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  3. Ars Poetica (MacLeish): a Study Guide

The teapots were drawn at the beginning of the summer session, before any instruction began. The chiaroscuro drawings at the bottom are from the last 2 class sessions.


I am so proud of my students! We had a great time and they all worked really hard to continue to develop their skills!


Working on my encaustics today. The apple is a laser transfer, and I plan on painting the branch, leaves, and possibly highlights on the apple in oil paint. I think this one looks much better:. Currently, we are working on the van Eyck method of painting. We started with a 14 x 16 inch piece of tempered masonite smooth on both sides and sanded one side down. We then put a couple of layers of the gesso on our panels, sanding in between. Once there was enough gesso applied, we gave it one last good sand to make sure the surface was nice and smooth.

A smooth surface is very important to the van Eyck technique. Next, we got to sort through all the props available for still lifes and pick what we might want to paint.

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My chosen view of the still life for our Van Eyck style painting project. Then we each began trying to find the view of the still life that we wanted to focus on and drew the composition onto a piece of newsprint. Once the image was laid out the way we wanted, we flipped the paper over and coated the back with vine charcoal. Once the image was successfully transferred, the new drawing on the panel was fixed with spray fixative. Making old school tracing paper — vine charcoal on back of drawing. Original drawing after tracing onto panel beneath.

Traced image — sealed with spray fixative. From there, each student took a brown pen I used a permanent ink Pigma pen and went over the lines of the transferred drawing, setting a firm foundation to each successive layer of painting. Inked layer — permanent brown pen to finalize the lines and composition. Chalk gesso is very dry and tends to soak the oil out of anything you put on it, so it often takes a layer of Liquin or linseed oil before each painting session in the early stages to keep the paint from absorbing too much and leaching out the color.

The verdaccio is applied and then wiped with a soft paper towel or rag to even out the application and wipe off extra oil and paint. Verdaccio layer demo — used yellow ochre, ivory black and a touch of white to create a greenish background color. Next class, we began to define the mid-tones and the shadows of the composition with a burnt umber underpainting layer, to establish the image more fully and begin to add depth.

Who knew it could be so hard to paint deep shadows with one color? Hopefully it will go a lot more quickly! The interventions, modifications and emendations to eighth chapter were fewer than the preceding chapters of the draft constitution, especially chapter seven De musica sacra. This seems to reflect the desire to end the months-long discussions on the reform of the liturgy and not from disinterest in the topic. But in fact, only six extended commentaries on liturgical art were given in over three-hundred comments registered during discussions of chapters six, seven and eight combined.

Regarding sacred art, Article 99 garnered the most reaction with its adamant sounding subheading: Omnem stilum artis Ecclesia admittit. Various interventions voiced during the general congregations reveal the reason for such reaction. Style is no longer synonymous, nor , November and January Lameri, Pontificia Commissio, On the Eastern tradition, see for example, Viktor Lazarev, Storia della pittura bizantina, 4th ed.

Torino: Giulio Einaudi, The intention of the Council was rather to purposefully break the historic shackles of the Academy that bound liturgical art and then degenerated into the industrialization of aesthetics manifested in the low arts of mass-produced plaster and printed kitsch at the turn of the nineteenth century. On the other hand, it might be suggested, the article also clearly accepted the conclusions of modern aesthetic perspectives when it demanded that contemporary art be accorded free exercise in the liturgy.

Firstly, to accept modern art in the stylistic vocabulary of the church meant including a particular works Modernist sensibilities, without which such art would have little meaning. Secondly, and more fundamentally, modern aesthetics were incorporated programmatically into the logic of the document. It is likely for this reason, more than any others, that the article received the reaction it did during debate in the general congregations.

Article 99 shows the church to accept not simply Modern art but also be led by its judgment of the fine arts as they exist in contemporary culture. Bernstein New York: Routledge, Lang Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, , It was only by enshrining the Modernist approach to the arts that Barbosa and Lercaro were able to claim that the church had no particular style.

For their part, this reality was not an historical truism concerned with the succession of Late-Antique, Romanesque, Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Neo-Classical and Romantic art forms, but a shared conviction together with Modernism that art is an ahistorical objective-subjective dynamic of aesthetic experience. Consequently, liturgical art is something that transcends any particular period. Considering these elements, the seventh chapter of the ratified constitution as a whole reads as a liturgical elaboration of Modernist art-theory.

To say it another way, Sacrosanctum Concillium acknowledges that artistic creation, even in the service of the liturgy, is pluripotent—derived from and manifesting various artistic perspectives concerned with evidencing the internal nature of art. And if art should fail, the church fails in its liturgy, what is to be the cry of creation to the Living Lord SC , and should this happen the church is instead left tinkering with mere trifles, in-exquisite banalities rendered from limited vision.

In the lens of Modernist art theory, the only way to preclude such an end, what Article 99 perfectly echoed paralleling the restorative intention of SC towards the liturgy as a whole , was to unleash the power of the arts, to give free exercise to contemporary arts unfettered with style, as envisaged in the aesthetic theories of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The concept was modified by Bishop Heribertus Bednorz and given a pastoral sense.

New art has free scope in the church because the value the work has in itself, but more importantly, because the work corresponds to the mentality of the contemporary person ASC It has a pastoral value base upon its communicative power. Their primary starting point for considering liturgical art is the incarnation of the church in society.

The general view shared by these bishops is that every epoch and society evidences its particular character—so too the local church—in the free exhibit of its art and has a right to do so as a fundamental character of human freedom. In this regard, the arts of the missions are invoked numerous times. Final revision of the Constitution shows how influential this particular anthropological-ecclesiological perspective was for its redactors. Missional theology was turning from colonialist identities anyway.

Yet liturgical arts in far flung lands were discovered by north hemisphere Catholics to have already been interpreted by various particular churches in very profound ways. Beginning in Maurice Lavanoux published various reports from building and art projects globally. See Liturgical Arts 18, no. Conciliar interventions indicate a basic understanding of art and aesthetics within Modernism. Moreover, throughout his time in the Vatican Secretariat of State and as Archbishop of Milan he dedicated himself to the arts.

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One of the most poignant moments was the introduction of the Leo Scorzelli ferula during the opening of the third session of the 28 Both Cardinals supported various architectural and art projects. Their various pastoral activities often intersected. Later he supported the French school, especially in Matisse, as ideal liturgical art. Thomas C. Benjamin Mensah.

The use of modern artistic techniques and pastoral application supported by the Council addressed in part the far-reaching intellectual gap that had developed between art and the church.

Ars Poetica (MacLeish): a Study Guide

Additionally, the bishops freed the church from the historical predominance of the bourgeoisie in art and actually came to embrace some of the goals of Modernist art, including the transformation of society, or less grandly, its critique of the existential situation of humanity.

All the same, the advances have not been absolute. Even when considering the three transcendentals of theology, the ultimate font of beauty rests in the divine presence and is conveyed by the beatific vision. Yet this experience of heavenly blessedness is in the first place the eschatological worship of the Godhead by the redeemed of the Lord. Sacrosanctum Concillium itself asserts this eschatological connection stating that liturgical art is oriented toward the infinite beauty of God which it attempts to portray in some manner SC Commonly though, the connection between beauty and the liturgy is described in such a manner to assert that if the liturgy reflects the worship of the New Jerusalem and the perfection of God then certain specific artistic values are implicit.

The year was Jazz was in the air, giving voice to the joy that marked the end of the first World War. Young women traded Victorian corsets for slinky dresses in which they danced the foxtrot and tango till dawn, and Prohibition sent Americans south of the border in droves, in search of fine restaurants where they could again enjoy wine and spirits with their meals. Caesar improvised a new salad on the spot with the few ingredients he had left, and he gave the humble meal flair by assembling it table-side. They only thing I see again clearly is the eggs.

I can see him break two eggs over that romaine and roll them in, the greens going all creamy as the eggs flowed over them. Two eggs in a salad?