- Pioneering Charities 1888-1927
- Omnivore Books on Food
- Francesca Salerno (Author of The Pakistan Conspiracy, A Novel Of Espionage)
Often that means very harsh blizzards especially near the Great Lakes where Arctic winds blow off of Canada and where the ice on rivers and lakes freezes reliably thick enough for ice hockey to be a favorite pastime in the region and for ice fishing for pike , walleye and panfish to be ubiquitous in Minnesota , Wisconsin , and Michigan , where they often there after become part of the local tradition of the fish fry. Population density is extremely low away from the Great Lakes and very small towns dominated by enormous farms are the rule with larger cities being the exception.
Detroit , Cleveland , St. Louis , Cincinnati , Indianapolis , Milwaukee , Minneapolis and her twin sister city across the river St. Paul dominate the landscape in wealth and size, owing to their ties with manufacturing, finance, transportation, and meatpacking. Smaller places like Omaha , Tulsa , and Kansas City make up local capitals, but the king of them all is Chicago , third largest city in the country, on the shores of Lake Michigan. Non-American Indian settlement began here earlier than anywhere else in the region, and thus the food available here ranges from the sublime to the bizarre.
As with all of the Midwest, the primary meats here are beef and poultry, since the Midwest has been raising turkeys , chickens , and geese for over a hundred and fifty years; chickens have been so common for so long that the Midwest has several native breeds that are prized for both backyard farming and for farmer's markets, such as the Buckeye and Wyandotte ; one, Billina, appears as a character in the second book of the Oz series by L. Frank Baum. Favorite fruits of the region include a few native plants inherited from Native American tribes like the pawpaw and the American persimmons are also highly favored.
As with the American South, pawpaws are the region's largest native fruit, about the size of a mango, and are often found growing wild in the region come September, whereafter they are made into preserves and cakes and command quite a price at farmer's markets in Chicago. Other crops inherited from the Native Americans include wild rice , which grows on the banks of lakes and is a local favorite for fancy meals and today often used in stuffing for Thanksgiving. Typical fruits of the region are cold weather crops.
Once it was believed that the region had winters that were far too harsh for apple growing, but then a breeder in Minnesota came forth with the Wealthy apple and thence came forth the third most productive region for apple growing in the land, with local varieties comprising Wolf River , Enterprise, Melrose , Paula Red , Rome Beauty , Honeycrisp , and the Red Delicious.
Cherries are important to Michigan and Wisconsin grows many cranberries , a legacy of earlyth-century emigration of New England farmers. Crabapple jelly is a favorite condiment of the region. The influence of German, Scandinavian, and Slavic peoples on the northern portion of the region is very strong; many of these emigrated to Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois in the 19th century to take advantage of jobs in the meatpacking business as well as being homesteaders and tradesmen. Bratwurst is a very common sausage eaten at tailgate parties for the Green Bay Packers , Chicago Bears , or Detroit Lions football teams and is often served boiled in lager beer with sauerkraut, different than many of the recipes currently found in Germany.
Polish sausage, in particular a locally invented type of kielbasa , is an essential for sporting events in Chicago: Chicago today has approximately , speakers of Polish and has had a population of that description for over a hundred years. Poles that left Poland after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the descendants of earlier immigrants still make all of the above and such comestibles are common in local diners and delis as result.
In Cleveland, the same sausage is served in the form of the Polish boy : this is a weird but tasty sandwich made of french fries, spicy barbecue sauce, and coleslaw; unlike cities in the East where the hot dog alone is traditional fans of the Cleveland Indians, Detroit Tigers, Chicago Cubs, and Milwaukee Brewers favor at least two or three different kinds of sausage sold in the little pushcarts outside the stadium; the hot dogs themselves tend to follow the Chicago style, which is loaded with mustard, and pickled vegetables. In Cincinnati, where the Cincinnati Reds play, the predilection for sausage has a competitor in Cincinnati chili , invented by Macedonian immigrants: this bizarre but tasty dish includes spaghetti as its base, chili with a Mediterranean-inspired spice mix, and cheddar cheese; the chili itself is often a topping for local hot dogs at games.
In the Midwest and especially Minnesota,  the tradition of the church potluck has become a gathering in which local foods reign, and so it has been since the era of the frontier: pioneers would often need to pool resources together to have a celebration in the 19th century and that simply never changed. Next to that is the booyah , a thick soup made of a number or combinations of meat, vegetables, and seasonings that is meant to simmer on the stove for up to two days. Lefse , traditionally a Scandinavian flatbread, has been handed down to descendants for over a hundred years and is common on the table.
Behind that is the venison, a popular meat around the Great Lakes and often eaten in steaks, sandwiches, and crown roasts for special events. Last on the table are the dessert bars and most especially the brownies : this confection was created originally in in Chicago and has gone on to become a global food and international favorite.
Further South, barbecue has its own style in places in Kansas and St. Louis that are different to the South and the American West. Kansas City and St. Louis were and remain important hubs for the railroad that connected the plains with the Great Lakes and cities farther east, like Philadelphia. Louis area, Omaha, and Kansas City had huge stockyards, waystations for cattle and pigs on their way East to the cities of the coast and North to the Great Lakes.
Louis-style barbecue favors a heavy emphasis on a sticky sweet barbecue sauce. Its standbys include the pork steak , a cut taken from the shoulder of the pig, grilled, and then slowly stewed in a pan over charcoal, crispy snoots, a cut from the cheek and nose of the pig that is fried up like cracklin and eaten dipped in sauce, pork spare ribs , and a mix of either beer boiled bratwurst or grilled Italian derived sausage, flavored with fennel. Dessert is usually something like gooey butter cake , invented in the city in the s.
Kansas City-style barbecue uses several different kinds of meat, more than most styles of American barbecue- turkey, mutton, pork, and beef just to name a few- but is distinct from St. Louis in that the barbecue sauce adds molasses in with the typical tomato based recipe and typically has a more tart taste.
Traditionally, Kansas City uses a low-and-slow method of smoking the meat in addition to just stewing it in the sauce. It also favors using hickory wood for smoking and continual watering or layering of the sauce while cooking to form a glaze; with burnt ends this step is necessary to create the "bark" or charred outer layer of the brisket. When referring to the American South as a region, typically it should indicate Southern Maryland and the states that were once part of the Old Confederacy , with the dividing line between the East and West jackknifing about miles west of Dallas, Texas, and mostly south of the old Mason—Dixon line.
These states are much more closely tied to each other and have been part of US territory for much longer than states much farther west than East Texas, and in the case of food, the influences and cooking styles are strictly separated as the terrain begins to change to prairie and desert from bayou and hardwood forest. This section of the country has some of the oldest known foodways in the land, with some recipes almost years old.
Native American influences are still quite visible in the use of cornmeal as an essential staple  and found in the Southern predilection for hunting wild game, in particular wild turkey , deer , woodcock , and various kinds of waterfowl ; for example, coastal North Carolina is a place where hunters will seek tundra swan as a part of Christmas dinner; the original English and Scottish settlers would have rejoiced at this revelation owing to the fact that such was banned amongst the commoner class in what is now the United Kingdom, and naturally, their descendants have not forgotten.
Catfish are often caught with one's bare hands , gutted, breaded, and fried to make a Southern variation on English fish and chips and turtles are turned into stews and soups. Peaches have been grown in this region since the 17th century and are a staple crop as well as a favorite fruit, with peach cobbler being a signature dessert. European influence began soon after the settlement of Jamestown in and the earliest recipes emerged by the end of the 17th century.
Specific influences from Europe were quite varied, and remain traditional and essential to the modern cookery overall. German speakers often settled in the Piedmont on small farms from the coast, and invented an American delicacy that is now nationally beloved, apple butter , based on their recipe for apfelkraut, and later introduced red cabbage and rye. From the British Isles, an enormous amount of influence was bestowed upon the South, specifically foodways found in 17th- and 18th-century Ulster , the borderlands between England and Scotland, the Scottish Highlands , portions of Wales , the West Midlands and Black Country.
Often ships' manifests show their belongings nearly always included cookpots or bakestones and seed stock for plants like peaches , plums , and apples to grow orchards which they planted in their hundreds. Each group brought foods and ideas from their respective regions. In time they came up with a method for distilling a corn mash with added sugar and aging in charred barrels made of select hardwoods, which created a whiskey with a high proof. This gave birth to American whiskey and Kentucky bourbon , and its cousins moonshine and Everclear.
Closer to the coast, 18th-century recipes for English trifle turned into tipsy cakes , replacing the sherry with whiskey and their recipe for pound cake , brought to the South around the same time, still works with American baking units: 1 pound sugar, one pound eggs, one pound butter, one pound flour. For most Southerners in the antebellum period , corn and pork were staples of the diet.
Country ham is often served for breakfast and cured with salt or sugar and hickory-smoked. Desserts in the South tend to be quite rich and very much a legacy of entertaining to impress guests, since a Southern housewife was and to a degree still is expected to show her hospitality by laying out as impressive a banquet as she is able to manage.
American style sponge cakes tend to be the rule rather than the exception as is American style buttercream, a place where Southern baking intersects with the rest of the United States. Nuts like pecan and hickory tend to be revered as garnishes for these desserts, and make their way into local bakeries as fillings for chocolates. In Louisiana, cooking methods have more in common with rustic French cuisines of the 17th and 18th century than anything ever found at the French court in Versailles or the bistros of 19th- and 20th-century Paris; this is especially true of Cajun cuisine.
Cajun French is more closely related to dialects spoken in Northern Maine , New Brunswick , and to a lesser degree Haiti than anything spoken in modern France, and likewise their terminology, methodology, and culture concerning food is much more closely related to the styles of these former French colonies even today. Unlike other areas of the South, Cajuns were and still are largely Catholics and thus much of what they eat is seasonal; for example pork is an important component of the Cajun boucherie a large community event where the hog is butchered, prepared with a fiery spice mix, and eaten snout to tail but it is never consumed in the five weeks of Lent, when such would be forbidden.
Cajun cuisine tends to focus on what is locally available, historically because Cajuns were often poor, illiterate, independent farmers and not plantation owners but today it is because such is deeply imbedded in local culture. Boudin is a type of sausage found only in this area of the country, and it is often by far more spicy than anything found in France or Belgium.
Chaudin is unique to the area, and the method of cooking is comparable to the Scottish dish haggis: the stuffing includes onions, rice, bell peppers, spices, and pork sewn up in the stomach of a pig, and served in slices piping hot. Crayfish are a staple of the Cajun grandmother's cookpot, as they are abundant in the bayous of Southern Louisiana and a main source of livelihood, as are blue crabs , shrimp , corn on the cob, and red potatoes, since these are the basic ingredients of the Louisiana crawfish boil.
New Orleans has been the capital of Creole culture since before Louisiana was a state; this culture is that of the colonial French and Spanish that evolved in the city of New Orleans, which was and still is quite distinct from the rural culture of Cajuns and dovetails with what would have been eaten in antebellum Louisiana plantation culture long ago. Cooking to impress and show one's wealth was a staple of Creole culture, which often mixed French, Spanish, Italian, German, African, Caribbean and Native American cooking methods, producing rich dishes like oysters bienville , pompano en papillote , and even the muffaletta sandwich.
However, Louisiana Creole cuisine tends to diverge from the original ideas brought to the region in ingredients: profiteroles , for example, use a near identical choux pastry to that which is found in modern Paris but often use vanilla or chocolate ice cream rather than custard as the filling, pralines nearly always use pecan and not almonds, and bananas foster came about when New Orleans was a key port for the import of bananas from the Caribbean Sea.
Andouille is often used, but not the andouille currently known in France, since French andouille uses tripe whereas Louisiana andouille is made from a Boston butt , usually inflected with pepper flakes, and smoked for hours over pecan wood. Other ingredients that are native to Louisiana and not found in the cuisine of modern France would include rice, which has been a staple of both Creole and Cajun cooking for generations, and sugarcane, which has been grown in Louisiana since the early s.
Ground cayenne pepper is a key spice of the region, as is the meat of the American alligator , something settlers learned from the Choctaws and Houma. The maypop plant has been a favorite of Southerners for years; it gives its name to the Ocoee River in Tennessee, a legacy of the Cherokees, and in Southern Louisiana it is known as liane de grenade, indicating its consumption by Cajuns.
It is a close relative of the commercial passionfruit , similar in size, and is a common plant growing in gardens all over the South as a source of fresh summertime fruit. African American influences came with slaves from Ghana , Benin , Mali , Congo , Angola , Sierra Leone , Nigeria , and other portions of West Africa, and the mark African Americans and their descendants have made on Southern food is extremely strong today and an essential addition to the Southern table. Crops like okra , sorghum , sesame seeds , eggplant , and many different kinds of melons were brought with them from West Africa along with the incredibly important introduction of rice to the Carolinas and later to Texas and Louisiana , whence it became a staple grain of the region and still remains a staple today, found in dishes like Hoppin John , purloo, and Charleston red rice.
Like the poorer indentured servants that came to the South, slaves often got the leftovers of what was slaughtered for the consumption of the master of the plantation and so many recipes had to be adapted for offal, like pig's ears and fatbacks  though other methods encouraged low and slow methods of cooking to tenderize the tougher cuts of meat, like braising, smoking, and pit roasting, the last of which was a method known to West Africans in the preparation of roasting goat.
Certain portions of the South often have their own distinct subtypes of cuisine owing to local history and landscape, i. Cajun cuisine , Floridian cuisine, for example, has a distinct way of cooking that includes ingredients her other Southern sisters do not use, especially points south of Tampa and Orlando. The Spanish Crown had control of the state until the early 19th century and used the southern tip as an outpost to guard the Spanish Main beginning in the s, but Florida kept and still maintains ties with the Caribbean Sea , including the Bahamas Haiti , Cuba , Puerto Rico , the Dominican Republic , and Jamaica.
South of Tampa, there are and have been for a long time many speakers of Caribbean Spanish , Haitian French , Jamaican Patois , and Haitian Creole and each Caribbean culture has a strong hold on cooking methods and spices in Florida. In turn, each mixes and matches with the foodways of the Seminole tribe and Anglophone settlers.
Thus, for almost years, Floridian cooking has had a more tropical flavor than any other Southern state. Allspice , a spice originally from Jamaica , is an ingredient found in spice mixes in summer barbecues along with ginger , garlic , scotch bonnet peppers , sea salt, and nutmeg; in Floridian cooking this is often a variant of Jamaican jerk spice. Coconuts are grown in the areas surrounding Miami and are shipped in daily through its port for consumption of the milk, meat, and water of the coconut. The second has a red peel and an apple like after taste, and the third and fourth are used as a starch on nearly every Caribbean island as a side dish, baked or fried: all of the above are a staple of Florida outdoor markets when in season and all have been grown in the Caribbean for almost years.
Mangoes are grown as a backyard plant in Southern Florida and otherwise are a favorite treat coming in many different shapes in sizes from Nam Doc Mai , brought to Florida after the Vietnam War, to Madame Francis , a mango from Haiti. Sweetsop and soursop are popular around Miami, but nearly unheard of in other areas of the South. Citrus is a major crop of Florida, and features at every breakfast table and every market with the height of the season near the first week of January.
Hamlin oranges are the main cultivar planted, and from this crop the rest of the United States and to a lesser extent Europe gets orange juice. Other plantings would include grapefruits , tangerines , clementine oranges , limes , and even a few more rare ones, like cara cara navels , tangelos , and the Jamaican Ugli fruit. Tomatoes , bell peppers , habanero peppers , and figs, especially taken from the Florida strangler fig , complete the produce menu. Blue crab , conch , Florida stone crab , red drum , dorado , and marlins tend to be local favorite ingredients.
Dairy is available in this region, but it is less emphasized due to the year round warmth. Traditional key lime pie , a dessert from the islands off the coast of Miami, is made with condensed milk to form the custard with the eye wateringly tart limes native to the Florida Keys in part because milk would spoil in an age before refrigeration. Pork in this region tends to be roasted in methods similar to those found in Puerto Rico and Cuba, owing to mass emigration from those countries in the 20th century, especially in the counties surrounding Miami.
Ptarmigan , grouse , crow blackbirds, dove, ducks and other game fowl are consumed in the United States. In the American state of Arkansas , beaver tail stew is consumed in Cotton town. Cooking in the American West gets its influence from Native American and Hispanophone cultures, as well as later settlers that came in the 19th century: Texas, for example, has some influence from Germany in its choice of barbecue by using sausages. Another instance can be found in the Northwestern region, which encompasses Oregon , Washington , and Northern California. All of the aforementioned rely on local seafood and a few classics of their own.
Here, the terrain is mostly temperate rainforest on the Coast mixed with pine forest as one approaches the Canada—US border inland. One of the core favorite foodstuffs is Pacific salmon , native to many of the larger rivers of the area and often smoked or grilled on cedar planks. In Alaska , wild game like ptarmigan and moose meat feature extensively since much of the state is wilderness.
Fresh fish like steelhead trout , Pacific cod , Pacific halibut , and pollock are fished for extensively and feature on the menu of many restaurants, as do a plethora of fresh berries and vegetables, like Cameo apples from Washington state, the headquarters of the U. Hazelnuts are grown extensively in this region and are a feature of baking, such as in chocolate hazelnut pie, an Oregon favorite,  and Almond Roca is a local candy. Like its counterpart on the opposite coast to the East, there is a grand variety of shellfish in this region. Geoducks are a native species of giant clam that have incredibly long necks, and they are eaten by the bucket full as well as shipped to Asia for millions of dollars as they are believed to be an aphrodisiac.
Gaper clams are a favorite food, often grilled or steamed in a sauce, as is the native California abalone , which although protected as a food source is a traditional foodway predating settlement by whites and today features heavily in the cooking of fine restaurants as well as in home cooking, in mirin-flavored soups the influence of Japanese cooking is strong in the region noodle dishes and on the barbecue.
Olympia oysters are served on the half shell as well as the Kumamoto oyster , introduced by Japanese immigrants and a staple at dinner as an appetizer. California mussels are a delicacy of the region, and have been a feature of the cooking for generations: there is evidence that Native American tribes consumed them up and down the California coast for centuries in their masses. Crabs are a delicacy, and included in this are Alaskan king crab , red crab , yellow crab , and Dungeness crab. Californian and Oregonian sportsmen pursue the last three extensively using hoop nets, and prepare them in a multitude of ways.
Favorite grains are mainly wheat, and the region is known for sourdough bread. Today it is home of a large population of Native Americans , Hispanos , descendants of the American frontier , Asian Americans , and immigrants from Mexico and Latin America ; California, New Mexico, and Texas continue to hold their unique identities which is reflected in their distinct regional cuisines, the multiple cuisines of California , New Mexican cuisine , Texan cuisine , and Tex-Mex.
Spanish is a commonly spoken secondary language here; the state of New Mexico has its own distinct dialect. With the exception of Southern California, the signature meat is beef , since this is one of the two regions in which cowboys lived and modern cattle ranchers still eke out their living today. These cuts of meat are different from the related Mexican cuisine over the border in that certain kind of offal, like lengua tongue cabeza head and tripas tripe are considered less desirable and are thus less emphasized.
Typical cuts would include the ribs, brisket, sirloin, flank steak, skirt steak, and t-bone. Historically, Spanish settlers that came to the region found it completely unsuitable to the mining operations that much older settlements in Mexico had to offer as the technology of the age was not yet advanced enough to get at the silver that would later be found in the region. They had no knowledge of the gold to be discovered in California, something nobody would find until , and knew even less about the silver in Nevada, something nobody would find until after the Civil War. Likewise, settlers learned the cooking methods of those who came before and local tribes as well: for example, portions of Arizona and New Mexico still use the aforementioned beehive shaped clay contraption called an horno , an outdoor wood fired oven both Native American tribes like the Navajo and Spaniards used for roasting meat, maize, and baking bread.
In Utah, a state heavily populated by Mormons , alcohol is frowned upon by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints but still available in area bars in Salt Lake City, mainly consumed by the populations of Catholics and other Protestant denominations living there. Introduction of agriculture was limited prior to the 20th century and the development of better irrigation techniques, but included the addition of peaches , a crop still celebrated by Native American tribes like the Havasupai ,  and oranges; today in Arizona , Texas , and New Mexico the favored orange today is the Moro blood orange , which often finds its way into the local cuisine, like cakes and marmalade.
In California, Spanish missionaries brought with them the mission fig : today this fruit is a delicacy. Chili peppers play an important role in the cuisine, with a few native to the region such as the New Mexico chile pepper, knows as Hatch, New Mexico and Anaheim ; these still grown by Hispanos of New Mexico and Pueblo.
In New Mexico, chile is eaten on a variety of foods, such as the green chile cheeseburger, made popular by fast food chains such as Blake's Lotaburger. Indeed, even national fast food chains operating in the state, such as McDonald's , offer locally grown chile on many of their menu items. In the 20th century a few more recent additions have arrived like the poblano pepper , rocoto pepper , ghost pepper , thai chili pepper , and Korean pepper, the last three especially when discussing Southern California and its large population from East and South Asia.
Outdoor cooking is popular and still utilizes an old method settlers brought from the East with them, in which a cast iron dutch oven is covered with the coals of the fire and stacked or hung from a tripod: this is different from the earthenware pots of Mexico. Tortillas are still made the traditional way in this area and form an important component of the spicy breakfast burrito , which contains ham, eggs, and salsa or pico de gallo. They also comprise the regular burrito , which contains any combination of marinated meats, vegetables, and piquant chilis; The smothered burrito, often both containing and topped with New Mexico chile sauces; the quesadilla , a much loved grilled dish where cheese and other ingredients are stuffed between two tortillas and served by the slice, and the steak fajita , where sliced skirt steak sizzles in a skillet with caramelized onions.
Unlike Mexico, tortillas of this region also may incorporate vegetable matter like spinach into the flatbread dough to make wraps , which were invented in Southern California. Food here tends to use pungent spices and condiments, typically chili verde sauce, various kinds of hot sauce , sriracha sauce , chili powder , cayenne pepper , white pepper , cumin , paprika , onion powder , thyme and black pepper.
Nowhere is this fiery mix of spice more evident than in the dishes chili con carne , a meaty stew, and cowboy beans , both of which are a feature of regional cookoffs. Southern California has several additions like five spice powder , rosemary , curry powder , kimchi , and lemongrass , with many of these brought by recent immigration to the region and often a feature of Southern California's fusion cuisine, popular in fine dining.
In Texas, the local barbecue is often entirely made up of beef brisket or large rib racks, where the meat is seasoned with a spice rub and cooked over coals of mesquite , and in other portions of the state they smoke their meat and peppery sausages over high heat using pecan , apple , and oak and served it with a side of pickled vegetables, a legacy of German and Czech settlers of the late s. California is home to Santa Maria-style barbecue , where the spices involved generally are black pepper , paprika , and garlic salt , and grilled over the coals of coast live oak.
Native American additions may include Navajo frybread and corn on the cob , often roasted on the grill in its husk. A typical accompaniment or appetizer of all these states is the tortilla chip, which sometimes includes cornmeal from cultivars of corn that are blue or red in addition to the standard yellow of sweetcorn, and is served with salsa of varying hotness.
Tortilla chips also are an ingredient in the Tex Mex dish nachos , where these chips are loaded with any combination of ground beef, melted Monterey Jack, cheddar, or Colby cheese, guacamole , sour cream , and salsa, and Texas usually prefers a version of potato salad as a side dish.
For alcohol, a key ingredient is tequila : this spirit has been made on both sides of the US-Mexican border for generations,  and in modern cuisine it is a must have in a bartender's arsenal as well as an addition to dishes for sauteeing. Southern California is located more towards the coast and has had more contact with immigration from the West Pacific and Baja California , in addition to having the international city of Los Angeles as its capital. Here, the prime mode of transportation is by car. Drive through fast food was invented in this area, but so was the concept of the gourmet burger movement, giving birth to chains like In and Out Burger , with many variations of burgers including chili, multiple patties, avocado, special sauces, and angus or wagyu beef; common accompaniments include thick milkshakes in various flavors like mint, chocolate, peanut butter, vanilla, strawberry, and mango.
Smoothies are a common breakfast item made with fresh fruit juice, yogurt, and crushed ice. Agua fresca, a drink originated by Mexican immigrants, is a common hot weather beverage sold in many supermarkets and at mom and pop stands, available in citrus, watermelon, and strawberry flavors; the California version usually served chilled without grain in it. Soybeans , bok choy , Japanese persimmon , thai basil , Napa cabbage , nori , mandarin oranges , water chestnuts , and mung beans are other crops brought to the region from East Asia and are common additions to salads as the emphasis on fresh produce in both Southern and Northern California is strong.
Other vegetables and herbs have a distinct Mediterranean flavor which would include oregano , basil , summer squash , eggplant , and broccoli , with all of the above extensively available at farmers' markets all around Southern California. Naturally, salads native to Southern California tend to be hearty affairs, like Cobb salad and Chinese chicken salad , and dressings like green goddess and ranch are a staple.
California-style pizza tends to have disparate ingredients with an emphasis on vegetables, with any combination of chili oil, prawns, eggs, chicken, shiitake mushrooms, olives, bell pepper, goat cheese, and feta cheese.
Pioneering Charities 1888-1927
Peanut noodles tend to include a sweet dressing with lo mein noodles and chopped peanuts. Fresh fish and shellfish in Southern California tends to be expensive in restaurants, but every year since the end of WWII, the Pismo clam festival has taken place where the local population takes a large species of clam and bakes, stuffs, and roasts it as it is a regional delicacy.
California sheephead are often grilled and are much sought after by spear fishermen and the immigrant Chinese population, in which case it is basket steamed. Hawaii is often considered to be one of the most culturally diverse U. As a result, Hawaiian cuisine borrows elements of a variety of cuisines, particularly those of Asian and Pacific-rim cultures, as well as traditional native Hawaiian and a few additions from the American mainland. American influence of the last years has brought cattle, goats, and sheep to the islands, introducing cheese, butter, and yogurt products, as well as crops like red cabbage.
From Japan, the concept of serving raw fish as a meal with rice was introduced, as was soft tofu, setting the stage for the popular dish called poke. From Korea, immigrants to Hawaii brought a love of spicy garlic marinades for meat and kimchi. From China, their version of char siu baau became modern manapua , a type of steamed pork bun with a spicy filling. Each East Asian culture brought several different kinds of noodles, including udon , ramen , mei fun , and pho , and today these are common lunchtime meals.
Traditionally, women and men ate separately under the Hawaiian kapu system, a system of religious beliefs that honored the Hawaiian gods similar to the Maori tapu system, though in this case had some specific prohibitions towards females eating things like coconut, pork, turtle meat, and bananas as these were considered parts of the male gods. Punishment for violation could be severe, as a woman might endanger a man's mana, or soul, by eating with him or otherwise by eating the forbidden food because doing so dishonored all the male gods.
As the system broke down after , introductions of foods from laborers on plantations began to be included at feasts and much cross pollination occurred, where Asian foodstuffs mixed with Polynesian foodstuffs like breadfruit , kukui nuts , and purple sweet potatoes. Some notable Hawaiian fare includes seared ahi tuna, opakapaka snapper with passionfruit, Hawaiian island-raised lamb, beef and meat products, Hawaiian plate lunch , and Molokai shrimp.
Tropical fruits equally play an important role in the cuisine as a flavoring in cocktails and in desserts, including local cultivars of bananas , sweetsop , mangoes , lychee , coconuts , papayas , and lilikoi passionfruit. Pineapples have been an island staple since the 19th century and figure into many marinades and drinks.
Chicken, pork and corn cooking in a barbecue smoker. New York—style pizza served at a pizzeria in New York City. Chicago-style deep-dish pizza from the original Giordano's location. There are recipes for Chilean meat pies, chicken chop suey , chow mein , Mexican pork pastries and Italian meatballs going back to at least the s, but many of the recipes were Anglicized and they appeared relatively infrequently compared to Northern European recipes.
Louise Rice, author of Dainty Dishes from Foreign Lands describes the recipes in her book as "not wholly vegetarian" though noting at the time of publication in that most of the recipes would likely be new to average American cooks and likely contain higher proportions of vegetables to meat. The demand for ethnic foods in the United States reflects the nation's changing diversity as well as its development over time. According to the National Restaurant Association ,. Driven by consumer demand, the ethnic food market reached record sales in , and has emerged as the fastest growing category in the food and beverage product sector, according to USBX Advisory Services.
Minorities in the U. A movement began during the s among popular leading chefs to reclaim America's ethnic foods within its regional traditions, where these trends originated. One of the earliest was Paul Prudhomme , who in began the introduction of his influential cookbook, Paul Prodhomme's Louisiana Kitchen , by describing the over year history of Creole and Cajun cooking; he aims to "preserve and expand the Louisiana tradition. Norman Van Aken embraced a Floridian type cuisine fused with many ethnic and globalized elements in his Feast of Sunlight cookbook in California became swept up in the movement, then seemingly started to lead the trend itself, in, for example, the popular restaurant Chez Panisse in Berkeley.
Examples of the Chez Panisse phenomenon, chefs who embraced a new globalized cuisine, were celebrity chefs like Jeremiah Tower and Wolfgang Puck , both former colleagues at the restaurant. Puck went on to describe his belief in contemporary, new style American cuisine in the introduction to The Wolfgang Puck Cookbook :.
Another major breakthrough, whose originators were once thought to be crazy, is the mixing of ethnic cuisines. It is not at all uncommon to find raw fish listed next to tortillas on the same menu. Ethnic crossovers also occur when distinct elements meet in a single recipe. This country is, after all, a huge melting pot. Why should its cooking not illustrate the American transformation of diversity into unity?
Puck's former colleague, Jeremiah Tower became synonymous with California Cuisine and the overall American culinary revolution. Meanwhile, the restaurant that inspired both Puck and Tower became a distinguished establishment, popularizing its so called "mantra" in its book by Paul Bertolli and owner Alice Waters , Chez Panisse Cooking , in Published well after the restaurants' founding in , this new cookbook from the restaurant seemed to perfect the idea and philosophy that had developed over the years.
The book embraced America's natural bounty, specifically that of California, while containing recipes that reflected Bertoli and Waters' appreciation of both northern Italian and French style foods. While the earliest cuisine of the United States was influenced by Native Americans , the thirteen colonies , or the antebellum South ; the overall culture of the nation, its gastronomy and the growing culinary arts became ever more influenced by its changing ethnic mix and immigrant patterns from the 18th and 19th centuries unto the present.
Some of the ethnic groups that continued to influence the cuisine were here in prior years; while others arrived more numerously during "The Great Transatlantic Migration " of — or other mass migrations. Some of the ethnic influences could be found across the nation after the American Civil War and into the continental expansion for most of the 19th century. Ethnic influences already in the nation at that time would include the following groups and their respective cuisines:.
Mass migrations of immigrants to the United States came in several waves. Historians identify several waves of migration to the United States: one from to , in which some five million English , Irish , Germanic , Scandinavian , and others from northwestern Europe came to the United States; one from to , in which some 10 million immigrants, also mainly from northwestern Europe, settled, and a third from to , in which 15 million immigrants, mainly from central , eastern , and southern Europe many Austrian , Hungarian , Turkish , Lithuanian , Russian , Jewish , Greek , Italian , and Romanian settled in the United States.
Together with earlier arrivals to the United States including the indigenous Native Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans , particularly in the West , Southwest , and Texas ; African Americans who came to the United States in the Atlantic slave trade ; and early colonial migrants from Britain, France, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere , these new waves of immigrants had a profound impact on national or regional cuisine. Some of these more prominent groups include the following:. Italian, Mexican and Chinese Cantonese cuisines have indeed joined the mainstream.
These three cuisines have become so ingrained in the American culture that they are no longer foreign to the American palate. According to the study, more than nine out of 10 consumers are familiar with and have tried these foods, and about half report eating them frequently. The research also indicates that Italian, Mexican and Chinese Cantonese have become so adapted to such an extent that "authenticity" is no longer a concern to customers. Contributions from these ethnic foods have become as common as traditional "American" fares such as hot dogs, hamburgers, beef steak , which are derived from German cuisine , chicken-fried steak , for example, is a variation on German schnitzel , cherry pie, Coca-Cola , milkshakes , fried chicken Fried chicken is of Scottish and African influence and so on.
Nowadays, Americans also have a ubiquitous consumption of foods like pizza and pasta , tacos and burritos to " General Tso's chicken " and fortune cookies. Fascination with these and other ethnic foods may also vary with region. American chefs have been influential both in the food industry and in popular culture. American cooking has been exported around the world, both through the global expansion of restaurant chains such as T.
Friday's and McDonald's and the efforts of individual restaurateurs such as Bob Payton, credited with bringing American-style pizza to the UK. The first generation of television chefs such as Robert Carrier and Julia Child tended to concentrate on cooking based primarily on European, especially French and Italian, cuisines. Only during the s and s did television chefs such as James Beard and Jeff Smith shift the focus towards home-grown cooking styles, particularly those of the different ethnic groups within the nation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see American cuisine disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Tattersall :. Jewish cookery book : compiled for use in the cookery centres under the School Board for London.
Omnivore Books on Food
The economical Jewish cook. A modern orthodox recipe book for young housekeepers. Especially adapted as a class book for schools. May Henry:. A modern Orthodox recipe book for young housekeepers. This is the 3 rd edition. A collection of recipes including a selection suitable for Jewish cookery. London , , [? Dainty dinners and dishes for Jewish families. Guinteau :. London , . The little book of Jewish cookery.
London . The Jewish Chronicle Cookery Book. Some traditional Jewish recipes. Foreword by Fannie Prag. Printed in USA. Esther Levy. Jewish cookery book. On principles of economy, adapted for Jewish housekeepers. Philadelphia This is the first Jewish-American cookbook. The recipes follow the Jewish dietary laws. A facsimile reprint ca.
Foreign and domestic receipts for the household. A valuable collection of receipts and hints for the housewife, many of which are not to be found elsewhere. Many new editions, the 9 th edition in The book reflects the strength of the Reform Judaism with non-kosher recipes lobster, crab, oyster, shrimp, ham.
Lizzie Black Kander :. The Settlement Cook Book. Milwaukie , Wisconsin Printed in between 20 and 40 editions, according to Barbara Kirschenblatt-Gimblett. Cook book compiled for the building fund of Temple Israel. Omaha , Nebraska Pots, pans and pie-plates and how to use them. A collection of tried receipts. Baltimore , Maryland Collected by the Hebrew Day Nursery. David Hirschler :. Council cook book. San Francisco , California Published by the San Francisco section of the Council of Jewish women.
The Auxiliary Cook Book. The Practical Cook Book. The Flower City Cook Book. Rochester , New York Published under the auspices of the Sisterhood affiliated with congregation Berith Kodesh. Cook Book. Joplin , Missouri The Royal No. A Collection of Tried Recipes. Joseph , Missouri [ca. Davis Milling Company in St.
Joseph produced a flour called Royal No. Recipes tried and true. Yonkers , New York Compiled by the ladies of the Sisterhood of Temple Emanuel. Alfred Loeb:. The best by test cook book. The Neighbourhood Cook Book. Portland , Oregon ca. Florence Kreisler Greenbaum :. The International Jewish Cook Book. Many later editions, some of them under the title.
Jewish cook book. The Center Table. Boston , Massachusetts , Beaumont , Texas Compiled by the Council of Jewish Women. The Stockton Community Cook Book.
Francesca Salerno (Author of The Pakistan Conspiracy, A Novel Of Espionage)
Stockton , California Compiled by the Ladies of Temple Israel. Sigismund Aronson, Mrs. Samuel Brown et al. Seattle , Washington Juliett Guggenheim Frank et al. Helpful Hints to Housewives. Los Angeles , California Famous Recipes by Famous Women. El Paso , Texas A new edition with additions was published in with the title Recipes.
A treasure chest of cooking gems. Peter Stathas :. Universal Course in Expert Cookery. New York [ca. Rumford Company. What shall I serve? Famous recipes for Jewish housewives. Rumford , Rhode Island ca. Snappy Eats of Pine Bluff , Arkansas Compiled by the Temple Sisterhood.
Mildred Grosberg Bellin. Modern Kosher meals. Oh, was that an understatement. Edna Lewis, inarguably, helped shape Southern cookery. Born in Virginia in , Lewis first garnered acclaimed in the s as owner and chef of a restaurant in Manhattan called Cafe Nicholson. Consider the time: Lewis was a black female head chef, and needless to say, back then it was more the exception than the rule. But where she was most influential was in her cookbooks, of which she authored four during her lifetime Lewis died in at age I was most curious to read the foreword by Alice Waters, who cited Miss Lewis as she was universally called as an important influence, if somewhat surreptitiously.
As I read through the first pages of the book, I felt a peace that had left me years before, and I read the entire book in one day. She had that proud sense of place and a tireless drive to eat well. But more importantly, she showed me that my own roots in rural American farming culture and my own ardency in seeking those flavors I remembered from the woods, the waters, and the garden—those were my true strengths.
They were inside me the whole time, lying dormant, waiting for someone like Miss Lewis to awaken. I had lost myself when I hid them to pursue fickle restaurant trends. There was more reading to do, and I found The Edna Lewis Cookbook , her seminal treatise, in which she sang the virtues of pure and fresh ingredients and seasonal cooking. Perhaps my favorite Edna Lewis Cookbook is In Pursuit of Flavor , first published in and republished this week in a handsome hardcover from Alfred A. Consider the culinary scene from 30 years ago: California Cuisine was causing an earthquake in American culinary culture and Paul Prudhomme was transforming our perceptions of Creole Cuisine.
Meanwhile, Edna Lewis was at least a decade ahead of the curve. She anticipated the heirloom crop and heritage breed livestock revival, calling on her readers to seek out Kirby cucumbers for pickles, Kieffer pears for canning, Kentucky Wonder beans, Black-Seeded Stimpson lettuce, eggs from Barred Rock and Rhode Island Red chickens, on down through the pantry and larder.