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- à : to, toward, towards
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Some medical care was provided by a part-time doctor and two nurses, but they are overwhelmed by the demand. The local hospital responded to pressure from the French forces, and recently opened again, but as it is outside the enclave, it was still too dangerous for Muslims to go there. Muslims climbing onto a truck, hoping to leave the PK-5 neighborhood in Bangui where the anti-Balaka had kept them under siege for months.
The truck could not proceed, as it was unsafe. Anti-Balaka forces attacked the village, killing ten adults and wounding a large number of children. Ousman Mustapha has an undiagnosed infection and has been paralyzed for a week. As one of the 11 Muslims under siege in the Boda neighborhood, he cannot leave to get medical care.
Any person attempting to go outside is attacked by anti-Balaka fighters. At Bangui Community Hospital, the people lying on the floor were wounded in the violence when anti-Balaka militia attempted to regain control of the city on December 5, Bangui Community Hospital morgue: a man preparing bodies for burial. Dozens of victims, all Christians, had been killed by Seleka forces in the violence on December 5, Bangui Community Hospital: a Christian wounded in fighting with Muslims, waiting for medical care. During a ceremony for Fleury Domana 21 two days after she was killed by a Seleka grenade.
There is no proper sanitation or hygiene, and almost no access to food, water or medical care. A grieving relative of Sept-Abel Sangomalet, a year-old Christian killed by Muslims who entered the family home and stabbed him in his sleep. Displaced persons protesting against the shortage of food at Don Bosco camp, housing 18 people who fled Bangui because of violence between Seleka and anti-Balaka fighters. French reporter working for French radio Europe 1 since In his 30 year-career, he has covered many armed conflicts.
Fondation Sanofi Espoir. Since July , the battle had been raging between government forces and insurgents with the Free Syrian Army FSA fighting for control of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo. Medical centers treating casualties in rebel-held districts became a military target, forcing doctors to work in an undercover network of clinics and hospitals. One of these is Dar al-Shifa hospital: previously a private clinic owned by a businessman loyal to President Bashar Assad, Dar al-Shifa became a field hospital run by volunteer doctors, nurses and aides united in their opposition to the regime and the need to provide medical care to both civilians and rebels.
Sebastiano Tomada first covered the Syrian revolution in Idlib and along the border between Syria and Lebanon, then shifted his attention inside Aleppo where he began covering the advances and losses of the Free Syrian Army. With a focus on daily life and medical conditions in a city under siege, Sebastiano shows what is cruel reality for the men, women and children who continue to live in the besieged city of Aleppo. A Free Syrian Army fighter wounded on one of the frontlines in the city is rushed to a field hospital.certum.wecan-group.com/rocket-ship.php
Pourquoi les ethnologues s’établissent en enfer  - hujekarezubo.ga
An injured child waiting for treatment in one of the last hospitals still standing in Aleppo. Medical centers treating casualties in rebel-held districts appear to have been specifically targeted by the military, forcing doctors to work from an undercover network of clinics and small field hospitals.
A civilian with severe wounds is taken from Dar al-Shifa hospital to be sent to Turkey for life-saving treatment. A father and son after an air attack, waiting for medical treatment in one of the last hospitals still standing in Aleppo. An injured child with his father after being treated by the very small team at a medical facility.
Civilians in al-Sukkari neighborhood after an airstrike by government forces, searching for survivors and taking a victim to a makeshift hospital. An abandoned ambulance in Moshed, a neighborhood in a liberated part of the city which is a Free Syrian Army stronghold. Physician, researcher, former president of Doctors Without Borders. Ces opposants voyaient juste. They could still remember and the Hama massacre, the cruel epilogue to crush an Islamist revolt that had been going on for three years.
According to estimates, the number of dead was between 10 and 20 The opponents were right.
Since March 17, , and the first killings in Deraa in the south of the country, the Syrian regime has again opted for a military response, plus a few purely cosmetic reforms on the side. Under this pressure, the Free Syrian Army formed, their ranks filled with deserters and civilians, and the angry demonstrations still continued every Friday. Over the last fifteen months the country has been in the grips of unbelievable violence — the violence of a State with total disregard for even the most basic humanitarian principles.
Hospitals, medical centers and doctors have been targeted, as opponents are methodically hunted down across the country. To help maintain its chance of survival, the Syrian regime has chosen the inhumane option, with no going back, spreading hate and triggering reprisals, settling old scores: the choice of the scorched earth policy. A man hit by sniper fire is evacuated in a vehicle which is then likely to be targeted.
The man did not survive. At the weekly demonstration on Friday, injured civilians are being taken to a medical center kept secret for fear of reprisals. The faces, shop signs and taxi number have been concealed at the request of the local community. Quartier de Bayada, janvier Bayada neighborhood, January Taha 10 was shot dead by a sniper on the roof of the local post office.
Taha was in a taxi with his mother, brothers and sisters when their vehicle was targeted. His sister, Taha 5 was shot in the shoulder. Quartier de Karm al-Zaytoun, janvier Karm al-Zaytoun neighborhood, January Victims of sniper fire and nail bomb attacks poured into the makeshift two-room medical center. A young man shot in the head was given emergency treatment; this man had been hit in the chest; then a woman with a serious wound to the jaw, staring in horror; next a man injured by a nail bomb that went off near a different healthcare center.
The nurses did what they could, but three of the victims died. Syrie, Homs. Overworked nurses with very little medical equipment. They agreed to be photographed, but not their faces. Quartier de Bayada. Bayada neighborhood. February The secret medical center can barely cope with the number of persons hit by mortar fire in the district. Quartier de Khalidiya, novembre Khalidiyya neighborhood, November Ahmed 15 was hit in the leg by sniper fire while going shopping.
The street was quiet and Ahmed had not sensed any danger. He is being treated by a nursing aide and will then be taken to a private hospital which only deals with serious cases. Public hospitals are not used because of the risk of being arrested. La veille, dans la nuit, le quartier a subi un bombardement intensif provoquant la mort de personnes.
Khalidiyya neighborhood, February A heavy bomb attack on the area the night before killed people and left the neighborhood in a state of shock. And yet, after praying for the dead, a few thousand demonstrators were even more determined to continue the protest, regardless of the cost. Quartier de Khalidiyya, octobre Khalidiyya neighborhood, October The man was shot without warning at a roadblock at al-Qahira roundabout because he reversed after realizing he had missed the exit.
His wife was beside him. He was shot in the neck and died later, despite efforts by the doctors in the makeshift medical center. Quartier de Karm al-Zaytoun. Physician, academic and writer. He currently teaches at Sciences Po Grenoble. They are determined to stay there until President Ali Abdallah Saleh, who has held power in Yemen for 33 years, steps down. From the mountains in the North to valleys in south, from the shores of the Red Sea to the wadis of Hadhramaut, youth movements have reached every province in the country.
After , under the leadership of Bellerose and with royal patronage, and particularly after their theater building was refurbished in , they reestablished themselves as the leading Paris company and for the first time put on rival productions of plays previously performed at the Marais; when Floridor joined them from that company, Pierre Corneille also gave them the first performances of his new plays.
This definition encompasses a very wide range of tones, from hilarious and grotesque clowning to sophisticated wit. In both the 19th and 20th centuries, the clear distinction between the tragic and the comic was broken down: Victor Hugo insisted that his drame fused together the sublime and the grotesque, and Absurd Theater similarly drew on extremes of hilarity and comic inventiveness to explore fundamentally serious themes. An Italian theatrical tradition dependent on stock characters, schematized gestures, use of masks or visors and improvisation.
Their performances, although based on a strong central story line Italian canovaccio, French canevas , consisted of separate comic routines for which the Italian word lazzi is also used in French , enabling the actors to incorporate local and contemporaneous references and to respond dynamically to each audience. Movement promulgating the political engagement of theatrical activity, particularly associated with the period after World War II.
A company of actors established in Paris in to perform mystery plays and given official status by Charles VI in Major French stage director of the interwar years. He was also involved in antisemitic politics at the time of the Dreyfus affair — If that play, which seems Shakespearean in its systematic defiance of all the aspects of unity, harmony and concision that were to characterize French classicism, had achieved greater success, the path of 17th-century French drama might have been very different.
Horace and Cinna are Roman tragedies exploring the relationship between politics and personal emotion, while Polyeucte is a martyr play. Following the failure of Pertharite in , he abandoned the theater for almost a decade, devoting himself to religious verse writing, but during that period he revised many of his earlier plays and published them, together with critical and theoretical texts, in a collected edition in Brother of Pierre Corneille and himself a top-ranking dramatist and opera librettist, although posterity has accorded him considerably less status than Pierre.
Like the latter, he produced successful works in many genres, and his tragedy Timocrate , performed at the Marais theater in the presence of the king, was the single most successful play in 17thcentury France. The complexity of his plots, often based on mistaken identity or other misunderstandings, and the sentimentality of his characterization and poetic language, appealed to his contemporaries, who were less concerned than posterity about his lack of originality and the artificiality of many of his situations.
The clothes worn by actors form an integral part of the message received by the spectators. The director and designer have discretion to impose a balance between realism and convention: costumes may reflect the period in which the action of the play is set, the period in which it was first performed or a different period to which the action has been transferred, or they may be purely symbolic. Seventeenth-century French actors owned their costumes and tended to use them indiscriminately, with at most some symbolic additions—ribbons or patches of ermine—to suggest a specific status or location.
Evocation of the ancient world was achieved by the use of togas for male characters. Costume provided an essential ingredient in the Realist and Naturalist theater of the 19th century, dominated by the quest for accuracy and authenticity. Modern theater generally stresses the symbolism of costume rather than the depiction of any precise period.
Pseudonym of Georges Victor Marcel Moinaux — , comic dramatist in the boulevard farce and vaudeville tradition, which he carried into the early 20th century. She gained some notoriety through a particularly gruesome and spectacular suicide scene in Le Sphinx by Octave Feuillet — She retired in to live in the country with the banker Jacques Stern, whom she married in Her brother-in-law, the prolific portrait painter Carolus Duran — , left an impressive painting of her on horseback.
Belgian actor, journalist and dramatist who divided his life between Brussels and Paris. Le Cocu magnifique obtained an international reputation, being directed all over Europe and by Vsevolod Meyerhold — in the Soviet Union. Artistic movement that flourished between and , associated particularly with Pablo Picasso — and Georges Braque — These plays are characterized by the exploration of a somewhat morbid psychology.
His thesis plays, exploring philosophical ideas and moral dilemmas in a Naturalist style, also included La Nouvelle Idole The New Idol, , which tackles the moral implications of scientific progress, and Terre inhumaine Inhuman Land, A nihilistic version of Surrealism, associated particularly with Tristan Tzara. Noted developer of early photography, also distinguished in his day as a scenic artist and stage lighting specialist.
They combine witty dialogue with a realistic depiction of the society of the time, poking fun at snobbery and pretentiousness and portraying with cynicism all levels of society, including the peasantry. He also wrote court entertainments and operatic parodies. Prolific popular novelist best known for racy police thrillers published under the pseudonym San Antonio.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson — Stage name of Joseph Jean-Baptiste Albouy — , actor. Stage name of Catherine Le Clerc du Rozet — , actress. Born Catherine Leclerc, she was both the daughter and the wife of actors: her father Claude Leclerc? Term used to describe the result of any technique, acting style or production device that has the effect of reminding the spectators that what they are witnessing is a performance rather than reality.
Defamiliarization has its roots in Russian Formalist criticism of the early 20th century, when it was perceived as a function of all art to cast new light on the everyday; in drama it is often seen as having a double function, making the spectators reassess both their conventional lives and the role of theater in society. She performed at the Gymnase and with Scribe and the actor-director Charles-Gaspard Delestre-Poirson — made it the most successful rival to the royal theater companies at that time.
Late in her career she became a supporter of Victorien Sardou, and bought a theater which still bears her name in order to promote his plays. Dramatist, novelist and academic. Dramatist and poet whose lyrics were widely set to music. Prolific author of sentimental novels and melodramas, including Les Deux Orphelines The Two Orphan Girls, , and a dramatization of the popular novel Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours Around the World in Eighty Days, published , stage adaptation performed by Jules Verne — He has also appeared in more than 50 films and television dramas.
Actor, diplomat and dramatist whose works were successful in his lifetime but have been forgotten by posterity. Deutsch is also a prolific translator, particularly of English science fiction. He was opposed to Wagnerism but put forward a new conception of total performance to which painters, musicians and scenario writers all contributed. Philosopher and author, a major figure in the Enlightenment and the most prominent of the French Encyclopedists.
à : to, toward, towards
Diderot wrote a further comedy, Estil bon? Is He Good? Is He Evil? Hardouin appears to be partly autobiographical. In the course of his exploits he finds the statue of a Commander whom he has earlier killed; he playfully invites the statue to dine with him, and the play ends spectacularly when the statue drags Dom Juan down to a flaming underworld. Former professor of dramaturgy at the Paris Conservatoire who succeeded Robert Abirached as French national director of theater and spectacle in Stage name of Marie Delaunay — , actress, the illegitimate daughter of members of a touring company.
All speech in drama effectively operates on two levels: the characters address each other, and their remarks are conveyed to or overheard by an audience. Such devices present problems to those theoretical schools of thought that insist on total verisimilitude. Double enunciation is the source of dramatic irony, since the full meaning of any remark is likely to be different in the minds of the onstage interlocutor and of the spectator.
In French as in many languages the basic word for theater, derived from the Greek word for action. The French word drame has a more technical sense, in both the 18th and 19th centuries, to refer to a theatrical genre supported both by Denis Diderot and by the Romantic dramatists Victor Hugo and Alfred de Musset, in which elements of tragedy and comedy are combined to produce a more authentic and realistic representation.
Actor, dramatist and stage director. He built his reputation initially on witty improvisatory dialogues, performed on radio or stage and published under the title Diablogues Duchesnois was less physically attractive but won supporters for her voice and spontaneous delivery. She retired in Dramatist who adapted the plays of William Shakespeare for performance in French. Because he was not versed in English, he based his version on earlier literary translations and like English dramatists of the 17th and 18th centuries produced plays that were more regular and classical than the originals.
He insisted on the primacy of text over directorial gimmicks. Early Romantic author most remembered for his novels but also an important dramatist in the period when the influence of William Shakespeare was first being felt. She was a rival of Adrienne Lecouvreur and Mlle Clairon: her own reputation was based on the passionate intensity of her acting. Professional name used by Dora Angela Duncan — , American dancer and choreographer. She worked in Paris from In he returned to journalism and became an influential critic, author and dramatist. Authorial pseudonym of Marguerite Donnadieu — , author and dramatist.
From an Indochinese background, she came to Paris in and began her literary career as a novelist. Le Square , revised , based on her own novel of had more impact as a radio play than onstage. Publicly critical of Alexandre Hardy in , he belonged to the generation of dramatists who heralded the classical period by fostering the introduction of greater regularity.
Stage and professional name used by Alex Martin — , actor, stage director and theater administrator. Although tempted to leave, they feel obliged to remain on this spot, where they are to meet Godot. Their desultory, often meaningless and directionless conversation is interrupted by the arrival, not of Godot but of Pozzo, a theatrical sadist who leads his slave, Lucky, on a long lead.
It is not so much a play about waiting, whatever Godot may be taken to represent, but a demonstration of the act of waiting; the characters have more in common with clowns than with representational types, the dialogue is more like the content of a nightmare than a rational discourse. It is in these ways that En Attendant Godot, like much French drama of the midth century, challenges both the lifestyle of the theater-going classes and their expectations about theater itself.
They were characterized by wearing the costume of traditional court jesters and by a light-hearted approach to material, which sometimes brought them into conflict with religious authorities. Stage director. It has been plausibly argued that his influence, replacing to some extent that of Seneca, which had dominated previous French tragic drama, was more decisive than Jansenism in shaping the bleak tragic outlook of Jean Racine.
In France, Vincent van Gogh — conveyed inner turmoil through the swirling brush strokes of such works as The Starry Night , while Henri Matisse — and the Fauvists scandalized the public by their unconventional use of color. Later Expressionist painters, such as Emil Nolde — , Georges Rouault — and Paul Klee — , were increasingly disenchanted with bourgeois materialism, and it was this attitude that allied them with other art forms, including literature, drama and opera.
Although Expressionism in literature is primarily associated with Germany, whereas the French reaction against Realism is found in Symbolism, the creation and production of French drama in the first three decades of the 20th century were significantly influenced by the fiction of Franz Kafka — , the operas of Alban Berg — and the dramas of August Strindberg — and Gerhart Hauptmann — , all of which depicted a world in which the human spirit had been distorted by industrialization, bureaucracy and mechanization.
Belgian dramatist and translator. A verse tale, generally earthy and satirical. This popular form balanced the longer and more grandiloquent epic poems that dominated medieval French literature. Naturalist dramatist. After unsuccessful careers as a soldier and as a provincial actor, he devoted himself to writing and won a prize at the Jeux Floraux de Toulouse. French name for one of the recurrent stock characters in comedy, a braggart soldier who is in reality an inept coward but who boasts of military and amorous exploits. Comic drama usually characterized by suggestive crudity and whimsical wit.
With its origins in the fabliau, it was established as a distinct dramatic genre in medieval times, associated with La Basoche and Les Enfants sans souci. The dialogue was characterized by eloquence and wit, and the play as a whole directed biting satire against current behavior and social or political authority. In the classical period, farce was considered a style of acting rather than a genre, associated particularly with Gros-Guillaume, Gaultier-Garguille, Jodelet, Tabarin and Turlupin. Dramatist, librettist and theater director. Stage name of Edwige Caroline Cunati — , actress.
Best known author of boulevard farces. Dramatist and journalist. Stage name of Josias de Soulas, sieur de Primefosse — , actor. His daughter married the author Antoine de Montfleury in Author and politician. These events divided acting communities between those who supported the need for reform of feudal abuses and those who remained loyal to an aristocracy that had provided patronage.
An artistic and poetic movement started in Italy by Filippo Marinetti — and associated with Dadaism. Futurist artists, excited by the promise of the early 20th century, celebrated the mechanization and motion of city life and sought to abolish the past. Ornate theater building in central Paris built in for performances of opera, musicals and ballet. In — it was redesigned and refurbished as a center for the performance of contemporary music and digital art. Humanist scholar, poet and dramatist who established the forms of tragedy and tragicomedy in the preclassical period.
A lawyer by profession, he wrote tragedies in imitation of Seneca, most notably Hippolyte and MarcAntoine , tragedies on Greek models, La Troade The Trojan Women, and Antigone , a tragicomedy, Bradamante , and a biblical tragedy, Les Juives The Jewish Women, , generally regarded as his masterpiece. All are characterized by eloquent lyricism, as victims lament their misfortunes, the chorus explains and comments on the action, and all characters punctuate their speeches with maxims, rhetorical devices and moral discussions, but not without a sense of the dramatic, through which Garnier conveyed a sense of fatality and tragic irony.
The death of his anarchist father in the course of a political demonstration no doubt consolidated his own political convictions, but it was always through writing that he sought to achieve political change. Le Labyrinthe, dealing with the political problems of Northern Ireland, was performed at the Avignon Festival in From , he was closely associated with Gros-Guillaume and Turlupin, and this trio dominated the Paris stage until He also had a reputation as a witty burlesque author. Professional pseudonym of Firmin Tonnerre — , actor and stage director.
He was particularly associated with the early work of Romain Rolland. In all these roles his object was to modernize theatrical activities and bring them to a wider public. The last play was written in and performed in German in Munich and Berlin and in English in London directed by Peter Brook before its first performances in French. He transferred in to the Palais-Royal, where he continued working in a similar repertoire until He supported Pierre Lafon against the ageing Talma, and Mlle George against Mlle Duchesnois, and resisted the increasing influence on early Romantic drama of Shakespearean and German models.
One of the literary giants of the French 20th century, although his involvement with theater was limited. His early works reflect the influence of Symbolism, his novels and journals contain a somewhat introverted and at times tortured reflection on the nature of humanity, on religion and on sexuality, and his output as a whole is marked by its confessional tone and its constant questioning of literary and social conventions. He won the Nobel Prize for literature in Writer, best known as novelist, although he also wrote poems and plays. Dramatist in the classical school of the interwar period, particularly associated with Louis Jouvet.
A dramatist of ideas, he wrote intense and linguistically sophisticated comedies incorporating serious political debates, although his reputation has become somewhat tarnished due to an association with rather dated preciosity. Although many of them explore a sense of fatality, and he was a perceptive critic of Racinian tragedy, he is inclined to challenge blind fatalism in his characters rather than conniving with their sense of helplessness. Giraudoux also wrote novels and worked as a diplomat and civil servant. Brothers whose strongly Naturalist literary work was published under their joint names.
After a number of youthful attempts at drama and vaudeville, they concentrated mainly on fiction, social history and art criticism. In , Edmond tried in vain to persuade Sarah Bernhardt to appear in his adaptation of his novel La Faustin, which is about an actress. He was also an operatic librettist and published a two-volume journal. Painter and illustrator whose use of the human body as an art object makes his work a point of intersection between art, dance and drama.
French operatic composer, conductor and church organist. After World War II, the theater also staged detective thrillers and science fiction dramas until it closed in His early works were judged too ornate by Paris audiences, so like Jean-Baptiste Lully in the previous century he imitated the prosody of French classical acting to combine more effectively Italianate melody with French diction.
Poet and dramatist, although more distinguished in his own day as a medical doctor. As a convert to Protestantism, he spent much of his life in exile. Poet and dramatist. His name first appears in legal documents as leader of a troupe of actors in Paris in He also used the stage name La Fleur, probably to distinguish his work in more serious genres from his principal reputation as a farceur.
From , he was closely associated with Gaultier-Garguille and Turlupin, and this trio dominated the Paris stage until Theater building and acting company in Paris. Actor, a member of the Parisian Marais company from about Although he signed a fresh fiveyear contract with Bellerose in , he broke it to pursue a medical career. Son of Lucien Guitry, and an even more famous boulevard and later film actor than his father. Theater building and company in Paris, founded in , and a major center for social drama under the Realist director Lemoine-Montigny during the Second Empire.
She had previously performed in both Algiers and Cairo. She obtained a minor reputation as a singer in operetta before going on to make her name in social dramas such as those by Georges Ohnet and an adaptation of Sapho by the popular Realist novelist Alphonse Daudet — Inspired by Jean-Paul Sartre and Bertolt Brecht, he sought to use theater as a medium for debate and social change and acknowledged also the influence of the verbal dexterity of Jacques Audiberti.
Prolific dramatist, librettist and author of vaudevilles, mostly in collaboration with Henri Meilhac. Prolific playwright who furnished the staple repertoire of Paris theater in the early 17th century. The first author to make writing plays in French a professional career, he wrote in a variety of genres—tragedy, tragicomedy, pastorale and comedy—all characterized by irregularity and coarseness and using either mythological or romantic subjects. There is some evidence that he may also have been an actor.
His resistance to the imposition of formal rules for regular tragedy was marked by his continuing depiction of violence, his use of trivial and nonstandard vocabulary, and his mixing of genres; he defended these practices in his polemical preface to Le Ravissement de Proserpine The Abduction of Persephone.
Historian and poet who wrote a small number of unsuccessful tragedies and comedies. The play was almost designed to provoke conservative elements in the audience, with unconventional metrical features in the verse, undignified behavior from regal characters, extravagant sets and a systematic undermining of the unities. The resulting controversy triggered the bataille de Hernani. The resulting controversy probably did little to change the minds or tastes of either party but ensured the ongoing interest of the public in new drama.
Dramatist, novelist, professional diplomat and journalist. French term for a ham actor or mountebank. Swiss composer, brought up in Le Havre and largely resident in Paris. A system of social conventions, based on reason, good taste and compromise, that dominated polite society in 17th-century France and had a significant influence on what was considered acceptable in theater. Impresario, stage and film actor and stage director. Although some alterations to the exterior of the building were authorized in , financial difficulties prevented any major improvements to the auditorium.
Renovation and modernization of the building eventually took place in , using the recently refurbished Marais as a model. The theater was directed from until by Marcel Pinard? Romantic poet, novelist and dramatist whose work dominated 19th-century France. The invention on the spot, properly of text, but by extension of gesture, facial expression or other action. Techniques of improvisation are very widely used in the training of both actors and directors, and the advance preparation of almost all performances will involve experiments in which actors improvise delivery and action and may suggest enhancements to a given text.
In French theater in particular, the widespread use of rhyming verse in serious plays, and the slickness of timing associated with the comic tradition, make most productions reliant on predictable and well-rehearsed effects. Leading exponent of Absurd Theater. Romanian by birth, with a French mother, he was largely educated in France although this process was interrupted by World War I and by the divorce of his parents in and wrote consistently in French.
He settled definitively in France in and was naturalized after the war. His humor, with its celebration of the irrational, and the nightmarish quality of his scenarios, often recalls Surrealism. He has in this way put popular music at the disposal of officialdom for public events such as the opening of the Winter Olympics and the centenary of the Eiffel Tower.
Innovative dramatist whose work pushed to an extreme the Symbolist tendency to dehumanize character and who is seen as a forerunner of Surrealism. Jarry also wrote science fiction. Monsieur Orgon wishes his daughter Silvia to marry Dorante but indulgently respects her desire to get to know the young man before entering into a firm commitment. Silvia accordingly changes positions with her maidservant Lisette in order to observe her suitor. This quadruple disguise leads to a series of comic scenes in which the real servants relish their ability to seduce their supposed masters and the real masters are astounded by the sensitivity of the supposed servants.
The tone changes slightly in the final act when Silvia, having already learned the true situation, tests Dorante by provoking him to declare his love while still believing her to be a maidservant, but all is finally revealed and the two couples are united. The role of Dorante was probably created by the then-leader of the Italian troupe, Jean-Antoine Romagnesi — , those of Mario and Silvia by the husband-and-wife team of Joseph Baletti?
Arlequin was played by Thomaso-Antonio Vicentini — He was one of the earliest proponents of a move toward a more natural acting style, which after the Romantic period led to Realism and Naturalism in the theater. Stage name of Julien Bedeau c— , celebrated comic actor, distinguished in his day by very heavy make-up and by his nasal intonation. Dramatist and poet who was the first Frenchman to apply the principles of Renaissance humanist thought to dramatic composition. He aimed at creating a classical drama in contrast to the morality plays and soties that then occupied the French stage.
His plays have historical rather than intrinsic value. Each act ends with a chorus that moralizes on such subjects as the inconstancy of fortune and the judgment of heaven on human pride. Most significant French actor and director of the midth century. Dramatist whose tragedy Sylla , performed by Talma, was the most successful new work of the neoclassical period that preceded the introduction of Romantic drama.
Belgian-born dramatist and journalist of Polish-Jewish extraction whose father perished in Auschwitz. Failing to achieve theatrical recognition in Belgium, Kalisky moved to Corsica in before settling in Paris in Algerian poet, novelist and dramatist whose works are published under the pseudonym Kateb Yacine. He was a militant nationalist who nevertheless remained attached to the French cultural and literary heritage and wrote in French until the late s. Thereafter he wrote in French or in Algerian dialect French or in Arabic.
Greek designer and stage director. Dramatist who provided the bulk of the comic repertoire in midth-century Paris. Perrichon M. Her father Georges Buffequin — and her half-brother Denis Buffequin —? Actor who was the first to challenge the supremacy in tragedy of Talma in the early 19th century. Poet, best known for his Fables, published in 12 books between and He also acted as intendant to the company, keeping records of performances and receipts.
Stage name of Jean Mauduit — , actor. Some sources date his birth to , some his death to Stage director, actor, author and academic. His minimalist approach to theatrical production distinguishes his work from that of Roger Planchon and Antoine Vitez. Dramatist and director. He was particularly associated with compilations and collage in a postmodernist setting: Les Cannibales The Cannibals, combined extracts from around 50 authors. Stage director, born in Argentina and naturalized as French in Actress, the most celebrated of her generation.
Baron emerged from retirement in in order to play alongside her. Despite unprepossessing looks, he achieved success in the role of kings in tragedy and peasants in comedy, and he wrote lively if licentious comedies. Stage name of Henri Louis Cain — , actor. It was Lekain who was instrumental in obtaining from Count Lauragais — an indemnity that enabled the theater company to discontinue the practice begun in of allowing spectators to sit on benches on the stage.
Stage name used in Paris by Luigi Riccoboni — , Italian actor and theorist of acting. He was particularly associated with social drama, and by encouraging actors to move more naturally he helped to shift the emphasis in French theater from the Romantic to the Realist. One of his innovations was to insist that a realistic indoor setting should include a table, even if this inhibited the action and declamation of more traditional-minded actors; another was to suggest that female characters should knit during conversations.
A company led by Le Noir was on tour in Bordeaux in and in Lille in He had joined a company sponsored by the Prince of Orange by , rapidly achieved prominence in it and was probably its chief by Lescot has also composed stage music for his own productions, and he explores unconventional combinations of textual, musical and other elements in stage performance. For much of the history of theater, performances took place in the open air or during daylight hours, and modern conventions by which the audience sat in darkness watching an illuminated stage were inconceivable.
This gave a more intense light, capable of being altered by colored glass for special effects. Other technical developments during the 19th century enabled dimming and other special effects to be introduced. The Swiss designer Adolphe Appia — was instrumental in applying technical developments to more creative uses of lighting in the early 20th century and in insisting that these be integrated within an overall visual interpretation of the play.
This contributed to the increase in importance of the stage director during that period, although it led to ongoing tensions between an urge toward ever greater technological sophistication that could verge on the gimmicky, and a desire to focus on the symbolic impact of lighting and other special effects. Among the technical innovations that contributed to the enhancement of lighting effects through the 20th century were the cyclorama, or sky-dome invented in , the use of colored gels after , halogen lamps, high-intensity discharge lamps and electronic or computerized lighting effects.
It was only in the 20th century that it was possible and commonplace to position lights within the auditorium itself as opposed to above the stage; this made it possible to spotlight individual actors and to highlight their movements and also to create more easily a fully convincing threedimensional effect. By such means, without abandoning the advantages of realism, scene designers were able to reveal the essence of a play through suggestion and stylization.
Five-act prose drama by Alfred de Musset, thought by many to be his dramatic masterpiece. Written in , it was considered impossible to perform in its original form: Shakespearean in scale, it pushes to extremes the Romantic rejection of classical unity and coherence, involving a cast of 34 named characters and countless groups of extras and at least 15 different locations, several of which are intended to convey specific local color. In , despite the notoriety that that production had brought him, he expressed public disappointment at the lack of meritorious texts in French and began to work independently, exploring more conventional texts, including works by William Shakespeare, Paul Claudel and even Realist dramatists such as Romain Rolland—Les Loups The Wolves, , Le Triomphe de la raison The Triumph of Reason, —and Maxim Gorky — It is a very self-conscious reworking of the myth in response to the psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud — , with reference also to the theory of relativity and to the rise of Fascism in contemporary Europe.
Nevertheless act four attains a poetic almost a magical quality, as Jocaste the wife, hanged, reappears as Jocaste the mother to protect her son alongside their daughter Antigone as he sets off disfigured toward glory or shame—the ending of the play is deliberately ambiguous on this point. The Italian designer Giacomo Torelli — was employed by Louis XIV to create elaborate stage machinery for the portrayal of miraculous exploits by gods or heroes.
Belgian Symbolist dramatist. His plays, whose tragic mood is impregnated with medieval mysticism, obtain their haunting effects by suggestion and ambiguity rather than by psychological investigation. Surrealist drama by Guillaume Apollinaire, , turned into a successful comic opera by Francis Poulenc, Theater building and associated theater companies in the Marais district of Paris in the midth century. Authorial pseudonym of Louis Carette — , dramatist.
A pupil of Charles Dullin and Jean-Louis Barrault, he took inspiration from Jean-Gaspard Debureau as well as from Charlie Chaplin — in his creation in of the tragic clown Bip, with whom he is particularly associated. She dominated the female repertoire for nearly 50 years, refusing to train potential rivals and insisting on first refusal for all leading roles, including young lovers and coquettes, until she retired in He also directed Roger Blin in the first French production of The Caretaker first London production by Harold Pinter — and had a prolific and distinguished career in film and television drama.
Actor, stage director and broadcaster. The dominant theatrical form of the early 19th century, its popularity being partly a reaction to the stultified version of classicism, which was then supported by official and academic circles.
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Characteristics of melodrama include stock characters a villain, a pure heroine and a comic servant , complex plots filled with thrilling episodes, a spectacular presentation involving scene changes, dance and music, and a highly moralistic tone and conclusion. Political philosopher, dramatist and theoretician of drama, influenced by Denis Diderot in supporting the development of more Realist theater.
Later in his life he was an early supporter of the incipient Romantic movement, publishing a Satire contre Racine et Boileau Satire against Racine and Boileau in Mercier was also a groundbreaking author of science fiction. That is why experience and example guide behaviour better than rules.
With literature, the concrete replaces the abstract, and example replaces experience, to inspire general maxims or at least a conduct that is in conformity with such maxims. Knowledge about oneself therefore presupposes the form of the narrative. A second definition of the power of literature, which emerged with the Enlightenment and was deepened by romanticism, made of it no longer a means of educating while pleasing, but a remedy.
It freed individuals from subjection to authorities, so thought the philosophers, and it freed them in particular from religious obscurantism. Literature, an instrument of justice and tolerance, and reading, an experience of autonomy, contribute to freedom and to individual responsibility. As a challenge to established authority, it reveals the extent of its power when it is persecuted. The result is an irritating paradox, which is that freedom is not favourable to it, because it deprives it of the servitudes to which it might resist. Thus the weakening of literature in the European public sphere at the end of the 20th century could be linked to the triumph of democracy: people used to read more in Europe, and not only in the East, before the fall of the Berlin wall.
If it alone can act as a social bond, it is indeed in the name of its disinterestedness and of its largesse in a utilitarian world characterized by productive specializations. Universal harmony is restored by literature, because its own unity is attested by the completeness of its form, which is typically that of the lyrical poem. Thus literature, which is at once a symptom of and a solution for discontent in civilization, provides modern man with a vision that goes beyond the restrictions of daily life.
One makes oneself sick from literature like Madame Bovary or Des Esseintes. Although literature frees one from religion, it becomes itself an opium, that is, a substitute religion, according to the Marxist vision of ideology, for such is the ambivalence of any supplement. This is how great writers were recruited to serve the nation. However, as this resistance confirmed the sublime disinterestedness of literature, it actually increased its virtue and in the end strengthened the confidence that society could have in its therapeutic abilities. According to a third version of the power of literature, it corrects the defects of language.
They are artists. Hidden from consciousness, it is immanent, singular and, until now, has been inexpressible. Superior to philosophy, literature takes over from it and revives it. The dead past is embodied in a certain feeling. A philosophical study? Am I a novelist? By teaching us not to be fooled by language, literature makes us more intelligent, or intelligent in a different way. Michel Foucault never treats literature like a device of power in the same way he would the other discourses. Eluding their general regime, literature remains a preferred reference located outside of philosophy, free of the determinations to which the other discourses are subjected, and excessive.
Foucault showed that all discourses were in fact literature, but as only literature itself accepted its status, by a kind of poetical irony, it surpassed other discourses and kept its lofty position. I have quickly gone through the three powers of literature: placere et docere , reunifying experience, or mending language. These have sometimes been misused or taken advantage of, and literature has not always served just causes. That is why, since Baudelaire and Flaubert, so many writers have been tempted to challenge any power of literature other than the one it holds over itself.
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Reading can entertain, but the way a dangerous game can: it is not a trivial pursuit. They judged literature to be pointless or even guilty, for it had not stopped the inhuman from occurring. From that moment on, art could no longer claim to redeem horror nor to make amends for life, and literature was banned. The work of Paul Celan or Samuel Beckett nevertheless testifies to its extenuated pursuit far from any desire for power.
Considerate la vostra semenza: fatti non foste a viver come bruti, ma per seguir virtute e canoscenza Above all, however, turning the smallest use of literature into treason meant that people were no longer taught to confide in it, but to be wary of it, like a trap.
By becoming neutral or trivial, literature hoped to answer to the grievances that it had long sanctioned authorities, and above all, the nation states whose emergence it had facilitated. After the United States, resentment against literature, which is regarded as an excercise of domination, has reached France. Turning the idea of the Enlightenment upon its head, literature is increasingly perceived as a source of manipulation and no longer of liberation.
You want to make me go in there! Has the moment not arrived to go from discredit to restoration and from denial to affirmation? However, can one mend that which was designed to mend? Twentiety-century literature has staged its end in a long, sumptuous suicide, for if it wished to abolish itself, it was because it still existed too much. Why read? Other representations rival with literature in all of its uses, even the modern and the postmodern, and its power to extend beyond language and deconstruct itself.
For a long time literature has not been alone in claiming the faculty of giving a form to human experience. Cinema and different media, which were hitherto deemed less worthy, have a comparable ability to make it come to life. And the idea of redemption through culture carries of whiff of romanticism. In short, literature is no longer the favoured means of acquiring a historical, aesthetic and moral consciousness, and thinking about the world and humanity through literature is no longer the most widespread approach.
Does that mean that its ancient power should not be maintained, that we do not need it anymore to become who we are? It therefore makes an irreplaceable contribution to practical and speculative ethics. It makes us sensitive to the fact that others are very diverse and that their values are different from ours. In , T. He judged that, as the human condition could not be understood in its complexity without the help of literature, those who read the best writers know most about the world and live better. However, contemporary moral philosophy has restored the legitimity of emotion and empathy to the principle of reading: the literary text speaks to me of me and of others; it arouses my compassion; when I am reading, I identify with others and I am moved by their destiny; their joys and their woes are momentarily mine.
However, do they not propose the best justification possible for the maintained and even reinforced presence of literature at school, not only of language games and documentary texts? Moral philosophy flies to the rescue of humanist teaching, whereas the unhappy consciousness that their theory inspired in them, from self-referentiality to deconstruction and then to constructionism, hinders literary scholars.
Thanks to reading, an independant personality, which is able to reach out to others, is created. Literature disconcerts, disturbs, and disorients more than philosophical, sociological or psychological speeches, because it appeals to the emotions and to empathy. Thus, it covers spheres of experience that other discourses neglect, but which fiction acknowledges in their detail.
Its emancipating power remains intact, which will at times make us feel like bringing down idols and changing the world. However, most of the time it will simply make us more sensitive and wiser; in a word, better. However, literature works differently to commandments, but also to parables. Manon Lescaut , far from being read as an allegory of profane and sacred love, of Eros and Agape , soon became the enigmatic model of passionate love for generations of young people: the novel gave them sensitivity, not knowledge or a sense of duty.
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- Werke von Alfred Meißner (German Edition).
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Besides, is it not often by having its plan fail that a literary work succeeds? By expressing exception, literature provides a different kind of knowledge to scholarly knowledge, but one that is better able to explain human behaviour and motivations.
Literature thinks, but not in the way that science or philosophy does. Its thinking is heuristic it never ceases to seek , non-algorithmic: it proceeds by feeling its way along, without calculating, through intuition, with flair. Literature is an excercise in thinking; reading is an experiment with the different possibilities. Nothing has ever made me perceive better the anxiety of guilt than the feverish pages of Crime and Punishment where Raskolnikov reasons on a crime which may as well not have occured and which each of us has committed.