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Palabras que iluminan el camino

  1. Critical Thinking
  2. Mi historia [Becoming]
  3. Devocional de Esperanza Diaria
  4. Start with this

Melinda Gates. Axel Linden. Juan Manuel Barrientos. Andres Lopez Lopez. Michio Kaku.

Critical Thinking

Maria Fernanda Centeno. Simone de Beauvoir. Leticia Gasca. Rudolph E. Tanzi and Deepak Chopra, MD. Elena Bazan. Fernando Alberca. Sergio Roitberg. Tom Wright and Bradley Hope. What the Heck Should I. Catherine Gueguen. Boni Lonnsburry. Baltasar Garzon. Varios autores. Jack Countryman. Nick Vujicic. Michael Wolff. Svetlana Alexievich. Voy donde no hay esclavos, verdugos ni opresores, Donde la fe no mata, donde el que reina es Dios.

On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight, Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy, The place does not matter: cypress, laurel, lily white; Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site, It is the same if asked by the home and country.

Mi historia [Becoming]

I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night; If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow, Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so, And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent, My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain, Were to see you, Gem of the Sea of the Orient, Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high plane, Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without stain.

My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire, Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from thee; Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may acquire; To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire, And in thy mystic land to sleep through eternity! If over my tomb some day, you would see blow, A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses, Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so, And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow, Warmth of your breath, a whiff of thy tenderness.

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Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry, Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light, In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh, And should a bird descend on my cross and alight, Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site. Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky; Let a friend shed tears over my early demise; And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on high, Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.

Pray thee for all the hapless who have died, For all those who unequalled torments have undergone; For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried; For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were shied, And pray too that you may see your own redemption. And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry And only the dead to vigil there are left alone, Don't disturb their repose, disturb not the mystery: If thou hear the sounds of cithern or psaltery, It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone.

And when my grave by all is no more remembered, With neither cross nor stone to mark its place, Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored, Let them turn to dust to cover thy earthly space. Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me: Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep; Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be: Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep, Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep.

My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine, Dear Philippines, to my last goodbye, oh, harken There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine, I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen Where faith does not kill and where God alone does reign. Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me, Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed; Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day; Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my way; Farewell to all I love; to die is to rest.

Kung sakasakaling bumabang humantong sa cruz ko'y dumapo kahi't isang ibon doon ay bayan humuning hinahon at dalitin niya payapang panahon. The most popular English iteration is the translation of Charles Derbyshire and is inscribed on bronze.

Also on bronze at the Rizal Park in Manila, but less known, is the one of novelist Nick Joaquin. The latest translation is in Czech by former Czech ambassador to the Republic of the Philippines , H. This distortion may be involved in the development and maintenance of eating disorder psychopathology.

Key words: Thought-shape fusion. Eating disorders. Experimental induction. Coping strategies. Los dos grupos se sometieron a tres condiciones experimentales TSF, ansiedad y control , midiendo los resultados con respecto a las respuestas emocionales y conductuales. Trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. Estrategias de afrontamiento.

Devocional de Esperanza Diaria

ED: Eating Disorders. M: Mean. A cognitive distortion associated with an excessive sense of responsibility was described for obsessive-compulsive disorders and was termed thought-action fusion TAF. This concept of TSF comprises three components related to beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods: a the belief that having such thoughts makes it more likely that the person will actually gain weight or change his or her shape likelihood TSF ; b the belief that having such thoughts is as immoral as actually eating the food moral TSF ; and c the belief that having such thoughts makes the person feel fat feeling TSF.

In the original description of TSF the authors started from the hypothesis that people who have this distortion know rationally that thinking about forbidden foods does not really cause weight gain or changes in body shape, although this does not stop them from feeling it is so on an emotional level.

The Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire TSF-Q 7 was developed in order to measure this distortion and has shown good reliability and predictive validity. The Spanish version of the TSF-Q 8 has shown adequate psychometric properties, with good reliability and predictive validity too. In addition to the psychometric measurement of TSF, this cognitive distortion has been induced experimentally.

Based on a previous work about thoughtaction fusion, 9 it has been hypothesized that the TSF distortion could be made explicit in a laboratory setting by asking people who report this distortion in the questionnaire to write a sentence about eating a forbidden food and then to imagine themselves eating the forbidden food to the point that it is aversive.

In order to prove that hypothesis, in a pioneer study, 7 the authors predicted that an experimental procedure could elicit the TSF distortion leading to: participants estimating that it was likely that they had gained weight or changed shape solely from thinking about eating the forbidden food; participants reporting a feeling of moral wrongdoing after thinking about eating the forbidden food; participants reporting feeling fatter after thinking about eating the forbidden food.

Moreover they hypothesized that the experimental procedure would elicit anxiety, guilt and the urge to perform some corrective behaviour e.

Forbush and Watson 10 supported the "body displacement" hypothesis by demonstrating that individuals with eating disorders exhibited higher levels of emotional inhibition than did non-clinical controls. These researchers suggested that emotional inhibition may lead to hand emotional distress by turning it inwards, and confusing "real" affect with "body" affect, thereby experiencing increased feelings of fatness when in emotional distress.

Taking into account this hypothesis, Coelho et al. Due to the fact that in the pioneer study 7 there were not included nonclinical participants, Coelho et al.

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In addition, they investigated whether induction of TSF would have behavioural effects. The experimental induction of TSF distortion has been developed on anorectic patients 12 with similar results with respect to the pioneer work of Shafran et al. The aim of this study was to induce the TSF distortion experimentally by means of the following hypothe sis: a The psychodynamic hypothesis of body displacement was tested experimentally, analysing whether the TSF distortion could be induced by anxiety in general or if it had a specific relationship with thoughts related to the intake of fattening foods.

The TSF distortion was induced in patients with ED and a in a nonclinical control group, hoping that the specific induction of TSF phenomenon gives rise to a greater effect than the experimental condition of anxiety induction; b A second hypothesis established that although ED patients should show higher levels of TSF, it is possible to induce such a cognitive bias in nonclinical participants without a prior selection based on the scores in the TSF-Q ; c The third hypothesis was that people patients and control group with more appropriate coping strategies with regards to problems and emotions , would experience less TSF distortion that those who showed inadequate coping strategies; d The last hypothesis was that TSF induction could have behavioural effects e.

It was hypothesized that participants both patients and control group exposed to TSF induction, would be more likely to neutralize and have a lower intake compared with those not exposed to such induction. The sample comprised two groups, clinical outpatients with eating disorders, according to DSM IV-RT criteria 14 and nonclinical students , with 45 participants each, aged between 18 and 25 years mean age There were In the clinical group, the following inclusion and exclusion criteria were used: a No patient had comorbid psychopathology, which by their gravity would make an outpatient treatment at the time of the study impossible, so that all patients who met criteria for hospitalization or day unit treatment were excluded; b Patients whose psychopharmacological treatment could have skew the test results were also excluded.

In turn, three experimental conditions were established in each group. They were asked, then, to imagine vividly, in detail, they were giving a speech about the book or the movie to their therapists or to other patients or teachers or other students in the case of students.

Start with this

They should then imagine being evaluated on the quality of their speech and to what extent did it right. They were asked, then, to imagine vividly, in detail, they were talking about the book or movie with a friend. For each condition a, b, and c 15 participants of each group were randomly assigned. After that, the individual answers 40 items, following a Likert scale consisting of five points so that they tell how often, in the described situation, they did what is expressed in each item. At the end they answer, in an item, about the perceived coping self-efficacy.

Dependent variables were the scores on the following instruments:. The Spanish version was used, 8 which has shown adequate psychometric properties. It is a self-report instrument comprising 21 items. Once again the Spanish version was used. Furthermore, in connection with the fourth hypothesis, and in order to assess the behavioural effects of TSF induction was determined:. Patients were under treatment in the ED Unit of the Behavioural Sciences Institute of Seville, and the nonclinical group comprised volunteer students all with no history of psychopathological interest at the Pablo de Olavide University Seville.

In the case of patients, individual sessions were performed, coinciding with their regular appointments. In the case of students, individual sessions were performed by previous appointment specifically established for the experiment. Before beginning this experiment, in all cases participants completed a Visual Analogue Scale on mood This scale was also completed after the experimental session.

Moreover, before the experimental session, they completed the CSI. After that each participant underwent the experimental session TSF induction, anxiety induction or control. After this task, a photo of a cake was displayed in real size, following the procedure of Coelho et al. The design permitted to calculate the actual amount in grams they had wished to take.

At that time participants had the opportunity to neutralize or negate the effects of the sentence they had written previously crossing it out or writing another one in its place. Depending on whether they did it or not, participants were classified as "neutralizers" or " non-neutralizers".


The statistical analyses were performed by means of SPSS v. In order to ensure that the anxiety and TSF but not the control inductions induced a decrease in the VAS-Mood scores, participants' responses on that scale were analysed using a mixed ANOVA with participant group eating disorder patients and students and induction conditions TSF, anxiety, and control entered as independent variables, and pre- and postinduction scores on the VAS-Mood entered as withinsubjects variables. No other significant effects were found. An analysis of variance was conducted in order to assess the "state" experience of TSF for each of the five questions of interest i.

Participant group, induction condition, high coping perceived efficacy participants in 3 th and 4 th quartiles , high problem-focused engagement participants in 3 th and 4 th quartiles , and high emotion-focused engagement participants in 3 th and 4 th quartiles were entered as independent variables. Pair-wise comparisons were explored by means of the Tukey's HSD test. With regards to the group and induction condition, participants' mean responses on this state TSF measure are summarized in Figure 1.