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Whether Christ should have appeared to the disciples "in another shape"? It would seem that Christ ought not to have appeared to the disciples "in another shape. But there was only one shape in Christ. Therefore if He appeared under another, it was not a true but a false apparition. Now this is not at all fitting, because as Augustine says QQ. Further, nothing can appear in another shape than the one it has, except the beholder's eyes be captivated by some illusions.
But since such illusions are brought about by magical arts, they are unbecoming in Christ , according to what is written 2 Corinthians : "What concord hath Christ with Belial? Further, just as our faith receives its surety from Scripture , so were the disciples assured of their faith in the Resurrection by Christ appearing to them. But, as Augustine says in an Epistle to Jerome xxviii , if but one untruth be admitted into the Sacred Scripture , the whole authority of the Scriptures is weakened.
Consequently, if Christ appeared to the disciples , in but one apparition, otherwise than He was, then whatever they saw in Christ after the Resurrection will be of less import, which is not fitting. Therefore He ought not to have appeared in another shape. On the contrary, It is written Mark : "After that He appeared in another shape to two of them walking, as they were going into the country. But Divine things are revealed to men in various ways, according as they are variously disposed.
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For, those who have minds well disposed, perceive Divine things rightly, whereas those not so disposed perceive them with a certain confusion of doubt or error : "for, the sensual men perceiveth not those things that are of the Spirit of God ," as is said in 1 Corinthians Consequently, after His Resurrection Christ appeared in His own shape to some who were well disposed to belief , while He appeared in another shape to them who seemed to be already growing tepid in their faith : hence these said Luke : "We hoped that it was He that should have redeemed Israel.
As Augustine says De Qq. But when our pretense has some signification, it is not a lie , but a figure of the truth ; otherwise everything said figuratively by wise and holy men, or even by our Lord Himself, would be set down as a falsehood, because it is not customary to take such expressions in the literal sense. And deeds , like words, are feigned without falsehood, in order to denote something else.
As Augustine says De Consens. But it did not happen thus now. Such an argument would prove , if they had not been brought back from the sight of a strange shape to that of Christ's true countenance. This could be caused by the darkness or by some kind of humor. Whether Christ should have demonstrated the truth of His Resurrection by proofs? It would seem that Christ should not have demonstrated the truth of His Resurrection by proofs.
For Ambrose says De Fide, ad Gratian. Therefore proofs are out of place there. Further, Gregory says Hom. Consequently, it was not for Him to confirm the Resurrection by proofs. Further, Christ came into the world in order that men might attain beatitude through Him, according to John : "I am come that they may have life, and may have it more abundantly.
On the contrary, It is related in Acts , that Christ appeared to His disciples "for forty days by many proofs , speaking of the Kingdom of God. Taking " proof " in the first sense, Christ did not demonstrate His Resurrection to the disciples by proofs , because such argumentative proof would have to be grounded on some principles: and if these were not known to the disciples , nothing would thereby be demonstrated to them, because nothing can be known from the unknown.
And if such principles were known to them, they would not go beyond human reason , and consequently would not be efficacious for establishing faith in the Resurrection , which is beyond human reason , since principles must be assumed which are of the same order, according to 1 Poster. But it was from the authority of the Sacred Scriptures that He proved to them the truth of His Resurrection , which authority is the basis of faith , when He said: "All things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the Law , and in the prophets , and in the Psalms, concerning Me": as is set forth Luke But if the term " proof " be taken in the second sense, then Christ is said to have demonstrated His Resurrection by proofs , inasmuch as by most evident signs He showed that He was truly risen.
Hence where our version has "by many proofs ," the Greek text, instead of proof has tekmerion , i. Now Christ showed these signs of the Resurrection to His disciples , for two reasons. First, because their hearts were not disposed so as to accept readily the faith in the Resurrection. Hence He says Himself Luke : "O foolish and slow of heart to believe ": and Mark : "He upbraided them with their incredulity and hardness of heart. Ambrose is speaking there of proofs drawn from human reason , which are useless for demonstrating things of faith , as was shown above.
The merit of faith arises from this, that at God's bidding man believes what he does not see. Accordingly, only that reason debars merit of faith which enables one to see by knowledge what is proposed for belief : and this is demonstrative argument. But Christ did not make use of any such argument for demonstrating His Resurrection. As stated already Reply to Objection 2 , the merit of beatitude, which comes of faith , is not entirely excluded except a man refuse to believe only such things as he can see.
But for a man to believe from visible signs the things he does not see, does not entirely deprive him of faith nor of the merit of faith : just as Thomas, to whom it was said John : "'Because thou hast seen Me, Thomas, thou hast believed ,' saw one thing and believed another" [ Gregory , Hom. But his is the more perfect faith who does not require such helps for belief. Hence, to put to shame the faith of some men, our Lord said John : "Unless you see signs and wonders, you believe not.
Article 6. Whether the proofs which Christ made use of manifested sufficiently the truth of His Resurrection? It would seem that the proofs which Christ made use of did not sufficiently manifest the truth of His Resurrection. For after the Resurrection Christ showed nothing to His disciples which angels appearing to men did not or could not show; because angels have frequently shown themselves to men under human aspect, have spoken and lived with them, and eaten with them, just as if they were truly men, as is evident from Genesis 18 , of the angels whom Abraham entertained, and in the Book of Tobias, of the angel who "conducted" him "and brought" him back.
Nevertheless, angels have not true bodies naturally united to them; which is required for a resurrection. Consequently, the signs which Christ showed His disciples were not sufficient for manifesting His Resurrection. Further, Christ rose again gloriously, that is, having a human nature with glory. But some of the things which Christ showed to His disciples seem contrary to human nature , as for instance, that "He vanished out of their sight," and entered in among them "when the doors were shut": and some other things seem contrary to glory , as for instance, that He ate and drank, and bore the scars of His wounds.
Consequently, it seems that those proofs were neither sufficient nor fitting for establishing faith in the Resurrection. Further, after the Resurrection Christ's body was such that it ought not to be touched by mortal man ; hence He said to Magdalen John : "Do not touch Me; for I am not yet ascended to My Father.
Enduring Word Bible Commentary 1 Corinthians Chapter 15
Further, clarity seems to be the principal of the qualities of a glorified body: yet He gave no sign thereof in His Resurrection. Therefore it seems that those proofs were insufficient for showing the quality of Christ's Resurrection. Objection 5. Because in Matthew's account the angel is described as sitting upon the stone rolled back, while Mark states that he was seen after the women had entered the tomb; and again, whereas these mention one angel , John says that there were two sitting, and Luke says that there were two standing.
Consequently, the arguments for the Resurrection do not seem to agree. On the contrary, Christ , who is the Wisdom of God , "ordereth all things sweetly" and in a fitting manner, according to Wisdom I answer that, Christ manifested His Resurrection in two ways: namely, by testimony; and by proof or sign: and each manifestation was sufficient in its own class. For in order to manifest His Resurrection He made use of a double testimony, neither of which can be rebutted.
The first of these was the angels ' testimony, who announced the Resurrection to the women , as is seen in all the Evangelists: the other was the testimony of the Scriptures , which He set before them to show the truth of the Resurrection , as is narrated in the last chapter of Luke. Again, the proofs were sufficient for showing that the Resurrection was both true and glorious. That it was a true Resurrection He shows first on the part of the body; and this He shows in three respects; first of all, that it was a true and solid body, and not phantastic or rarefied, like the air. And He establishes this by offering His body to be handled; hence He says in the last chapter of Luke 39 : "Handle and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as you see Me to have.
Thirdly, He shows that it was identically the same body which He had before, by showing them the scars of the wounds; hence, as we read in the last chapter of Luke 39 he said to them: "See My hands and feet, that it is I Myself. First of all, in the operations of the nutritive life, by eating and drinking with His disciples , as we read in the last chapter of Luke. Secondly, in the works of the sensitive life, by replying to His disciples ' questions, and by greeting them when they were in His presence, showing thereby that He both saw and heard; thirdly, in the works of the intellective life by their conversing with Him, and discoursing on the Scriptures.
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And, in order that nothing might be wanting to make the manifestation complete, He also showed that He had the Divine Nature, by working the miracle of the draught of fishes, and further by ascending into heaven while they were beholding Him: because, according to John : "No man hath ascended into heaven , but He that descended from heaven , the Son of Man who is in heaven.
Each separate argument would not suffice of itself for showing perfectly Christ's Resurrection , yet all taken collectively establish it completely, especially owing to the testimonies of the Scriptures , the sayings of the angels , and even Christ's own assertion supported by miracles. As to the angels who appeared, they did not say they were men, as Christ asserted that He was truly a man. Moreover, the manner of eating was different in Christ and the angels : for since the bodies assumed by the angels were neither living nor animated, there was no true eating, although the food was really masticated and passed into the interior of the assumed body: hence the angels said to Tobias : "When I was with you.
I seemed indeed to eat and drink with you; but I use an invisible meat. For, as Augustine observes De Civ. Dei xiii , "it is not the power but the need of eating that shall be taken away from the bodies of them who rise again. As was observed above, some proofs were employed by Christ to prove the truth of His human nature , and others to show forth His glory in rising again. But the condition of human nature , as considered in itself, namely, as to its present state, is opposite to the condition of glory , as is said in 1 Corinthians : "It is sown in weakness, it shall rise in power.
Hence Gregory says Hom. As Augustine says Tract. Or Jesus would have men to believe in Him, i. For to that man's innermost perceptions He is, in some sort, ascended unto the Father, who has become so far proficient in Him, as to recognize in Him the equal with the Father.
As Augustine says ad Orosium Dial. For if before He died for us and rose again the disciples could not look upon Him when He was transfigured upon the mountain, how much less were they able to gaze upon Him when our Lord's flesh was glorified. But before the Passion , lest His disciples might despise its weakness, Christ meant to show them the glory of His majesty; and this the brightness of the body specially indicates.
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Consequently, before the Passion He showed the disciples His glory by brightness, but after the Resurrection by other tokens. Reply to Objection 5. Innocentius Apap, O. If you have recommendations, please share them in the comment section. If we all do our part, this post can be a repository for great book recommendations on the cosmos-changing events of Holy Week. He acknowledges divine violence is unavoidable but responds with an alternative account of violence that re-envisions the atonement as divine hospitality.
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Wright N. Wright argues that what we believe about life after death will directly affect what we believe about life before death.
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I also think they are confused because there are two very distinct things accomplished that are very different. Scholars cannot serve both masters to they tend to identify with the work that Jesus did without rightly dividing between the two works and they create a confused pastiche. Paul convinced James that his gospel to the gentiles, which they were not aware of, was legitimate and they extended a symbolic hand of fellowship for him to go to the gentiles while they, the elect Jews, went to the circumcision.
This means that the new humanity is placed higher than the high priest, the soldiers, the Emperors and even the angels and demons. Faith is a race and salvation is the reward which they will receive if they are found faithful at Jesus imminent return James , 1 Cor For some reason, few preachers or teachers of the Word ever seem to take the time to explore the significant differences between these two words. The blood of a blood covenant, such as the new covenant with the houses of Israel and Judah apparently may be and must be eaten:.
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