not a Religion of Peace

The sign of the group consists of the letters "HF". The life rune, in the background, refers to the spiritual dimensions of protection and honour. It was used in different contexts by the Nazis and was appropriated by many white supremacist groups. The founder of the group, Ian Stuart Donaldson, was the singer and leader of the extreme right British rock band Skrewdriver advocating neo-Nazi convictions. In Canada, the group is present in Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. Many acts of violence are attributed to members affiliated to the group. The members of the organization also use other white supremacy symbols such as the United States Confederate flag American Civil War , the Celtic cross and the old South African flag from the Apartheid era.

The movement is present internationally. It has long been associated with loyalist terrorist organizations in Northern Ireland. In Great-Britain, several members including active soldiers were charged with acts of violence. However, an important place is given to weapons in the symbols and public appearances.

Golden Dawn flag. Athens, Greece: Activists from the Golden Dawn. The objective proclaimed by these chapters is to provide support and assistance to Greek-born citizens. It was alleged that they were responsible for the murder of a far-left activist. Thirteen other activists and two police officers were also arrested.

It should be noted that, to date, the group has never committed any illicit act in Canada. The group sometimes uses the Celtic cross as a symbol. It also has a red flag and uses messages written in Greek. Symbol of the group Hammerskins Nation. The organization has no leader, but rather relies on the autonomy and loyalty of its adherents. Drawing on an ideology advocating white supremacy, this group, essentially composed of racist right-wing skinheads, is characterized by the violence and extremism of its actions.

The Hammerskins Nation is the most feared and respected of the racist skinhead groups in the United States. The Canadian members of the group engage in significant violence, even outside Canada. In this video clip, two hammers symbolize fascism. The Hammerskins Nation supporters also use various Nazi symbols as well as photos of "martyrs", representing members who were killed.

The members cross their arms to represent the two hammers and some also have hammers tattooed on their forearms. This also refers to the sign used by a fictive fascist society in the movie "" based on the novel by George Orwell. Aryan Guard Symbol. The Aryan Guard was created in Calgary, Alberta.

The group claims to be the new version of white supremacy, more present and visible. The group has participated in demonstrations and organized its own marches from the very beginning. The leader occupies a central position and is even called the "micro-fuhrer". He and his group attract individuals who will travel to Calgary to participate in their activities. Some members were charged with various acts of violence, assault causing bodily arm and making explosives.

The group often uses the Celtic cross and the words "White Pride, Worldwide" either on tattoos or on their flag. The swastika is also one of their symbols. Skinhead movement logo. The skinhead movement or sub-culture started in the United Kingdom within the working class. It has several variants, including the neo-Nazi extreme right movement and an extreme left variant group SHARP claiming to be antiracist and non-political.

Racist right-wing skinheads are well-established in Canada. While some groups and individuals are independent, white supremacy music plays an important role in this movement. First seen in urban areas, the movement progressively spread to small towns and rural areas. At first, it was based more on "neo-Nazi folklore" than an outright ideology. It developed into something ideologically structured when extreme right groups started recruiting within the movement.

The international skinhead culture, particularly through its music, is at the root of a clear ideology and receptivity to right-wing extremism among youth in Canada. A significant number of skinheads are part of extreme right groups that are not exclusive to this sub-culture. For example, groups such as the Aryan Nations and White Aryan Resistance, that are more popular in the United States, have welcomed many members of this sub-culture. The extreme right skinheads are called "boneheads" by the left wing, in reference to their shaved heads.

They use Internet sites to recruit and spread their ideology. However, they prefer personal contacts to recruit and advertise their fundraising concerts. Skinheads are considered as the "soldiers" of the white supremacist movement. The violence used by the movement is mainly expressed at concerts and demonstrations. Skinheads are also responsible for actions perpetrated against individuals or symbolic sites, such as mosques.

Racist crimes are an integral part of the skinhead movement's history and also serve as initiation rites. However, other types of crime and violence are identified every year, including altercations between gangs and crimes perpetrated for no apparent reasons. The most common signs used by this extreme right movement are the Celtic cross and the swastika , in addition to various numbers associated to right-wing extremism.

Shaved or very short hair, sweaters featuring the names of extreme right groups or racist messages, bomber jackets, jeans, suspenders, combat pants and boots characterize the physical appearance of the followers of this movement.

The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.

The colour of the suspenders and boot laces can also be indicative of whether the group is racist or not, or indicate the position of the member in the organization. However, the colours are different for each group and area. They do not shave their heads completely. A variety of books, symbols, numbers and letters taken from the extreme right ideology are used to identify affiliation to a group.

These may appear on clothes, tattoos and graffiti. Particular nonverbal gestures may also suggest an association to a group such as the Nazi salute or indicating specific numbers with fingers. The Turner Diaries book cover. The Turner Diaries is not considered a significant symbol, but it holds an important place in right-wing extremism and among rightwing adherents.

The sci-fi novel was written by William Pierce, the founder of the National Alliance, a very important extreme right group in the United States. It depicts a violent revolution in the United States that results in the overthrow of the federal government and a racial war against Jews, homosexuals and non-Whites. This particularly violent story is read by members of the extreme right worldwide and influences some of them in their doctrines and actions. Adolf Hitler's book, Mein Kampf. This book was written by Adolf Hitler while he was incarcerated in Landsberg prison.

This autobiography outlines racist theories and the premise of the Nazi movement. It is legally sold in Canada and is a source of inspiration for many white supremacists, especially neo-Nazis. It is also a source of veneration for many followers of Adolf Hitler's movement and ideology.

White Fist logo. The White Power doctrine is associated to the neo-Nazi movement that seeks hegemony using violence as a means of coercion. The White Power doctrine is the fundamental ideological source motivating the actions of extreme right-wing skinhead groups. This ideology has spread everywhere in the world where there are white people. The White Fist is a response to the symbol of the raised fist used by the Black Power movement. Celtic Cross. The Celtic cross is a common symbol in Ireland and Great-Britain. It is generally associated to Celtic communities.

The Celtic cross was appropriated by various nationalist movements. The Celtic cross is often used by right-wing extremists to symbolize the White Power, among other things. The swastika is the official emblem of the Nazi ideology. It is still popular today with the resurgence of the neo-Nazi movement worldwide. However, it should be noted that different groups try to use derivative or less ostentatious symbols to avoid attracting attention and circumvent the laws in countries where the use of certain images or Nazi representations is prohibited.

The swastika is very important in Hinduism and Buddhist cultures, but does not have a negative connotation. The Odal rune. The organization used the Odal rune as a symbol. The signification of the Odal rune for the neo-Nazis goes back to the beginning of the Proto-Germanic era where it meant "heritage". Logo of the SS Totenkopf Division.

This symbol refers to the Schutzstaffel protection squad , the German army elite units, better known as the "SS". These units were in charge of concentration camps, among other things. The totenkopf is one of the most wildely known symbols typically associated to nazism. The number 88 is the juxtaposition of two letters "H", representing the eighth letter of the alphabet, with "HH" standing for "Heil Hitler".

Adolf Hitler. White Pride Flag. White supremacists also express this sign by making the numbers "2" and "3" with their fingers. RaHoWa Symbol. Means Racial Holy War, a doctrine proclaimed by Ben Klassen of The Church of the Creator that is in line with the ideology of the group that considers white supremacy as a religion and its war as holy. Left-wing extremism is a vast political movement sharing a number of beliefs that reject capitalism, Western democracy as we know it, imperialism and militarism.

These extreme beliefs, attitudes and positions are usually conveyed through a revolutionary discourse that can sometimes promote violence, often against the authorities, and even lead to acts of terrorism. Left-wing extremism draws its inspiration from the radical interpretation of different doctrines such as Maoism, Trotskyism, Castroism and Marxism-Leninism. Unlike right-wing extremists, leftists tend to be more discreet and maintain a low profile. Anonymous Symbol. Protesters at a anti-capitalist protest in Britain.

Activist for freedom of speech and equality, Anonymous is not an organization as such, but rather an ideology shared by many people, especially Internet users. The Anonymous movement defines itself as "hacktivist". Its members in the Web community launch anonymous attacks on the Internet. The word "hacktivist" is the fusion of "hacking" and "activist" and implies technological knowledge and political direct action.

While the Anonymous ideology is known more for technological attacks, physical involvement in demonstrations is also considerable. The mask also refers to the movie "V for Vendetta" based on the graphic novel about the life of Guy Fawkes. Anonymous claims to advocate freedom of speech, equality and other causes often related to current affairs. It was also actively involved in Wikileaks, a website created by hacker Julian Assange that discloses classified information from different countries. Many large-scale attacks, ranging from the disclosure of personal emails coming from big corporations to the temporary closure of government sites, are claimed in the name of Anonymous.

Anonymous Canada is known to have launched computer attacks against provincial and federal websites, rendering them temporarily inaccessible. Black Bloc Illustration. It started with groups of individuals advocating the reunification of Germany. Later, the Black Bloc movement evolved into an anti-capitalist movement as well as an alterglobalist and libertarian movement.

The Black Bloc is a tactic used by individuals to make themselves difficult to identify at demonstrations. Characterized by head-to-toe black clothing, the objective of the Black Bloc is to create an anonymous crowd to face the police. During demonstrations, the actions of the group are directly targeted at leading figures of capitalism in our society. These activists are sometimes involved in heated altercations with the police, considered by the movement as the armed branch of capitalism.

Variations of the Black Bloc movement are generally shortlived and mobilize through social media to demonstrate at major events. The Black Bloc is often involved in the destruction of property owned by national companies and banks, as well as public property. Not every group present at demonstrations agree with the Black Block. The extremist and relatively violent behaviour of the Black Bloc can create tension among demonstrators. Symbol of anarchism. Anarchism is a philosophical current that is opposed to all forms of political authority.

There are several variations of anarchism, some violent and others not. This anti-authority ideology conception is not synonymous with social unrest, but advocates an anti-capitalist order. There are numerous currents associated to anarchism and many groups use the anarchist symbols and beliefs to promote their ideology. Red and Anarchist Skinheads logo.

Anti-fascism, anticapitalism and libertarian ideology are all fights carried out by RASH. They are represented by three arrows on the group's logo. The movement was created in New York City. The group carries out a never-ending fight through direct action against neo-Nazi skinheads or boneheads as they are called by left-wing skinheads. The environmentalist, anti-militarist and anti-American convictions of the group are expressed through overt radicalism. The objective of this action was to jeopardize the transmission of electricity produced in Quebec to the United States, denouncing it as " … the 'pillaging' of Quebec's resources for the benefit of the American Empire".

The IR claimed responsibility for the attack to denounce the profits maide by the oil industry and the war in Iraq. SHARP logo. The movement has no political affiliation and is strongly committed to antifascism and anti-racism. SHARP cannot be defined as a group of individuals, but rather as an informal network, with no official spokesperson and with the objective of bringing together all the extreme left-wing skinheads.

SHARP is not only present at counter neo-Nazi demonstrations where violence between demonstrators often occurs, but is also often involved in altercations with fascist groups. This category encompasses groups that are neither associated with to left-wing extremism nor right-wing extremism. These groups are motivated by a specific cause, such as the protection of the environment, the defense of certain rights or the abolition of certain laws. Animal Liberation Front logo.

The best method depends on your personal situation. We will work to protect all information you provide, including your identity, and our interactions with you will be respectful and professional. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation.

We cannot guarantee a response to every message. We reply first to messages of greater interest to us and to those with more detail. Our response will occur via a secure method. Internet: Send a message here. Or, you can send us a message using the Tor browser at ciadotgov4sjwlzihbbgxnqg3xiyrg7so2r2o3lt5wz5ypk4sxyjstad. We go to great lengths to keep these channels secure, but any communication via the internet poses some risk. You can also mail a letter to a U.

Embassy or Consulate and request it be forwarded to CIA. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail. In-Person: Outside the U. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U. Third Party: Have someone you trust travel to a less restrictive environment and deliver the information via one of the above methods. Javascript must be enabled for the correct page display Library. Africa :: Ethiopia Print. Page last updated on June 19, Flag Description. Africa :: Ethiopia. All Space. At the top left, the capital city of Sudan, Khartoum, is located at the convergence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile.

Because of their isolation, the numerous coral reefs of the Dahlak Archipelago are some of the most pristine in the world. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile.

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Photo courtesy of NASA. Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free. Agency Copyright Notice. Introduction :: Ethiopia. Background : This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends. Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front.

A constitution was adopted in , and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in A border war with Eritrea in the late s ended with a peace treaty in December Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia did not accept them and maintained troops in previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. This intransigence resulted in years of heightened tension between the two countries. In June , ABIY announced Ethiopia would accept the border ruling of , prompting rapprochement between Ethiopia and Eritrea that was marked with a peace agreement in July and a reopening of the border in September Geography :: Ethiopia.

Location : This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water. Eastern Africa, west of Somalia. Geographic coordinates : This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.

Map references : This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. Area : This entry includes three subfields. Area - comparative : This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents.

Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census. Image Description. Land boundaries : This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.

Coastline : This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea. Maritime claims : This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS Part II ; this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying s.

Climate : This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year; in the Word entry only, it includes four subfields that describe climate extremes:ten driest places on earth average annual precipitation describes the annual average precipitation measured in both millimeters and inches for selected countries with climate extremes. Terrain : This entry contains a brief description of the topography. Elevation : This entry includes the mean elevation and elevation extremes, lowest point and highest point.

Natural resources : This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements REEs. In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future. Land use : This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: agricultural land, forest, and other; agricultural land is further divided into arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest, permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest, and includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, and permane.

Irrigated land : This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Population distribution : This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures. Natural hazards : This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes. Environment - current issues : This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.

Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements : This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. Geography - note : This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere. People and Society :: Ethiopia.

Population : This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.

Note: Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. Nationality : This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective. Ethnic groups : This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.

Oromo Languages : This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language. For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language. Oromo official working language in the State of Oromiya Religions : This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.

The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali known as Baha'u'llah in Iran in , Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m.

Ethiopian Orthodox Some of the topics addressed are population age structure, fertility, health, mortality, poverty, education, and migration. Age structure : This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group as follows: years children , years early working age , years prime working age , years mature working age , 65 years and over elderly. The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.

This is the population pyramid for Ethiopia. A population pyramid illustrates the age and sex structure of a country's population and may provide insights about political and social stability, as well as economic development. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. The male and female populations are broken down into 5-year age groups represented as horizontal bars along the vertical axis, with the youngest age groups at the bottom and the oldest at the top.

The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Dependency ratios : Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population.

They relate the number of individuals that are likely to be economically "dependent" on the support of others. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures.

As fertility leve. Median age : This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan.

See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high. Population growth rate : The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus or deficit of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure e.

Rapid population growth can be seen as. Birth rate : This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1, persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population. Death rate : This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1, population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth.

This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining. Net migration rate : This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1, persons based on midyear population. An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration e. The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan.

Urbanization : This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time.

Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising th. Major urban areas - population : This entry provides the population of the capital and up to six major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least , people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.

For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of , or more, only the population of the capital is presented. Sex ratio : This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons.

This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit. Mother's mean age at first birth : This entry provides the mean average age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns. Maternal mortality rate : The maternal mortality rate MMR is the annual number of female deaths per , live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management excluding accidental or incidental causes.

The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. Infant mortality rate : This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1, live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Life expectancy at birth : This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Total fertility rate : This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate TFR is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replaceme.

Contraceptive prevalence rate : This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data. It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries.

Health expenditures : This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Physicians density : This entry gives the number of medical doctors physicians , including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1, of the population.