- Studie zur Digitalen Souveränität
- Datenschutz-Grundverordnung – Risiko oder Chance?
- Studie zur Digitalen Souveränität
In some cases, the government simply stole cattle from Ovaherero groups. One example is the case of the Mbanjieru Ovaherero, who lost 12, cattle to the colonial authorities in Moreover, colonial tradesmen, enjoying at least the tacit support of the colonial administration, traded overpriced industrial goods against cattle and land.
At each purchase, further credit was added to the account of the buyer. At some point, the tradesmen demanded repayment of principal and interest at an often usurious rate. The indigenous population, inexperienced in the practice of purchasing goods on credit, saw no choice but to sell land and cattle at very low, often arbitrary prices in order to repay their debts.
Unfortunately, detailed information on the expropriations of indigenous lands is missing from the archival records. Land companies only sold 1, square kilometers and preferred land leases for the most part. See Drechsler Fn. On the intricate question whether the prices were unfair, see Thran Fn. The German authorities used the uprising as a pretense for the comprehensive confiscation of the land and cattle of the Ovaherero and Nama.
The colonial administration was given wide discretion to confiscate the communal property of indigenous peoples whose members, or part thereof, had participated in, or aided and abetted the uprising. The German colonial administration issued two public confiscation orders concerning the property of the Ovaherero and Nama, respectively.
The order concerning the Ovaherero granted the governor discretion in deciding how much cattle the Ovaherero should retain for their survival. The order concerning the Nama did not contain any such restriction. The colonial administration went to great lengths to create the impression that the confiscations respected the rule of law; however, they failed to do so since, among other things, no just compensation was offered for these acts, which amounted to expropriations. Also, the peoples affected by confiscations could not make use of any the available legal remedies as complaints had to be submitted in person.
Showing up to the colonial authorities for this purpose would have led to their immediate arrest for their participation in the uprising. Former members of the Schutztruppe having a capital of at least 2, Mark would pay one half of that price. As a consequence of the land confiscations, the indigenous peoples were left with no land to pasture the remaining small number of livestock.
They needed to lease land from the colonial administration or from European farmers, unless they worked on the farm of their landlord. Prior to the conflict, the Ovaherero held an official number of 40, to 50, cattle. The conflict killed a lot of livestock of the indigenous peoples. This is the number declared by von Trotha;44 around the same time, the General Staff reported a number of 15, cattle. In short, the historical record shows clearly that the intent behind the confiscations was to strip the indigenous peoples of their rights and power over their land, without just compensation.
Mai , Kolonialblatt p. BArch R2 Since the German colonial authorities and German settlers were suffering from a severe shortage of workers, the indigenous uprising that started in was seized on by the German authorities as a golden opportunity to imprison the Ovaherero and Nama peoples and subject them to forced labor. Prisoners were mistreated and suffered from corporal punishment, including from the hands of their private employers.
Beginning in April , a procedure for the organization of forced labor was established. Drechsler Fn. Der Kolonialkrieg in Namibia und seine Folgen Ch. Links The Schutztruppe would guard these workers. Pursuant to this procedure, the authorities deployed prisoners to the civil administration and to private enterprises. Companies which did receive forced workers included Woermann lines and companies involved the construction of the railway.
The Governor ordered the company to pay their dues in accordance with the agreed procedure. Captured Nama of the Witbooi and Bethanier tribes were first held in concentration camps like those existing for the Ovaherero. In mid, the colonial administration transferred them to a concentration camp on Shark Island to ensure that they would not start another uprising.
Hence, security concerns prevailed over the exploitation of their workforce. Nevertheless, the prisoners on Shark Island were forced to participate in construction works on the island, with no compensation. Due to death and deteriorating health conditions of many prisoners, the constructions had soon to be stopped, though. In the end, out of a total of 1, prisoners of war interned on Shark Island since September , 1, persons did not survive their imprisonment. This number includes several hundred Ovaherero that were also brought to Shark Island.
The following subsections explore the possibility of providing estimates of the sums concerned. Since a large number of files have been preserved from the German colonial administration in Namibia, it is possible to extract approximate estimates of the values obtained by Germany through confiscations and forced labor, whether in money or in kind, or in the form of saved expenses. There is also a wealth of documents on the implementation of the confiscation orders after the uprising, which details the confiscated property,70 and there is data on the revenue generated by the colonial administration, including through the sale of confiscated property.
In valuing the confiscated lands taken from the Ovaherero and Nama people, it must be kept in mind that the confiscated land was sold to settlers at a subsidized price of 1 Mark per hectar in the north, and 0. According to an estimate by Herrmann Hosse, a contemporary observer arguing in support of compensation payments to settlers, the price of one hectar should have ranged between 3 and 6 Mark. According to this calculation, the entirety of the confiscated land had a value of 30m to 50m Mark.
As regards the value of the confiscated cattle, and the sums of money obtained through it, it may be recalled that the number of confiscated cattle amounted to 12,,74 2, of which survived and came effectively into the hands of the colonial administration. While the price for cattle was Mark per piece,76 prices rose during and after the conflict.
Estimates indicate a price of Mark per piece of cattle in It is possible, although with some difficulty, to establish a rather precise estimate of the number of prisoners and the time they spent in the camps and under forced labor. The number of prisoners was constantly changing due to inflows and fatalities. Fatalities were high due to the abysmal conditions in the concentration camps and the im- 69 Drechsler Fn.
Many of them died soon after their arrival of bad health. Despite the many fluctuations, it should be possible to establish from the records of the Reichskolonialamt and the colonial administration in Namibia a rather precise estimate of the number of prisoners and the days spent in captivity. The colonial administration reported in a total number of prisoners since the beginning of the uprising of 15, Ovaherero and 2, Nama. Further, there is plenty of data about the monthly inflow of prisoners and the number of fatalities.
Thus, the number of prisoners rose quickly after the establishment of the concentration camps, from 1, persons in January to 8, in May The number of 14, prisoners was reported for 1 May Calculating the value appropriated by the colonial administration through forced labor should not take the prices paid for the work of prisoners of war as a benchmark. Only the actual price of labor reflects the expenses saved by Germany for the furtherance of its colonial project.
The price of labor rose after the uprising and the ensuing shortage in the supply of labor. The Law on the Revenues and Expenses of the Protected Territories stipulated budgetary autonomy for the territories. The budgetary process for the colonial territories was lengthy. After approval by the Reichsschatzamt the proposal was submitted to Parliament both chambers for adoption as a law. The Reform in strengthened the autonomy of the colonial administration by giving them responsibility for their financial administration.
Extraordinary budgets covered cost-intensive infrastructural expenses like railways. Southwest Africa had an extraordinary budget in , , and The extraordinary budgets were financed through debt Kolonialanleihen. The budget of the German Empire substantially benefitted financially from confiscations of Ovaherero and Nama lands, cattle and other personal property; it also benefitted substantially from the unpaid forced labor of the Ovaherero and Nama, which was virtually a slave labor system. All income generated through, or all expenses saved through, the use or sale of confiscated land or cattle; the use of cattle or land for compensating white settlers; the use of forced labor for the purposes of the colonial administration or the Schutztruppe; or the allocation of prisoners to commercial enterprises, contributed to the budget of the colonial administration.
Under international law as it applied during the German colonial period, territories in Southwest Africa in respect of which the German empire had concluded a protection agreement with the local tribe possessing the territory, had the international legal status of a protectorate. Territories for which no such protection agreement was concluded were illegally occupied by Germany under the applicable rules of international law at the time. The relationship between Germany and its claimed territory in Southwest Africa was therefore governed by international law.
Under international law as it applied during the German colonial period, colonial powers could only occupy so-called terra nullius, i. In the literature, the international legal status of African indigenous peoples prior to colonization is highly controversial. While a number of authors held the view that the colonial territories of Germany had been terrae nullius and had been lawfully occupied by Germany, other authors came to the conclusion Marcelo G.
It is therefore time to take a fresh look at the international legal status of the Ovaherero and Nama peoples at the time.
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After over 60 months of development, O3S comes with many features on board. Access to technology and shared knowledge is our key to success. We use Open Source software solutions to : keep the costs for software licenses and development low, rapidly integrate with other systems and SaaS solutions make use of many cost-efficient extension on the market highly customize the software to our needs while keeping cost of customization low.
The core technology is based on the Magento Enterprise Solution now owned by Adobe Systems and scales with your requirements cost-effectively and fast. Everybody is welcome at any time.
See website for more details. Let's hack words! The hacker's journey - there and back again. How to make struggling stories work and write new ones with the hero's journey in mind. Our values connect transparency, fairness and privacy with a culture of data portability and public contributions to the commons. Securing Linux by defining a new Userland, How hard can it be, lets have a discussion and propably kick off a project. Web app for collaboratively composing lists. Maglab - Magrathea Laboratories e. Tl;dr We are some random hackers from Fulda, Germany.
Mastering Monero is a book by Serhack and the Monero Community.
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Learn how to make your own mate and host a circle. Mathematicians work at the heart of most emerging technologies. Their work is re-shaping the world, and yet they have little knowledge, appreciation or training in ethical awareness. I am working to change this, and bring about a serious discussion in the mathematical community about the social impact mathematicians can have.
My name is Maurice Chiodo, and I am a postdoctoral researcher in mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Try out a mechanical keyboard or show off your collection. Using a simple non-technique, we will memorize digits of pi. It's fun. No prerequisites needed. In English and German. Bring your kids! Free virtual machines. A chaotic introduction to the world of modular synthesis. For children from 12 years old. MoinMoin is an advanced, easy to use and extensible WikiEngine with a large community of users. Said in a few words, it is about collaboration on easily editable web pages.
Monero is a decentralized cryptocurrency, meaning it is secure digital cash operated by a network of users. The core values of Monero are privacy and fungibility. This assembly continues the tradition from the past years at C3. We are also co-hosting a small stage with presentations and community talks. Come ask anything! Treffen von Leuten, die gerne fahrende Dinge bauen. Create ways to produce sounds from lots of old objects and selfmade MIDI interfaces with us!
Letztes Jahr haben sich ein paar Leute zum Thema "Musterpolizeigesetz" getroffen. Tired of egoshooters? Feeling the need for better graphics, realistic physics and surround sound? Join the big Nerf-Gun Battle at 35c3! Come around - bring your own device - get shot! Let's meet up and talk about neurodiversity, and how to navigate being "different in more than one way"! We are Nextcloud, we build an open source self-hosted file sync and share alternative to the public clouds. We care about privacy, security, open source, federation, self-hosting, among others - come by to know more about Nextcloud, or join us for some great conversations!
Get back control over your data - learn how to install your own Nextcloud instance! NixOS is a Linux distribution with a unique approach to package and configuration management.
If you want to try out NixOS doing a guided Installation then this workshop is the right one for you! Auf dem 33C3 stand der Standard in den Kinderschuhen, nun findet er zunehmend Verbreitung, und Version 1. Hungry and don't feel like eating out or turning to the delicious proper food stands? Come here and enjoy a bowl of cereal, fruits, or a bread with some Nutella derivative.shadifactory.com/components/health/captain-cook-in-alaska-and-the-north-pacific.php
Studie zur Digitalen Souveränität
You pay exactly the cost of the items you consume, and are invited to grab the money in the cash box to buy replenishments. We provide tools and ingredients, you mix. Gathering of developers and users of the OTR protocol. We are building different kinds of book scanners. The session is about the current state and open for everyone who wants to join.
Datenschutz-Grundverordnung – Risiko oder Chance?
Open Knowledge Management: Let's build an ecosystem of interoperable tools. It prevents us from having our tools match our workflows perfectly. How can we build our tools with interoperable, privacy focussed and open-source philosophies that enable everyone to get the perfect tools for their workflows? Kee Wee's motivation is to turn Singapore to a making nation and foster local production with open technologies.
Everybody how is interested in open science and software engineering in research in general is interested to join. Come by and get to know us! Wir bauen einen offenen Buchscanner. We are a hackerspace from Augsburg. It can be easily extended with various types of sensors and also controlled by our Android app or Linux desktop app.
Studie zur Digitalen Souveränität
The talk will outline the project goals and achievements and showcase some of its functionalities. Furthermore, I will introduce the team and collaboration process and talk about the roadmap to make free and open miniaturized science labs a reality. A PAM module that protects sensitive data and provides a panic function for emergency situations.