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  1. The role of fiscal and monetary policies in the stabilisation of the economic cycle
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  4. Unit 4 Macro: Fiscal Policy in the UK - A… | Economics | tutor2u

Rose Forder, James Goodfriend, Marvin Swanson King, Mervyn Kydland, Finn E. Prescott Levin, Andrew T. Natalucci, and Jeremy M. Piger Louis, Economic Review , vol. Louis , pp. Lucas, Robert E. Mankiw, N. Gregory, Ricardo Reis, and Justin Wolfers Cambridge, Mass. Mishkin, Frederic S. Santiago: Central Bank of Chile, pp. Westelius Ricardo, David McCulloch, ed. London: John Murray.

The role of fiscal and monetary policies in the stabilisation of the economic cycle

Svensson, Lars E. Mishkin c provides extensive discussion of the modern science of monetary policy and its implications for the design and communication of the policy framework. Return to text. This change in views occurred as a result of the so-called rational expectations revolution, which was launched by a series of remarkable papers by Nobel Prize-winner Robert Lucas , , The time-inconsistency problem was first outlined in papers by Kydland and Prescott and Calvo Barro and Gordon first described the time-inconsistency problem as it applied to monetary policy.

As described in Mishkin c , a higher average inflation rate tends to generate distortions in relative prices, a reduction in the level of investment in physical capital, and a decline in private-sector holdings of currency and other non-interest-bearing financial assets. Two cases are worth noting here.


First, the New Zealand government raised the upper bound of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand's inflation band by 1 percentage point in from 2 percent to 3 percent and raised the lower bound by 1 percentage point in from 0 percent to 1 percent ; these changes were consistent with the science of monetary policy, which had reached a consensus that allowing inflation to remain very close to zero could have detrimental consequences for the economy Mishkin, c. Indeed, the Federal Reserve has published quantitative forecasts for several key macroeconomic variables output growth, unemployment, and inflation as part of its semiannual reports to the Congress since Several months ago, the Federal Reserve enhanced its communications by publishing these forecasts on a quarterly basis, lengthening the horizon of the projections, and providing additional quantitative and qualitative information Bernanke, ; Mishkin, d.

Almost two centuries ago, British economist David Ricardo summarized the argument for granting operational independence to the central bank: "It is said that Government could not be safely entrusted with the power of issuing paper money; that it would most certainly abuse it.

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For an example of how the time-inconsistency problem can be modeled as resulting from political pressure, see Mishkin and Westelius Independence to set policy instruments also insulates the central bank from the myopia that can be a feature of the political process. Instrument independence thus makes it more likely that the central bank will be forward-looking and adequately allow for the long lags from monetary policy actions to inflation in setting its policy instruments.

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I discussed the relative merits of inflation objectives stated as points or ranges in Mishkin c. Further analysis and discussion is given by Alesina and Summers , Cukierman , and Debelle and Fischer ; Forder and Cukierman have surveyed the more recent literature on central bank independence.

This debate was triggered by a speech given by the president of the Canadian Economic Association. For further discussion of this episode, see Bernanke and others Until May , the setting of the monetary policy instrument had been determined by the government, not by the Bank of England. At that point, the newly appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, announced that the Bank of England would henceforth have the responsibility for setting both the base interest rate and short-term exchange-rate interventions.

For more discussion of this episode, see Mishkin and Posen and Bernanke and others The following anecdote provides a measure of the extent to which some policymakers were pleasantly surprised by their central bank's success in keeping inflation in line with its objective. The Governor of the Bank of England must write an open letter to the Chancellor of the Exchequer when inflation deviates from the official target by more than 1 percentage point.

About a year after the Bank of England was granted operational independence, the Bank's chief economist wrote that "[even] if inflation shocks were to disappear entirely, the continued presence of demand shocks would imply that [open letters] would still be triggered more than 40 percent of the time" Bean, A decade later, inflation has remained within 1 percentage point of the target in all but a single month, or less than 1 percent of the time.

I will spare the audience a thorough discussion of the methodological issues involved in the measurement of inflation expectations. There is also some evidence that the dispersion of inflation expectations may decrease with adoption of explicit inflation objectives. Mankiw, Reis, and Wolfers have shown that simple survey statistics, such as the mean or median inflation expectations, can sometimes hide substantial cross-sectional dispersion in survey responses.

If a central bank's credibility in meeting the inflation objective truly increases over time, one should then observe less disagreement among inflation forecasters. The international evidence on this aspect is unfortunately scant due to limited data availability. Beechey, Johannsen, and Levin recently showed that the cross-sectional dispersion of long-run inflation expectations in the European Central Bank ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters, as measured by the standard deviation, has more than halved since the ECB, with its explicit inflation objectives, was launched in Search Submit Search Button.

Toggle Dropdown Menu. Search Search Submit Button Submit. Please enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser or access the information through the links provided below. Footnotes 1. Return to text 2. Return to text 3. Return to text 4. Return to text 5. Return to text 6. Return to text 7.

Unit 4 Macro: Fiscal Policy in the UK - A… | Economics | tutor2u

Mishkin c. Return to text 8. Financial capitalism emerged in a recognisably modern form in late seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Great Britain. Following the seminal work of Douglass C. North and Barry R.

Weingast , many scholars have concluded that the 'credible commitment' that was provided by parliamentary backing of government as a result of the Glorious Revolution of provided the key institutional underpinning on which modern public finances depend. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video.

Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian. Members of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori communities are advised that this catalogue contains names and images of deceased people. Book [text, volume] , Online - Google Books. Finance, Public -- Europe -- History.