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Once you have selected a hotel, the next job is to book it at the best price. Your travel agent is unlikely to know anything about family hotels in small German towns and will probably charge a fee to reserve them. So you are left to the Internet. Though there are many brands: hotels. Hotwire offers two ways to book. For a June booking, Hotwire recently offered an unnamed 4.

The same 4. Having used Hotwire several times I would book either with confidence. Priceline, of course, achieved fame by allowing customers to set their own hotel room prices. Users specify location, star category and then submit a bid price which is either accepted or rejected. If the bid is accepted your credit card is charged and cancellation is not possible. The website biddingtraveler. Priceline also offers rates on specific hotels but their best deals are obtained by bidding. Their mix of history, culture and architecture makes each one a unique delight for visitors and some of the most livable cities in the world for residents.

Whether it is a farmers market, flea market or potters market, markets are a feast for all senses, a celebration of colors, scents and voices. Naschmarkt The long esplanade covering the course of the Wien River already served as market place for dairy products as early as the 18th century.

In the fountain had to make way for a horse-drawn train, the market and the name remained though. A good time to visit is late in the afternoon when the vendors want to get rid of their goods. Opening Hours: Monday to Friday from 6 a. A huge variety of fresh, high-quality food as well as premium service and hospitality can be experienced at this market.

Row upon row of stalls create veritable lanes and alleyways, and if you visit the market in the summer it is a pleasant place to stroll around as the stalls are protected from the sun by parasols and awnings. There are also plenty of snack stalls selling everything from fried chicken to crullers. Opening Hours Thursdays from 5 a. If Thursday is a bank holiday or the 24th or 31st of December, the market is held on Wednesday. Kapitelmarkt Kapitelmarkt, located at the foot of Fortress Hohensalzburg, situated between the Cathedral Arcades and the old St. Peter churchyard, sells souvenirs of all kinds, gifts and tasty titbits.

Opening Hours: Every day from 7 a. There is also live music and entertainment at the market. Open: Every year from the end of May to the beginning of July. The candles in the windows, the wreaths, and the cheerful snowman sure put you in Beer Steins the spirit of Christmas! Shop Oktoberfest Paper Advent Now! Winter scene of the framework houses of Rothenburg with the neighboring tower.

Winter scene of the U. White House. Opened windows illuminate when placed in front of a light source. Ladies Clothing. Baked in the U. Located at Santa Rosa Ave. Neatly dressed in business suits and with fashionable bags, most of them hurried to the exhibition venues passing through a turnstile and scanning a ticket, while a few stood around in search of some information, reading signs or speaking with one of the reception ladies.

As a part of a team of interpreters which regularly offers services in ten world languages during international fairs, I observed the. Almost , visitors had been anticipating the tastiest trade fair in the world for two years the previous Anuga took place in October Since Anuga alone, the number has grown almost by half. Indeed, all visitors to the exhibition have to prove their trade status and visiting with children is generally discouraged.

But what else can you do if a mom or dad is the owner of a small business and has come here early on a Sunday morning hoping to strike some kind of a deal? And only taking occasional breaks sitting somewhere in the corner and being offered some tasty treats or other delicacies will enable the entire family to remain happy through the day. I left my workplace to proceed to hall number 11 where I met a client to serve as interpreter for his business discussions. Interestingly, pavilion number 11 with Fine Food turned out to be my favorite at Anuga, for all kinds of fine, delicatessen foods and gourmet dishes were on display here.

It is also the largest Anuga trade show to date, with almost exhibitors from such exotic countries as Georgia, Fiji or Qatar proudly showcasing their best foods and drinks. Some business negotiations at the booths take up to a couple of hours with exciting discussions. Once I accompanied two beekeepers from Ukraine who were looking for established partner companies interested in purchasing and distributing Ukranian buckwheat honey in their countries. Koelnmesse is, after all, an excellent place to bring people together and where demand and supply meet, to put it in economic language!

At the end of the day I thought I knew everything about honey and its production, and had tasted so many different types. Sometimes I need a break, especially after such comprehensive talks. If the weather is nice and there is no rain, I head to the spacious Piazza to take some fresh air and drink a cup of coffee. Situated between the pavilions, this broad Boulevard acts as the central access connecting the northern and southern pavilions of the exhibition complex and is a perfect meeting point for taking a break.

It is really hard to estimate how many business transactions are completed at the exhibition grounds in any one year, because these figures are seldom disclosed. One thing seems to be obvious, however, the Cologne Trade Fair is one of the largest drivers of industrial growth and biggest employers in Cologne. The Koelnmesse GmbH exhibition grounds are home to about 80 trade fairs, exhibitions and other special events annually.

More than 25 different business sectors use these spacious exhibition grounds as a showroom for their products. Over 50, exhibitors from countries and some 2. The Cologne trade fair also has innumerable accredited journalists, advertising and press contacts, and subsidiaries or representative offices in over countries worldwide and on all continents. There is even a subsidiary of Koelnmesse in Chicago.

The entire network functions so successfully at home and abroad thanks to the tremendous commitment and enthusiasm of its employees, trading partners and experts, who support and organize such great trade fairs and help. Other important players in the organization of business collaboration around the globe are the German federal state of North-Rhine-Westphalia and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. But other international markets are keen to present their know-how at the trade fair, and other events are also welcome to participate and receive all the assistance they might need to develop their image on stage at one of the most renowned and top-quality exhibition centers worldwide.

Quality at Koelnmesse is par excellence without any doubt, no matter what: cleanliness, diversity of the catering service, or simply the quality of food! There are also shopping facilities, a post office, a medical center and cash points. In one word, the services fit many needs, whether you are a customer or an employee. Yet it took time for Koelnmesse to create such a success story. In retrospect, the first small sample shows date back to , when the 11th of May marked the official opening ceremony of the exhibition grounds in Cologne.

During the first decade, the shows were organized for certain economic sectors, mostly focusing on such exclusive ones as interior decorations, household items, press and media. But by , several halls had been reconstructed and were being used as exhibition space. By the end of its sixth decade from its foundation, Koelnmesse was recognized on the international stage, and was able to organize trade fair events around the globe.

During the s it had grown into a leading global trade fair and established several subsidiaries abroad. Since the beginning of the 21st century, it has ranked as the fifth largest trade fair company worldwide. Now, for more than 90 years, Koelnmesse has been bringing people and markets together. And for more than 5 years, I have been part of this tremendous business platform, where the entire world meets under one roof. Visitors, exhibitors, organizers and employers alike look forward to their time here, each with their own targets, of course.

I am looking forward to the next exhibition, too, from a different perspective, though. In New Glarus, Wisconsin, Swiss National Day, which has been celebrated in a formal way every August 1 since , in commemoration of when Switzerland first became a country, takes on a special meaning because the majority of the residents are of Swiss descent.

Settling into comfortable folding chairs, Ernest Jaggi and his wife Theresa share they have been coming to the Swiss Day celebration since He adds, as a baby he recalls the Swiss Day celebration in New Glarus as a special day. The family lives in Monroe, 16 miles away, but their parents make the trip to add their support to the fest. I feel my Swiss roots growing stronger, as together we celebrate not only a shared ethnic heritage, but our shared personal histories. How could that be, I thought? Peter Etter, who directs the Independence Day activities, in his spare time helps do translations for the Swiss In New Glarus was chosen as the home of the Swiss Center of North America, a cultural center dedicated to the preservation and celebration of Swiss culture.

Chicago, New York and Toronto were also considered, but New Glarus was ultimately chosen because of its central location and the large concentration of Swiss-Americans in the vicinity. The center works closely with the Embassy of Switzerland in Washington, D. The center also features the Don Tritt collection, a oneof-a-kind resource for Swiss culture, heritage and genealogy consisting of more than 10, pieces.

The Swiss Center also works closely with the many Swiss organizations in town to promote the Swiss Day activities. For more information go to www. For more information on New Glarus, its attractions and its many summer festivals such as the Polkafest, Heidi Festival and Oktoberfest, go to www. The word had spread! Soon a procession on horseback came into view. He was visiting town from his castle on the Hohenstaufen to the south. Barbarossa had strengthened Imperial power and distinguished himself accompanying his uncle Conrad II on the Crusade. Some men watching their emperor ride by might join him on the next Crusade, where Barbarossa would drown while crossing a river.

By then the imposing Johanniskirche St. The frontier of the Roman Empire at its height passed just north of the present city. This defined the Roman border, defended against attacks and unwanted immigration, but also allowed peaceful trade with barbarians to the north. The western Limes segment, largely palisaded, separated Germania Magna uncon-. The Romans built a small fort there, today called Schirenhof, where around Roman infantry of the Cohors F. Raetorum stone inscription could guard the Rems River below and monitor signals from nearby watchtowers.

This was their westernmost fort on the Raetia-Germania border. Archeologists found the fort had its own Roman-style bathhouse, burial ground and a nearby settlement housing workers, traders and family members of the troops. The fort was manned from about AD to sometime after AD the youngest dated coin found. Some other European cities Paris, London, Trier, Cologne have been continuously occupied since their founding in Roman times.

However, its sword-point religious conversion was soon annulled by the Holy Roman emperor. Four years later, the Holy Roman Empire itself was dissolved. No destruction in either, just short-lived euphoria followed by disappointment and emigration. All German factories and other infrastructure were to be demolished to prevent enemy use. On 19 April, American artillery was shelling Mutlangen just to the north because German troops were reported present. Lemal became a local hero and was honored repeatedly in post-war years. Ferreting out Nazis, denazification and keeping order were early US occupation goals.

After endless but peaceful protests by locals, and the Gorbachev-Reagan IRBM intermediate range ballistic missile accords, the missiles were removed in Brought to the US by his immigrant parents, young Baroque style arrived late ss but caused much Leutze became an itinerant portrait artist in Maryland rebuilding of the old, notably the patrician houses lining and Virginia. He then returned to Germany to study art the present market. The Romanesque Johanniskirche had for 20 years. Surward expansion. Tourists can visit the reconstructed foundaserving old structures, ruins and archeologic remains just tions of both of the Roman-era Schirenhof bathhouse and for their historic and nostalgic values is a rather modern the Romanesque-era Hohenstaufen castle.

The latter venconcept. Already in , the Johanniskirche Good hotels are found in the old town. The Middle Age expulsion of Jews, 17th century witch executions and Nazi crimes are covered. You can easily walk to other structures spanning eight centuries in age. If weather permits, spend a few hours strolling through the new acre garden-park along the Rems.

Weather too wet or cold? Rooms look like the craftsmen had just left. A 17th century fountain in the central market is a perfect meeting spot. Enjoy this bucolic scenery by foot, bicycle or car! Parchment was, like land still is, very valuable! And who knows what might still be excavated below your feet? Yet I did find my own bit of German culture and more simply by looking for a good dinner. Sometimes a little absentmindedness leads to serendipitous results.

I think I must have been a bit over-anxious well, they were serv We were surprised that there were just a few cars in the lot. The Alpine effect was quite fetching, and especially noticeable, because next door, sharing the roomy parking lot, was a Mexican seafood restaurant in a faux Spanish-Colonial building, whose roofline was rather startlingly edged with green neon. Spiky yucca plants edged the lot, and in the fading evening light I could see palm trees above the low silhouettes of the surrounding businesses.

A perfectly ordinary Vegas tableau. It turned out that the weekly dinner at the club is every Saturday night, and the only people there on this Friday were enjoying a friendly card game. Despite having a name that might just possibly suggest another. The club was founded in by a small group of people determined to maintain their German roots in the Nevada desert. For ten years they held meetings, gatherings and celebrations in rented or borrowed locations around Las Vegas. As the group grew, they were able to buy the current clubhouse in , but making the mortgage payments was a difficult challenge.

The club bought the building and paid for its renovation with food and drink revenues and a modest. Nothing much has changed in that regard. Volunteers still prepare the Saturday night dinners and run the bar operation. The club capitalizes on the Las Vegas community of musicians and other performers for regular entertainment events: everything from jazz nights to big band performances to cabaret can regularly be found at the club. Under the aegis of the main club, various groups of members pursue their own special interests.

Something is going on at the club most nights. There might be a variety talent contest, or a Sunday afternoon Heimatabend featuring folkloric performances from anywhere in the world, or just a Friday night gathering for cards and potluck dining. Oktoberfest and Maifest are both, of course, causes for great celebration. The public is invited for Oktoberfest, and in recent years the club has staged events at larger pub Oktoberfest may be the bigger draw, but Maifest is just as festive. But what really impressed me that Friday night when we wandered into the club expecting a schnitzel dinner and found we were twenty-four hours early was the warmth of the greeting we received.

We came back for several Saturday dinners, for the food, certainly; but also for the sense of welcome we found. The club has a tradition: when a member passes away, the club members gather and release a flight of balloons as a send-off for the departed. There is a large menu of traditional German cuisine, daily live music, and a year-round program of events, in-.

Opened in , there are trees, walkways, fountains and modern sculptures, including a foot dancing woman. There are also several restaurants, including the Beerhaus, which features German and American style bar food bratwurst, roast pork sandwiches, roasted potatoes, pretzels, fried pickles, etc.

Las Vegas Blvd. Nevada www. German beers including Warsteiner Dunkel and Weissbier are featured. Open for lunch and dinner. Of course there are cakes as well: cheesecake, beesting, apple crumb, Black Forest and more. Open since , there are two locations: N. Eastern Ave, Las Vegas, Nevada, www. Settle into a Strandkorb, take in the salt air and enjoy beach life along the coast of the North Sea.

A wild wind whipped across the sands and sea. Waves crashed ferociously on the shore.

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Welcome to the North Sea. Our visit last September was planned as a beach break with dips in the sea, sunning and relaxing on one of those ubiquitous Strandkorbs hooded wicker beach chairs , walking and pedaling amongst the dunes. We had not expected hot sun, palm trees and beach vendors peddling pineapple and coconut slices. Peter-Ording tourist office told me. We no longer know what to expect. Peter-Ording has beckoned me. That was ages ago, but I have wanted to experience the North Sea, not necessarily, however, the nude beaches for which the area is renowned.

During the many years I lived in Germany, it seemed friends were often heading north for their beach break, not south to the French Riviera. What was the attraction? I had to find out. Sylt is the chic, expensive North Sea island resort. Peter-Ording with a kilometer long beach offers lower prices and lots of family attractions. There are other resorts, as well as other islands. They all have an intriguing, magnetic appeal. When the rains stop, and they do, bundle up, walk along the beach, feel the invigorating wind in your face, the salty spray of the sea.

When the tides are out, venture Watch birds, kite surfers and dogs. Take a nap in a comfortable Strandkorb. Stop for refreshment at one of the beach restaurants high on wooden stilt-like structures.

Ich Liebe Dich | Revolvy

We were able to do all of the above, for at least short periods of time. We had hoped to bicycle there are rental facilities everywhere but were discouraged by the wind. The sun did peek out a few brief times. When it did, I quickly reached for my camera. Even without sun, there are some grand, artsy photo opps on the North Sea. Peter-Ording is on the western edge of the Eiderstadt peninsula with more exposure than other resorts, meaning more wind.

We watched and marveled at many of the latter as they soared across the sea and into the air at great speeds. The town is divided into four parts: Ording, Bad, Dorf and Bohl. You can easily bike to all, or take a free bus with the Kurkarte, tourist card provided by hotels and landlords. The card also entitles you to free beach access 2 euro without the card.

We stayed in a Gasthaus in Ording, a quiet residential area along the beach. Dorf and Bohl are other residential areas with more guest houses as well as homes of locals. Both also offer easy beach access, lots of bicycle lanes and camping areas. The unique North Sea climate is touted for its health benefits, as well as a cure for many ailments, particularly respiratory diseases. Thalasso cures with sea water, algae and mud are also included in its menu. The Therme has a gym, a large outdoor heated swimming pool with a turbo slide and an indoor sea water pool with a wave machine.

It is the perfect place to escape the inclement weather for a day of pampering. Since our planned beach break was short, we preferred to brave the elements and stay outdoors. We did lots of walking, following routes on the trail map from the tourist office. There are endless possibilities: on the beach, along the elevated walkways atop the dunes, in the neighboring forests.

Our best walk was an evening stroll when the sun actually appeared. We parked in a Strandkorb and watched a splendid sunset. That was when we discovered Zweite Heimat Second Home , a wonderful, welcoming hotel and restaurant on the other side of a dune next to the sea.

We ducked inside to take refuge. The name is perfect. The homey yet elegant ambience soothed our drenched souls. We made reservations for dinner later that night. It was the best meal of our stay. Fish are a favorite with us, and the North Sea offers plenty. At Zweite Heimat we savored a gourmet meal with Scholle plaice.

We both ordered fish soup, a hearty concoction with fat chunks of different fish, followed by smoked salmon. While the bounty of the North Sea is a plus for fish lov-.

German-Australian Encounters and Cultural Transfers

Peter-Ording is paradise for dog lovers and their canines. Germany has always been dog friendly, with wellbehaved pooches often sleeping peacefully under restaurant tables while their owners dine. Peter-Ording goes the extra mile. The tourist office even has a brochure, Urlaub mit Hund Vacation with dog. The resort has 50 dog service stations which provide free disposal bags for dog droppings and receptacles for the waste.

Dogs are permitted almost everywhere, including in the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park, on the beaches and in restaurants. Most hotels accept dogs. Our Gasthaus has special rooms for guests with dogs. There are even certain marked beach areas Hundeauslaufzonen where dogs can romp in the surf and run on the beach leash free.

Special Strandkorb sections are reserved for those with dogs. Germans do not make a big deal about nudity, and North Sea beaches commonly have sections for bare bodies. We had not intended to skinny dip among the nudists, nor was I searching for a naked husband-to-be. Yet I had hoped for a swim with bathing suit. No way. No swim, but as mentioned, interesting walks including one on the mudflats when the tides recede.

PeterOrding visitors need another tourist office brochure: Gehzeiten or walking times. This is a daily schedule of times of high and low tides, each lasting six hours. It is important to heed the times lest one been caught walking far from shore when the tides come in, or swimming when tides recede. The currents can be very strong, cautions the brochure. They can take people with them. Peter-Ording belonged to Denmark until when it became part of Prussia. Twice parishioners had to shovel their way to church.

The Danish king ordered the planting of permanent vegetation to alleviate the problem. An iodine spring was discovered in More Kur spa facilities were built. Peter-Ording attracts many regular, repeat guests. Residents of Hamburg, just an hour and 45 minutes away by car, often come for the weekend.

Many come for. Before settling in St. This is perfect. Although the weather during our visit was not what we had expected, we were not devastated. That wild, bracing climate had elements of excitement. The North Sea and St. Rather, it marks the resting place of a historic city and many of its inhabitants, obliterated in a single night of fire. The thriving community it overlooks hums with modern life, but the memory of one horrible night is never far from its collective consciousness.

Located in a valley at the gateway to the Black Forest, Pforzheim hums along with 21st century energy. It exhibits all the traits of the modern German metropolis: focused efficiency, cultural diversity and economic prosperity. Department stores and eateries crowd the main drag of the central shopping district. That image clashes with the harsh, boxy concrete architecture dominating the environs.

There is no gold to be seen nor anything predating the grim post-war. Something does not seem quite right. In the distance, a hill topped with gleaming metal blades casts a metaphorical shadow over the town. A visit to the museum reveals that, once upon a time, Pforzheim was every bit the wealthy medieval powerhouse its local historians claim.

The early settlers were Romans who recognized the geographical advantages of this spot. For hundreds of years afterward, the city was synonymous with expert craftsmanship, packed with skilled workers creating intricate mechanical devices and beautifully detailed jewelry. A university was chartered, soaring churches were consecrated and fine private homes were constructed. The turbulence of the Reformation came, as did a succession of emperors, wars and economic cycles. Even the arrival of Nazism seemed like another historical chapter whose drama would come and go without significant impact on the fortunes of the Golden City.

But history had other plans. Far away in Berlin, a decision was made that placed the little city at the gateway to the Black Forest directly on a path of destruction. Craftsmen applied their mechanical skills to create precision instruments for airplanes, submarines and bombs. Orders were issued and bombers were armed. The 55, residents of the Golden City went to bed as usual on the frigid night of February 23, unaware of what was coming.

High above in the clear winter sky, RAF bombers laden with incendiaries swept eastward over the Black Forest. Minutes later bombs rained down on the spires and cobbles, unleashing an inferno that swept through the historic city. Hemmed in by the valley, the firestorm incinerated buildings and people alike. The glow in the valley was seen for miles away as the fires burned until dawn. Following the assault there was little time for sentimentality.

Thousands of survivors were homeless and the postwar rebuilding proceeded with typical German efficiency. The smoldering remains of the original town were bulldozed into a pile just outside the city limits, a literal sweeping of the past to make way for the new. The pile was covered with turf and left to settle into the earth as Germany looked forward. Turkish immigrants were brought in to construct a new The destruction was so complete that the city had little choice but to rebuild from scratch.

The university was reestablished. Commerce returned. It took until for the population to reach , A busy, urban feel began to regenerate as life took hold again. Decades passed while the artificial hill, called the Wallberg, loomed silently in the distance.

The hill on the outskirts of town bears no traces of its tragic origin. It became known as a place for fine views of the valley and the forest beyond. They tell the story of a city turned to ash in an almost biblical warning of the cost of total war, lest we forget. On a sunny day the blades glint brilliantly like bayonets on the end of a rifle. Every February 23rd a remembrance ceremony is held there to commemorate the thousands who lost their lives in a storm of fire on that frigid night.

It used to be well attended when those who recalled the old city and its destruction could still climb the hill. That generation has largely passed away now. Today the cobbles and spires of historic Pforzheim are long gone. Modern Pforzheim is an energetic city that offers urban living on a human scale. It has become an administrative center for the smaller. Commerce is flourishing. A classy art nouveau tower was added near the train station and a few historic buildings were nicely restored to add more aesthetic charm to the vicinity. Many nature buffs are drawn to the easy Black Forest access not unlike the Roman settlers 2, years prior.

This reputation was further enhanced by the founding of the Goldsmith and Watchmaking Vocational School, the only school of its kind in Europe. Work was temporarily halted after the discovery of a pound unexploded bomb, one of many that pummeled the city on the fateful night. A visit to the City Museum offers a fascinating insight into the full story of this place: the Roman founding and medieval heyday; the tragic RAF assault and the patient rebuilding; the fine golden trinkets and the Wallberg. This is a place to learn and live and work, swathed in the sober post-war architecture necessitated by its hasty rebuilding.

Looking back at the man who contemplated the root causes of poverty and how class struggle shapes societies. Why is that so? Once smaller in the 17th and 18th centuries than it again, augmenting private property became the was in the 19th century. But the absolute numway to escape poverty. Rather these two men shape our attitudes. The answer The attack on the root causes of poverty during the first provided by Karl Marx was as simple as it was revolutionary: half of the 19th century took two divergent approaches abolish private property as the root of all evil, and, while you in Germany, developed and formulated by men born the are at it, throw out religion as a factor in economics as well.

Whether we like it or not, Marx is one of those fill in the blank Germans whose ideas exerted a profound and lasting influence on world history. The second son and third of nine children of Henriette and Heinrich Marx , the boy grew up in a secular, largely non-religious, home. Karl and his siblings were also baptized into the Lutheran Church in August , his mother in November When his father died in , Marx was forced to seek income as a writer but found time to complete his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature.

Unwilling to change his political views, Marx dropped the thought of pursuing an academic career and moved to Cologne in , where he became a writer for the Rheinische Zeitung. Already closely watched by the Prussian government, the paper was forced to shut down in when Tsar Nicholas I complained about its reporting on Russia. Put differently, Jewish emancipation, the removal of legal obstacles that had forced his father to convert to Christianity, replaced one religion with another but did not address the more fundamental question of economic inequality.

His second meeting with Friedrich Engels in Paris on 28 August , changed both their lives. By late , Marx had identified the major components of his political economy, but he still needed to weave them into a coherent body of thought. While living in Paris, Marx had immersed himself in the writings of economists such as Adam Smith and French socialists such as Claude Henri St.

Simon , which completed the ideological framework of a new economic theory that became known as Marxism and which he would expound in detail in his three-volume Das Kapital in The earliest attempt to define what he came to call scientific socialism came in in his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts. In the process of developing the manuscript Marx realized that he needed to base his interpretation of the economy, capital and capitalism on a materialistic world view.

This realization led him Idealism and philosophy had put abstract reality above the physical world, but ideas by themselves do not change the world. The world is changed only by actual, physical, material activity and practice. Or, as he put it in his Theses on Feuerbach, written in but not published in full until If Hegel had interpreted progress as a struggle between ideas, Marx saw historical and societal progress as a struggle between economic classes.

History progressed goaldirected, in stages that reflected the economic reality of the times, e. Every struggle between economic classes would bring about a new economic system, a new thesis, which inevitably would have its antithesis as the haves faced off with the have-nots.

This struggle, however, would come to an end when the proletarian havenots defeated and destroyed the capitalists, since the most important result of this revolution, and the new society that would result from it, would be the abolition of what humans had fought over for millenia: private property, the most obvious manifestation of the material world. Concurrently Marx had adapted his view of religion in human life and society as well. Placing religion into his model of historical materialism, Marx now argued that any religion, like everything else, grew out of, and reflected, the social and economic structure and reality of the society where it was practiced.

But understanding the origins and use, or abuse, of religion was only meaningful in connection with historical materialism: once the underlying struc-. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. Marx now made his home in Brussels, Belgium, but had to promise authorities not to publish on current politics. But by the mids the time had come for Marx to stop interpreting the world and move on to develop and expound his ideas of how to change it.

In The Poverty of Philosophy of , Marx tackled the question of the theory and tactics of a revolutionary proletarian movement head-on. In contrast to Utopian Socialists, who believed that people had to be persuaded one at a time, Marx, as a Scientific Socialist, presupposed that people are most likely to act in accordance with their economic interests. The conclusion he drew from this was that to be successful, any movement had to appeal to a whole class, e. Since the capitalists would hardly surrender without a fight, the proletariat, the working poor, who already knew what their problems were, had to be shown an alternative to the existing society that would mobilize them to work to change that society.

Marx was convinced that once conditions were right, the Socialist Revolution, just like the French and American Revolutions and other revolutions before them, would break out inevitably. This sociological model of the conditions for a revolution to break out can be applied to other revolutions, viz. Lexington and Concord, and a vision of the new society that was to emerge from that revolution, e.

Written in cooperation with Engels beginning in December , it was published in German in London on 21 February. They openly declare that their ends. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working Men of All Countries, Unite! From France a wave of revolutions swept across Europe, reaching Germany in March. True to his model of historical development through consecutive economic stages, Marx urged the working classes to support the political goals of the bourgeoisie, such as a German nation-state, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly.

He believed that was the time when the bourgeoisie would overthrow the feudal monarchy, a necessary developmental step before the proletariat in turn could overthrow the bourgeoiscapitalist society. Less than a year later the revolution was crushed by Prussian troops and on 16 May Marx was ordered to leave the country. His first stop was Paris; when French authorities expelled him as well he moved to London with his family in August Marx spent the rest of his life in London, devoting his time to research and work on Das Kapital.

The financial success of his A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in , however, provided Marx with the means to work on the three-volume study Das Kapital, the first volume of which appeared in Marx died in London in 14 March and was buried in Highgate Cemetery East in an area reserved for agnostics and atheists. Fewer than a dozen mourners attended his funeral. Marx had assumed, correctly, that people would always work to further their economic interests first, but, one could argue, drew the wrong conclusions from this.

Human nature tends to always look out for oneself first. In this respect, the solutions to poverty put forth by his fellow Germans at the same time turned out to be more realistic. In December , Raiffeisen helped found the Flammersfelder Assistance Association for the Support of indigent Farmer, and Schulze-Delitzsch founded the first of many Vorschussvereine in his hometown of Delitzsch in In structures and make-up appropriate for the 21st century, both organizations based on the concept of mutual help and assistance but with the goal of creating private property, are still flourishing more than years after their founding.

Even the Germans who come to the United States to visit the city have remarked that the American version is more Bavarian than Bavaria. Everywhere one turns looks like a picture postcard sent from Hansel and Gretel; there are chalets festooned with flowers, signs that read Willkommen and a pretzel vendor with his wares piled on a stick. Nearby, a horse and carriage waits for riders. And what other United States post office is decorated with painted Hummel figures? These symbols of another time and place help to attract the nearly three million people who visit here every year to join the camera-ready town of approximately residents.

They come and come back from as far away as China, and even include an unlikely busload of ladies who recently arrived for a long weekend from Fort Worth, Texas.

We celebrate every family birthday here and have for years. The Bavarian Inn Restaurant, a shuttle-bus ride away, is also theirs. At ninety-five, Dorothy has written three cookbooks and still works in the kitchen six days a week. An accordionist is always nearby. As is the music of the Glockenspiel, which sounds four times a day on the premises. Dorothy Zehnder explained that the recipe in both restaurants is pretty much the same but difficult to duplicate in a home kitchen. By popular demand, here is an approximation of the process as used for more than seventy-five years: The chicken is boiled yes, boiled first.

When cold it goes into an egg wash and coated with a mix of bread and cracker crumbs and finally fried in vegetable oil. The pieces of dark and light meat are served after an appetizer of noodle soup with side dishes. They vary slightly seasonally but usually include: cranberry salad, coleslaw, mashed potatoes, gravy, pasta-and-chicken salad, noodles, stuffing and veggies. Various desserts are offered but highly recommended is the tart-tangy cranberry sorbet. There are many other dining choices in town, including The Old Christmas Station, formerly a corner tavern and.

This new spot has a cozy chandeliered gazebo outside and is a good place for lunch: one specialty is a baked avocado and crab salad, but the locally-made Jagdwurst is popular here too. Watching the enthusiastic dancers go to it on a Saturday night is a free floor show. Joining them is even better exercise. In Frankenmuth there always seems to be time to celebrate. There is a general air of revelry wherever one goes as festivals celebrating music, crafts, lobsters, snow, scarecrows, autos, you-name-it, pop up all year, mostly on weekends. It is held in September, lest a Michigan October be too chilly, and thousands attend.

What is the origin for this passion for Schnitzel, Lederhosen and all things German in the American Heartland? It has its roots in the middle of the 19th. Farmers arrived in , most sailing to America from Bremerhaven by way of Nuremberg, and enduring a great deal of misery during the fifty days spent onboard ship. Hardships continued as they made their way west to their acres of forest on the banks of the Cass River.

The original fifteen colonists purchased Indian Reservation land from the Federal Government and attempted unsuccessfully to proselytize the Chippewa Indians to the Lutheran religion. Their small chapel originated in a log cabin they built and used for worship, meetings and a school.

Later it became St. Lorenz, now a stately church with almost 5, members and a school with students. I can't imagine that that would not also be hurtful in German, or that you would use a German vulgarity in the same circumstances. Whether there are other terms that could be more hurtful, or hurtful in a different way, seems beside the point. Or are you, in effect, implying that it's okay to say hurtful things in German, or that something is not significantly hurtful unless you personally feel it hurts you?

If so, we seem to be back to the ever-recurring Cultural Difference Impasse. Comment You may object and explain your point of view, but as your point of view is as valid as anyone else's that does not lead to a solution. As I said, CJ, what I described is a standard technique. It has been used successfully in many settings.

It stems from the idea that we can not expect others to take our views, sensibilities, etc. So we must tell them in order to give them the opportunity to rethink their behavior. I absolutely agree with you, incidentally, that people sometimes use not only hurtful but also dangerous language. I also wish they didn't. When I hear people using sexist or homophobic language, for example I hear it less and less, thank goodness!

The word "bullshit" may not be as offensive as the words you are thinking of, it may not spur people on to do harm to others, but that does not necessarily make it acceptable and, in my opinion, most certainly does not make it acceptable in a business context. By the way, even though I don't have time to discuss it this evening - I'm halfway out the door, as it is - I would be interested in hearing why the word "bullshit" is so important to you as it appears to me it is.

I assume it is not because you find the German language deficient, so there must be another reason. What is it? Comment 83 sorry about the f's and no it doesn't reflects me! I thing in the german paper "bild" you would find more of those haedlines. Comment hm--us: If my social circles are anything to go by, "Bullshit" is indeed not as offensive in German as you make it out to be.

While I'd probably phrase my thoughts about someone's opinion differently in a business context, there are circumstances where stronger words than "Quatsch" are called for - and I think "Bullshit" among Schwachsinn und Mist is, or will soon be, a legitimate option.

I don't think, by the way, that the cultural difference if that were indeed the problem comes down to hurtfulness being any more okay in German than it is in English - I suspect the legendary "German directness" may just make such comments less hurtful to Germans. Comment 85 CJ, I have to disagree. Im Deutschen - nein. Anscheinend hast Du ernsthafte Probleme zu verstehen, worum es hier eigentlich geht.

Comment ich glaube es geht nicht darum, dass irgendjemandem ganz speziell an der Verwendung des Wortes 'Bullshit' gelegen ist. Ich gehe davon aus, dass eine der ersten Folien des Vortrags eine entsprechende Definition war. Als "Bullshit" bezeichnet xx in seinem Buch xx Die Zeitung hat ganz sicher keine Glanzleistung erbracht, als sie das Wort aus diesem Zusammenhang gerissen hat.

Comment And it's time for the latest results from the Bullshit Google races. Le Monde didn't even make it past the starting block and appears to be suffering from an Academie malaise. The American sites are doing especially well, but even they can't match the amazing Grauniad, which is ten laps ahead and showing no signs of exhaustion. Must be that blogger-enriched feed. Es geht um den Versuch seitens einer Richterin am Verwaltungsgericht, eine Rentnerin abzuwimmeln, obwohl deren Klage eindeutig Aussicht auf Erfolg hatte.

Der Zusammenhang ist also, sagen wir mal, etwas weit hergeholt. Comment SD3: And who elected you moral guardian of this site, then? I don't find so-called "swear" words offensive - they're just words. The word describes one of the most basic human instincts, and isn't so desperately coy that it has to disguise its meaning in blushing 'strictly-missionary-with-the-lights-out' euphemisms.

With regard to the OT: who owns the word "bullshit"? Comment I actually read the article yesterday. I also read the judge's remarks, see here p. I've also read Frankfurt's On Bullshit referred to by the judge. I have a copy of it around here somewhere. It's a slight book, but mildly amusing. I have no doubt about that, I am certainly not harboring any illusions! The original poster asked for people's views.

I've asked a couple of questions and stated a couple of my opinions, but I'd be a fool to think I could change language usage in Germany or anywhere else. As you may have gathered from my earlier remarks, that is precisely what I would do.

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I am nobody's moral guardian. There is absolutely no need for you to address me in such a patently offensive manner. I would appreciate it if you wouldn't do that again. Comment Ah, the good old debate: Swearing, pro and con. Reminds me of college, where one guy a former bricklayer used mostly swearwords; and one fervently religious girl who'd been accompanied to campus, and mothered there for two weeks, by her equally sectarian mom actually admonished him in public, asking him not to swear in the presence of god-fearing honest people.

I won't even attempt to copy the rudeness and offensiveness of his answer, let's just say it took several minutes and he won that argument by making his opponent cry. There's two options: You can speak out and admonish others to behave the way you want them to, like SD3 suggested. That can seem arrogant and provincial. The more widely used option would be to sigh, roll your eyes, think that the guy doing the swearing is an idiot, and move away from that person. This is much less likely to make you look like a complete twat, or get you smacked in the face by a prole.

Comment You can speak out and admonish others to behave the way you want them to, like SD3 suggested. Have you actually read what I wrote?

Your Answer

I described a technique that is commonly used in Alternatives to Violence programs. It's step one. Here's my personal step two. Comment " Dennoch ist 'handy' sehr wohl ein englisches Wort! Comment SD3: re. I am nobody's moral guardian": Correct. Please remember that, and stop offering priggish advice on propriety, there's a good chap or chapess. Comment Antiseptic : Based on your comments here and in at least one other thread that you joined in its final moments in order to make offensive statements about people you do not even know, you appear to have the most enormous chip on you shoulder. I'm sorry if your circumstances are so disagreeable that they make you disagreeable.

Here's step two for you. Comment You're far too ready to take offence, SD3. The world must be a shocking place to you. PS "on your shoulder" - do let's try to get it right, eh? Comment Bullshit. Und komm Du mir nicht mit PC-Begriffen wie Browser, die heutzutage schon jedes Kind im Informatikunterricht in der Schule beigebracht bekommt und die gleich mit dem Einzug des Internets da waren. Wenn ich mit Leuten rede, die sich mit PCs nicht auskennen, sage ich einfach: "Das Programm, mit dem ich ins Internet gehe.

Generell aber nicht. Ende der Durchsage! Comment Wolfman, meines Wissens hat auch 'beret' noch nicht 'Einzug in den deutschen Sprachgebrauch gehalten. I don't think this kind of thing is helpful, despite the fact that it's not aimed at English speakers, because a German who then went on to use this word with an English speaker would find him or herself in VERY hot water. Nowt we can do about it though, unfortunately. Mir scheint dass hier generell unterstellt wird, dass "die Deutschen" einen Mangel an Medienkompetenz besitzen. Manche Menschen tun das vielleicht, aber das ist sicherlich die Minderheit.

Und das waren durchaus intelligente und zivilisierte Menschen. Empfindet ihr das auch als schlimm? Comment I fully agree with what SD3 wrote. For me, it is not about forbidding anyone from using anything. My motivation in writing to the magazine is to raise awareness. Using the word "bullshit", especially in English-speaking company, will most likely create an impression that the German speaker did not intend to create.

The problem is that many German speakers are unaware of this issue. It just seems "cool". That there is no adequate German expression seems a cop-out to me. It may be that there are cultural differences and that the Germans are more direct than others, but the use of the word "bullshit" is not restricted to Germans. My example came from a Swiss magazine and the Swiss are not really known for being particularly direct.

Otherwise, I can't learn to pick up on the subtleties of the language and I risk offending someone without intending to. As the discussion has been quite heated at time, I'll share a lighter "bullshit" story: This took place on a campsite in Patagonia. I was sitting at a picnic table along with a German couple. We were both cutting vegetables, preparing our respective dinners. At the time I spoke not one word of German and their Spanish was rudimentary, so the common language was English. While cutting carrots, the knife slipped and he cut himself slightly and he said: Oh, Bullshit!

The cutest use of bullshit ever. It's down to the individual to set the right tone for the circles in which they operate, be it in the pub or in the workplace. Comment It really depends on the situation and how the person comes across. I know one person in particular who swears more often than most, but he comes from a background where that is normal, he doesn't do it to shock people, he doesn't swear at people, and he just comes across as a nice, non-aggressive person who uses fruity language sometimes.

But then there were quite a few foulmouthed people in the place I grew up, so perhaps I'm quite immune to it, even though it wasn't allowed in my family. I would still not swear in front of my mum or dad - even "shit" would be highly embarrassing. I remember my husband used the word "crap" in front of my dad and brother then a boy , having picked it up in the US. There was a short, polite silence which even my husband noticed before conversation continued as before.

Comment - the magazine put out by my gym. Comment Vielleicht nehmen wir Deutsche 'Bullshit' auch nicht als so stark wahr, weil es ja eigentlich 'Mist' bedeutet. Zuersteinmal zum Wort "bullshit". Meine Eltern sind beide Gymnasiallehrer, ich stamme also sicher nicht aus einer "bildungsfernen" Familie. Das sind einfach keine besonders schlimmen Worte, sondern nur ein Weg, seinem Unmut Luft zu machen.

In Amerika ist das allerdings ganz anders. Eines Tages bei der Stillarbeit im Matheunterricht ging eine Gleichung nicht so auf, wie ich mir das vorgestellt hatte. Dort allerdings war es auf einmal totenstill, alle starrten mich an und dann meinte einer total entsetzt "Do you kiss your mother with that mouth? Aber meine deutschen Kollegen haben das nichtmal als etwas Besonderes registriert, nur ich hab still vor mich hingegrinst.

Do you kiss you mother Deswegen sind die Deutschen aber nicht schlechter erzogen oder "direkter".

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Was beleidigend ist oder schlechte Kinderstube ist ja nichts anderes als eine gesellschaftliche Konvention und die ist nunmal von Land zu Land unterschiedlich und zumindest in Deutschland auch von Region zu Region, aber das ist ein anderes Thema. As I've already mentioned, bad language does not go down well in my professional environment. Among friends, things are, I think, a little different, at least where I live a large metropolitan area. I have no personal objection to the occasional mild cussing, especially in exclamatory form.

If someone is really angry or, for example, cuts himself, as in the story in , and yells "Oh, bleep! The story is amusing, by the way, because the person used the wrong word. He should have left off the "bull" part. I do not, however, enjoy people constantly effing and blinding for no reason. If it doesn't add information content and it's not entertaining, what's the point? It's just boring. Comment Interesting comments, Schurre. Rest assured that the word "shit" is not taboo in British schools!

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Are there any Canadians here to add their perspective? Comment Schurre: an interesting contribution. I agree with much of what you say. Still, there seems to be a point that is being missed. I am also not from a "bildungsferne" family and, in the office, when yet again, the computer freezes and I can't work, I can be heard to use all sorts of words that I won't print here. Nonetheless, when I write the IT guy, my boss, the secretary, whoever, I don't use those words. Most of the people who have contributed to this discussion probably don't write a lot of business-related correspondence using the word "Scheisse".

The point is that there is a world of difference between spoken and written language, regardless of whether it is German or English. In other words, "bullshit" used in a spoken conversation might create a bad impression, "bullshit" used in a letter may cause offense. Again, the issue is awareness. I actually find it kind of cute when the young people here say "shit" instead of "Scheisse".

Why not? Cute is probably not the effect they want but what can you do when a styled-out teenager tries to say "fuck" but it comes out more like "fog". It gets more serious, though. Not long ago I heard a young man say goodbye to his friend as he got out of the train: "later nigga". It might not matter too much that I am offended, but if he doesn't learn the effect of that word in English and says the same thing in Philadelphia, well Anyway, I think in this whole discussion it is important to differentiate between written and spoken English or German.

From that perspective, I think even the German speakers here who are so keen to defend their right to use "bullshit" can understand the issue at the heart of this thread. By the way, Schurre, I am sure you don't mean to project your experiences in a small town in the desert of Arizona onto all of the United States. Anyone in my area who asked "Do you kiss your mother with that mouth? I think maybe my grandmother used to say that to my father, if that helps put it in perspective. Comment Rest assured that the word "shit" is not taboo in British schools! But Schurre said it in class, into a silence.

In Britain the other students would not have said anything, but she would certainly have got a comment from the teacher. Remember when we were on a German exchange and were attempting to play handball - the German children thought it was very funny every time we exclaimed "Missed! Poor brainwashed little sods. And I doubt a British teacher would make a fuss about a whispered "shit" nowadays.

The teachers that I know would certainly have turned a deaf ear to it But that's another subject entirely. Back on topic - I think those of us who aren't confirmed, card-carrying prigs can agree that it's up to the individual to decide when to use colourful language, and when not. Caveat maledictor, as it were. But why are 'swear' words considered by some people to be absolutely taboo? Especially when it's OK to use a euphemism or circumlocution to deliver exactly the same message? Comment Und warum werden sie im amerikanischen Fernsehen ausgebleept?

I noticed that on there, the swearwords are beeped out, but for those who can't lipread, they are written in the German subtitles. Comment "But why are 'swear' words considered by some people to be absolutely taboo? Die Frage ist, ob es sich beim Fluchen bzw. Comment re "But why are 'swear' words considered by some people to be absolutely taboo? This might explain why societies with strong religious beliefs are significantly stricter regarding swearing than more secular societies. Comment AGB: ahhh, I see That explains a lot!

Germany or Britain That must be down to just prudishness. Comment Maybe instead of prudishness it is that there is a possibility of more than , other words that are available and might actually more precisely and articulately express whatever emotion or feeling we or someone else has and would prefer that they use those words instead. Tell us why or how what we said is bullshit. Do you not agree with the opinion? Was the statement blatantly false? Or was the statement just misleading?

Is the idea impractical? Possibly impossible to implement? Be more exact then just saying bullshit. I had trouble swallowing this categorical assertion in bold above about British schools, too. To get a current, on-the-spot view, I checked with a close relative of mine, a teacher in an inner-city school in the English Midlands. She says she does not permit or tolerate swearing of any kind, including the word in question, within earshot. She is sure no other teacher in her school does, and can not imagine that it would be any different in other schools in her area.

Comment so many words: You're missing the point. Based on some of the comments in this thread, I don't think there's any doubt that the use of non-religious swear words is frowned upon by a certain type of American. It has nothing to do with choice - indeed, people that don't object to swear words clearly have the higher number of words to choose from since they're not excluding swear words from the outset.

Swearing in UK schools would appear to be more widespread than your relative allows herself to think then. But with her apparently Victorian attitude I suspect she doesn't live in the real world Comment Antiseptic, what exactly is it you wish to achieve by calling people who don't agree with you names?

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Should we all chip in and get you a voodoo-doll with SD3 written on it, so you can stick needles into it without anybody here interested in language but not in catfights having to look on? Or is it no fun without witnesses? Comment Yeah, fair enough. I shouldn't have called SD3 a prig or a Victorian, it isn't really necessary to point the finger in this case anyway.

Incidentally, the act of sticking pins or pegs in voodoo dolls is primarily used to focus 'healing power' on that part of the doll, not to exact revenge or to cause pain. This factoid was brought to you with thanks to the TV series "QI" Comment Antiseptic, even though people who swear supposedly may have a dozen or so more words that they can chose for use in conversation than those who don't swear or choose not swear, they tend not to use all those other rich words.

They tend to overuse those few swear words that they favor and neglect most of the hundreds of thousands of other words. They use the swear words when other words might actually convey more nuanced information to others and possible do so in a less hostile and confrontational manner. The constant swearer may also be de-sensitizing their audience. When someone starts using certain words and especially extensively, people may tune them out or automatically discount what the person is saying because they either formed a judgement about the person which is probably negative or it is not constructively adding to the conversation either in energy or information.

Now, I do know situations where non-swearers have sworn and even if was a mild word like damn or slightly stronger like shit it immediately caught my attention. Depending on the context, I might think something is really wrong, either they are hurt or extremely frustrated or humorously trying to disarm the situation.

Most people hearing these people swear will swivel their head around towards the person because it is out of character or out of the ordinary. So, swearing might have a time and place, but its over use of the words to the point that the words really have no meaning and do not aid in building a dialogue with others. Swear words tend to be conversation enders because they can tend to be aggressive and indicate you do not agree with the other person and more or less want to shut them up or get such a rise out of them that a fist fight might be the next response.

As others noted, foreign swear words have a cute factor because they might not sound or seem to be loaded as words that you were taught in your language as taboo or shouldn't be used in certain situations. So, trying to educate others that certain words do cause offense or in the case of business situations might convey a coarse or less educated image or a non-cooperative stance is not a bad thing. Understanding the point of view of the speakers of the native language might help them to choose from the hundreds of thousands of other words and avoid a situation where they cannot take back their ill chosen word.

Hopefully, they will not use some of these words inappropriately where it might get them beaten up because they spoke too aggressively to someone or they lose a business deal because someone wants to work with people that foster collaborative work environments. If bullshit and other English swear words have really become standard German words and are sweet innocent words in German, then these should be highlighted and boldfaced and made known to them as false friends in English.

Comment " Substantiation required. But I don't think we're talking about constant swearers here, are we? And with regard to your suggestion that swear words should be highlighted and boldfaced, etc. Indeed, I suspect that the overwhelming majority of German schoolkids know what "shit" means, and when it would be inappropriate to use it in English. Comment so many words: Were you perhaps referring to someone else's assertion? Vorab: Verzeihen Sie mir die Verwendung dieses Ausdrucks.

Der Ausdruck bleibt aber grob. Dazu ein Anglizismus. Comment "I'm not sure if you, so many words, would count that as substantiation. People who do swear have more words at their disposal than people who don't - that's an undisputable fact, it's basic maths. I'm more interested in SMW's postulation that people who swear 'tend not to use all those other rich words'. And so it should! It's an accusation, after all - not a wet, limp handshake. Comment People who do swear have more words at their disposal than people who don't - that's an undisputable fact, it's basic maths.

Very funny! A person who has a vocabulary of 10 words, all of them swear words, has more words at his disposal than a person with a vocabulary of 20 words, none of them swear words? I'm done here. I would have been interested in a discussion of Prof. Frankfurt's On Bullshit , or of the question of transfer of vocabulary between languages, but if the "undisputable" fact above is a measure of the level of debate at this point, I'm out. Comment Are you trying to be obtuse? OK, I'll spell it out to you.

There exists a language with 20, words. Native speaker A swears, and therefore has all 20, words of this language at their disposal. Native speaker B doesn't swear, and therefore has let's say 19, words at their disposal. Which is the bigger number? Don't forget to close the door on your way out. Comment Antiseptic: was hat dich denn geritten? Comment Haha! Comment Why am I laughing? Well, because the subject of this thread is swearing, and you've criticised my behaviour actually, your perception of it - I haven't felt "angry" at any point during this debate, sorry if that's how you feel it comes across even though I've hardly sworn at all.

Certainly much less than some other contributors, and not enough IMO for you to innocently suggest I might be an "expert" at swearing And this makes me wonder whether, in this respect, the arguments that have been levelled against swearing are entirely accurate or justified. Also, it goes some way to proving that people who swear are not compelled to swear all the time, as has rather bizarrely been suggested.

I won't be apologising to SD3. Apart from the fact that this contributor is not entirely innocent of making provocative comments see item , involving themselves in my dialogue with another contributor , their high-handed attitude to another contributor in this thread is what sparked this altercation in the first place. Fundamentalist , arrogant and condescending are some words that come to mind. Oh no, I must be such a prude in your eyes because I wrote BS instead of bullshit. The world is not black and white and no amount of poor reasoning, insults and condescension will make it that way.

Apart from the fact that this contributor is not entirely innocent of making provocative comments I am not trying to bully you out of the forum, not that you would let yourself be, or anything like that. At times you make some very interesting and insightful comments. It is, as Doris said, the Tonfall that rankles. But maybe this thread should be closed because it is not much likely that further comments will bridge the gap between the different opinions and repeating them over an over again is not very useful.

HM If I tell someone he is talking bullshit, I do no such thing. I'm saying that the things he says are improbable, not conclusive, very hot air all wrapped up in a lot of nice words. That's a different thing altogether. Comment "I'm saying that the things he says are improbable, not conclusive, very hot air all wrapped up in a lot of nice words. Warum in die Ferne schweifen, wenn das Gute liegt so Nah?! Probiere es einmal damit aus und Du wirst verwunderte bis anerkennende Blicke ernten. Auf jeden Fall aber einen bleibenden Eindruck hinterlassen. Comment - fully agreed - it's the way Antiseptic put it, almost as if it would be ok to sit in class and say "shit" - it's not.

You'd have faced suspension in my school for that. Of course all teenagers of all countries swear among themselves when alone though. Comment ziger: re. It's these euphemisms that I meant - not have sex or make love , which can be quite different in meaning. But yes, I was somewhat exasperated in my later comments by SD3 not understanding why a swearer would always have more words at their disposal , so I'll admit to being condescending.

However, I emphatically wasn't suggesting that people who routinely swear have a larger vocabulary than non-swearers - I agree that this tends not to be the case in practice and made the point on more than one occasion that I was talking about absolutes. But with regard to your "kindergarten" comment, I'm going to have to disagree with you.

By asking me to apologise to SD3, Doris was stipulating that it was only my attitude that was unacceptable. I don't accept that. Especially since SD3 was condescending to another contributor for swearing in a thread about swearing! All that being said, I'd hate to alienate the wider Leo community so I'll be careful to moderate my Tonfall in future. Besides, it would appear that some teachers in the UK are not bothered by swearing, see the link I posted in comment It's like homo or hetro, be both! Comment I don't think there's a connection between swearing and the size of one's vocabulary or the level of one's education.

There are, without a doubt, people who swear to make up for a limited range of verbal expression. There are also people who use them in addition to an already gargantuan vocabulary. Someone who knows what they're doing can use them to great effect. Of course there are friendlier and more constructive ways of making your point, but sometimes you don't want to tread softly.

Sometimes you want to be harsh and offensive whether tongue-in-cheek or dead serious ; and while there certainly are more creative but not necessarily less insulting ways of accomplishing that, sometimes a "dirty" word just works best. Regarding words like "fuck" or "shit" as inherently offensive comes across as a little prudish and "desperately coy" to me, too. Why take offense at swearwords themselves? Isn't it the intended message that counts? I don't see, for example, how someone criticizing, say, a painting by saying "That's crap.

Look at a fucking anatomy book, for god's sake. The colours look like shit, too. Did you use a crippled monkey as a model? And the colours are awful - decomposing pizza looks more appealing than this.