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From Christ to the World. A Public and Political Christ. Justified in Christ. Christ and the Just Society in the Thought of Augustine. Christ as Centre and Circumference. Christ at the Crux. Resurrection, Apocalypse, and the Kingdom of Christ. Full and Present Salvation in Christ. Snapshots of Christ in Leviticus. Witnessing to Christ in a Pluralistic World. Christ and Controversy. The Claim of Humanity in Christ. Paul the Apostle of Jesus Christ.
Restoration of Creation in Christ. The Revelation of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ. Christ Is King. The Eschatological Judgment of Christ. Novum Testamentum Graece. Freedom in Christ DVD. God's Mystery That Is Christ. Sex, Christ, and Embodied Cognition. Holy Trinity Christ Candle. Anno Domini Christ Candle. Cross of St. Francis Christ Candle. Christ at the Checkpoint.
The Gospel of Jesus Christ. The Place of Christ in Liturgical Prayer. The Christ Audio CD. Christ and Horrors. It is a midrash q. Various patriarchs recount experiences that are expansions of those in the biblical narrative. It claims that Noah was born miraculously. Some stories in it are also found in the Book of Jubilees q.
From the quality of the Aramaic scholars date it to the first century BC. Genre Genre refers to the type or category of literature of a given passage, whether historical narrative, myth, hymn, poetry, parable, or other forms. Knowing the genre of a passage is essential for understanding how to read and interpret the text. A modern example of genre is the Whodunit. Gilgamesh Epic This is a Babylonian story of an ancient king, Gilgamesh, who sought immortality but failed to find it.
In the process, he hears the story of the great primaeval age from Utnapishtim, who built an ark and was saved by the gods. There are many parallels between this story and Genesis , the story of Noah and his ark. Gloss Until the invention of printing, one person read from a manuscript and others wrote down what they heard.
At times copyists made mistakes when they did not properly distinguish between some vowels and diphthongs. Occasionally a reader did, at times, miss a line. A gloss is a case where a scribe tried to improve on the text and wrote comments in the margin; when copies were made from this copy, a reader might include comments as part of the text, thinking that they were part of the reading. Gnostic, Gnosticism Gnostics are a collection of sects with certain common characteristics. The chief element in gnostic teaching is a division between the spiritual and the physical called dualism.
Physical creation is seen as intrinsically flawed. Therefore salvation, according to gnostic teaching, involves rescue from the physical sphere. This is accomplished by obtaining gnosis Greek for knowledge which comes from Christ as emissary of God. Gnosis may be seen as stimulating a divine spark within the believer.
It is notoriously difficult to sort out precisely what the various gnostic systems taught as the chief sources for them are the writings of their orthodox opponents. However, their teachings seem to be an amalgam of pre-Christian pagan speculative philosophy with some elements of Christianity incorporated. Without exception, gnostic teachings have been declared heretical.
Some of the later epistles, such as 1 John and the Pastoral Epistles, denounce false teachings that appear to have gnostic elements. We know it only from quotations in the writing of several Christian authors in the early centuries of the Church. It treats the descent of the pre-existent Christ into Mary, the coming of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at his baptism, a post-resurrection appearance to James at a eucharistic q.
Gospel of Thomas An ancient collection of sayings of Jesus, which claims to have been edited by St Thomas. Although there are points of contact between the Gospel of Thomas and the Q source itself a hypothetical source for common elements of Luke and Matthew which are not found in Mark , Thomas appears to be of gnostic origin.
Fragments of a Greek manuscript exist, but the full text is preserved only in Coptic. Cappodocia was un Asia Minor. Gregory of Nyssa was the most intellectual of the trio. For almost twenty years he was bishop of Nyssa, except for a period when he was deposed and replaced by an Arian q. The Fathers are remembered especially for their opposition to Arianism and for their trinitarian teaching. Hades Hades pronounced hay-dees was the Greek god of the underworld, and came to refer to the place where the souls of the dead were said to dwell.
It is in this sense equivalent to the Hebrew term Sheol. It is usually a neutral term, as opposed to describing a place of punishment, and thus is not quite equivalent to the English term Hell. Hassidim During the second century before Jesus was born, Judea was on the border between the Seleucid Hellenic, q. The Hassidim or Hassidians were a group in Jerusalem who fought actively against being absorbed into Hellenic culture and religion.
They are mentioned in 1 Maccabees ; and 2 Maccabees Hellenistic or Hellenic , rather than Greek , is used to differentiate this period from the golden age of Greece in earlier centuries. By the time the Church was emerging, the culture had changed, due to foreign influences, particularly from the east.
A Hellenist was a person of another culture who had adopted Hellenic culture. He was also ruler of Perea, a district east of the Jordan River. He was a son of Herod the Great. For the Herod family tree, click here. Herodians This term appears in both Mark and Matthew. Scholars suggest that Herodians were supporters of the rule and policies of Herod Antipas and perhaps of other members of the Herod family , and thus of the Roman authorities.
Both gospels portray them, with the Pharisees, as putting Jesus in a difficult position regarding payment of taxes to Caesar. Hippolytus Hippolytus lived from about to about AD. He was a great theologian in Rome. The earliest baptismal rite we have is found in his book, Apostolic Tradition ; indeed he tells us that candidates were prepared for several years and that baptism took place during the Easter vigil. Historical-critical Method This is the general term for the modern scholarly approach to understanding the Bible. While in common parlance to criticize carries with it negative vibes, in biblical studies criticism does not.
The word criticize comes from a Greek word meaning to judge, to discern, or to be discriminating in making a judgement. There are some 30 approaches or critical methods of which the most common are: textual criticism, which seeks to establish the original wording of the scriptures, historical criticism, which tries to clarify the date, first context and intention of a biblical book, form criticism, which analyses and classifies the styles of biblical speech and writing e. Homiletic Homiletics is the art of crafting sermons.
In the context of Comments a homiletical statement might refer to an attempt to flesh out the application of a text for us in our context, rather than its meaning more narrowly conceived. Household Code Early Christian conversion was communal rather than individual - entire households converted to Christianty. These included extended families and slaves all living under the same roof. Household Codes are guidelines for Christian living within this group Guidelines may be given for the behaviour of four groups: slaves, wives, husbands and children.
Examples are found in Ephesians ; Colossians ; 1 Timothy ; Titus ; 1 Peter Hymnody A hymnody is a collection of hymns belonging to a religious community. Ignatius of Antioch Ignatius was the second or third bishop of Antioch. As he travelled from Antioch to Rome under guard, he was welcomed by members of Christian communities and wrote letters of encouragement to various churches. Quotations from his letters in the works of fathers of the Church and circulation of letters written in his name show how highly he was regarded.
He was a man passionately devoted to Christ. He insisted on the reality of both the divinity and humanity of Christ, and that the life of Christ continues in the Eucharist q. To him, the bishop is the best safeguard of the unity of the Church. They are used to indicate the limits of a section and to emphasize a particular notion. Inter-testamental literature This term refers to works written after the writing of the last book in the Old Testament and before the first book in the New Testament. Scholars vary as to when this period begins and ends: BC to 55 AD is an informed guess. Some of the intertestamental literature is in the Apocrypha q.
Interpolation An interpolation is a word or phrase added to the text by a copyist in the interests of clarification. Scribes who thought about what they were writing were more likely to make changes than those who did not! His main contribution was in refuting heresies; Against Heresies is a detailed attack upon gnosticism q. He was one of the first to speak of books now in the New Testament together as Scripture , alongside the Old Testament.
Initially, Scripture meant the Old Testament. The apostolic writings were granted authority but only gradually were they generally recognized as the New Testament. Jerome Jerome ? He was born in what is now Croatia, and studied in Rome. After being baptised in his late teens, he devoted himself to an ascetic and scholarly life. He became a Hebrew and Greek scholar, and collected a large library of classical literature.
He spent several years as a hermit in the Syrian desert, surrounded by his library. After returning to Rome, finding himself out of a job, he set off for the East again, and founded a monastery at Bethlehem. It was there that he translated and wrote, and died. Jewish Wars This work by Josephus q. Written in the 70s AD, most of the account is considered reliable even though its tone is pro-Roman. Johannine The Johannine literature is the name given by modern scholars to the five books of the New Testament that are attributed to an author named John: the Gospel according to John, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Revelation.
Of these books, only Revelation gives the name of its author in the text; the others are traditionally attributed to him. Genesis tells us that the pharaoh gave her, a daughter of an Egyptian priest, to Joseph in marriage; Genesis and identify her as the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim. Joseph and Aseneth seeks to explain how an upstanding Israelite could marry a pagan, inferring what later interpreters thought must have happened.
It tells of her conversion from paganism to the worship of God. Josephus Josephus c. He took a leading part in the first Jewish-Roman war and witnessed the siege of Jerusalem in After he surrendered to the Romans, he was greatly honoured by Emperor Vespasian. He wrote Jewish Wars , a somewhat biased account of the events from about BC to the outbreak of the war. He writes from the viewpoint of a Jew trying to gain the sympathy of the Roman public. He brought out his second great work, Antiquities of the Jews q.
Jubilee A Jubilee year occurred every fifty years or forty-nine, after the Exile. It occurred after or in the last year of seven cycles of seven years. In this year, all land was returned to its ancestral owners, all Israelite slaves were freed, and the land was left fallow. It is described in Leviticus , ; and Numbers Jubilees The Book of Jubilees is an ancient commentary in the style of a midrash on Genesis and part of Exodus. It dates from the second century BCE.
Judaizer A Judaizer was a member of a Christian community of Jewish origin who insisted that to be Christian one has to keep Mosaic law, particularly the ordinances regarding ritual purity and diet. Because keeping of various feasts is mandated in Mosaic law, Judaizers expected Christian communities to celebrate these occasions. Judges Judges were charismatic leaders who arose within Israel in times of crisis.
As God's representatives they provided the necessary leadership to deal with the situation at hand. Israel had judges between the settlement of the Promided Land and the emergence of the monarchy. He sought for ultimate truth in various Greek philosophies Stoicism, Aristotelianism, Pythagoreanism, and Platonism but did not find it there. He met an old man near the sea who pointed him to Christianity.
He was not just a Christian seeking to relate Christianity to Greek philosophy; he was a Hellenist who had come to see Christianity as the fulfilment of all that was best in philosophy. He died a martyr in Rome. Kerygma The term kerygma is a Greek word meaning the act of proclaiming or the message proclaimed. It is augmented by detailed instruction about Christ and Christianity. The gospels are clearly kerygmatic, for they set out to announce the good news. They are messages, written on broken potsherds, from observation posts to the defenders at Lachish.
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They give us some snapshots of the Babylonian conquest, including confirmation of statements made in Jeremiah 34, 37 and Lament, lamentation When we hurt physically, we cry out in pain; when we hurt religiously, we lament. In the Old Testament, some laments are individual and others focus on the community or nation as a whole.source
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Job contains an example of an individual lament. Of the Psalms, some 40 are individual laments and at least twelve are communal or national laments. Law of talion This is the law of retribution. Talion comes from the Latin talis meaning such , the same. Part of Mosaic law in Leviticus and Deuteronomy , it is also found in the Code of Hammurabi q.
It sounds barbarous today, but its original intention was to limit revenge, e. When first introduced, it was genuine moral progress. Levirate marriage Should a man die before his wife had born him a son, then his brother had an obligation, per Deuteronomy , to marry her. This was the law of levirate marriage. Levite Generally, a Levite is a member of the tribe of Levi; however some passages seem to use the term as a description rather than a tribal name for example, in Judges , a Levite is mentioned who is a member of the tribe of Judah and is a kind of priest.
The Hebrew root of the word may show that Levites were those particularly closely attached joined to God. In Deuteronomy, Levites are priests who sacrifice and transmit and administer divine law throughout the land. With the centralization of worship in Jerusalem, they were subordinated to the Temple priesthood, in servant roles. Thus by the time of the Exile, priests and Levites were distinct. After the return from exile, both Levites and the priests proper were considered to be descended from Levi, and the levitical order came to include all Temple personnel other than priests.
Some levitical duties were higher than those of priests. They retained their high status through to the end of the Temple in 70 AD, as Luke the story of the good Samaritan indicates. Litany The word litany comes from a Greek word meaning petition or religious procession. A litany is a prayer, or series of prayers, in which a cantor recites a series of petitions to which the congregation repeats a fixed response, e. Lord, have mercy. The cantor, other officiants of the service, and sometimes the choir, process around the church during the chanting of a litany.
The form of Christian litany is rooted in certain psalms where an acclamation is repeated e. Psalm Liturgy The word liturgy is derived from two Greek words, laos and ergon , meaning people and work. It is the action in which we, the people of God, come together to worship him. We do this in words, music, corporate prayer and ritual, usually in a way that has a defined shape; thus we do liturgy. Livy Livy was born in Padua in 59 BC.
Living most of his life in Rome, his life work was History of Rome ; it begins with the founding of the city in BC and ends in 9 BC. Livy was far from being a modern historian: his book reflects his admiration for the civilization of early Rome; while he used as his sources many previous authors, he did not evaluate these sources critically.
He believed that the importance of history was its applicability to contemporary life. Logos Logos is the Greek for word ; it was associated in Hellenistic q. Jewish thought with divine wisdom, as God's creative presence. In Stoic thought, logos was understood as the ordering principle of the universe. In the prologue of John's Gospel, the Logos is made incarnate. In Judea, he decreed that only Greek deities be worshipped; he even caused a pagan altar to be erected in the Jerusalem Temple. It was a member of the Maccabees family, Mattathias, who led the guerilla force that sought to restore Judaism.
When he died, his son Judas Maccabeus led the revolt. This force was successful in restoring the Temple to its proper use. It is found in Luke Magnificat is the first word of the Latin translation. For many centuries it has been sung as part of the daily offices of the Church.
Marcion Marcion, who died about AD, was a heretic who rejected the Old Testament completely on the grounds that the God there is one of Law while the Christian good news is wholly a gospel of Love. To him, Paul understood this contrast between law and godly love but the Evangelists did not. So he claimed that the only canonical q. The success of his movement forced the Church to consider what scriptures should be accepted as scripture and what should not. Masoretic Text A definitive Hebrew text of the Old Testament produced by mediaeval Jewish scholars Masoretes , and incorporating the Masorah "tradition" - a system of vowel signs, accents and marginal notes.
Ancient Hebrew did not include vowels. The standardization of the correct reading of the biblical texts gave rise to the notes and vowels which were incorporated in the MT. They conquered Assyria in BC. Their independence as a kingdom was short-lived. Once vassals of the Medes, the Persians overthrew their overlords in BC. Rather than treating the Medes as a conquered people, the Persians integrated them into their administration and society. In the book of Daniel, the Medes and the Persians are treated as one people.
The Persians were also Indo-European. Darius the Mede was a king of Persia. Merism A figure of speech in which a pair of related objects is named, which comprises a totality including everything between the pair. In early usage, it referred to kings who would come to continue the line of King David, and to priests. Christos is anointed in Greek. In the gospels, Jesus is reluctant to accept the designation messiah without qualification. It seems that Jesus avoids being seen as an earthly future king of Israel.
After his death and resurrection, messiah takes on a specifically Christian usage as a title that refers only to Jesus: he is the crucified agent of God, who has died for our sins. He is the one vindicated and exalted by God. Messianic age As foreseen after the return from exile, this would be a time of universal peace. Messianic banquet The idea is that life in the kingdom of God will be a banquet at which the Messiah Christ will preside. The Eucharist q. Jesus presents such an image in the parables of the Wedding Feast in Matthew and of the Great Banquet in Luke In the Old Testament, see Isaiah a.
Messianic secret Scholars have recognized that there are in Mark several instances where Jesus commands people to be silent about his action or identity see , 44; ; ; ; , 30; This is known as the messianic secret. One possible reason for his is that Mark is accounting for the fact that Jesus in his public ministry neither claimed to be the Messiah q. Jesus may also be avoiding being seen as having political and military intentions, which Jews at the time expected of the Messiah.
Being nomads, they travelled widely through the ancient Near East. Moses spent time in Midian, and married the daughter of a Midianite priest. Midrash The Hebrew word means investigation or research. Midrash is a method of Jewish interpretation of the scriptures developed after the return from exile. It aimed to edify by eliciting from scriptural text associations and applications which went beyond literal meaning. Rabbis proposed several answers, recognising that more than one might be correct. In proposing their answers, they freely used verses from elsewhere in the Old Testament, without considering the original context.
Midrashim is the plural of Midrash. Midrash Rabba, Midrash Genesis Rabba Midrash Rabba is a collection of homilies, interpretations and commentaries from ancient Jewish sages. It includes midrashes q. It dates from the early rabbinic period roughly the s AD. One of the principles of Midrash Rabba is that various interpretations are possible. Minor Prophets The prophetic books in the Old Testament which are much shorter but no less important than the longer ones Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
The minor prophets are Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah. Sometimes called The Twelve. The definitive version is attributed to Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi c. Moab Genesis tells us that Moab was an illegitimate son of Lot, so the Moabites were descended from him. Moab was the name of the territory to the east of the southern part of the Dead Sea.
Nazirite The Hebrew word means dedicated or consecrated. Drinking wine was permitted after an initial period. Samuel is never explicitly named as a Nazirite but the vow made by Hannah, his mother, strongly suggests that he is: see 1 Samuel Samson is explicitly named a Nazirite in Judges and Numeric values of Hebrew letters The first nine letters in the alphabet have the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
The next nine letters have the values 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and The last four letters have the values , , and Five letters are written differently when they are at the end of a word. They have the values to For a word or phrase, the values are added together.
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These are known as Old Latin versions. They varied significantly, were often inaccurate and at times interpreted rather than translated. To our knowledge, no one translator translated the whole Bible into Latin at that time. His father was martyred in , and he was later tortured for his faith. He was head of the school which instructed those who were to be baptised. He was a great scholar and a prolific writer. His writings fall into four groups: biblical translations and commentaries , systematic theology, rebuttal of heretical writings, and practical works.
Unfortunately many of his works have been lost. Orphic rites Orphism was a mystic cult of ancient Greece, believed to be drawn from the writings of the legendary poet and musician Orpheus. In this religion, it was believed that only when out of the body did the soul reveal its true nature. The physical body was seen as a prison for the immutable, true essence of a person.
This papyrus were found in a graveyard in Egypt in Portions of the letters are missing. Romans appears at the end of chapter P 66 This codex q. We have two other partial copies of John but P 66 is particularly valuable because it contains almost all of the book. The P designation indicates that the manuscript contains considerably less than the whole New Testament. Palestine There is no other generic term which is completely satisfactory to describe the land which was promised to Abram in every age and generation.
The Promised Land has been fought over and occupied by so many different tribes, kingdoms and empires, and borders have been so fluid over the centuries, that to use any specific name as though it referred to a politically stable entity would be misleading and nearly always anachronistic, nor would it ever be completely politically neutral. Roughly speaking, the territory in question corresponds to the land of the Hittites, the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites. Deuteronomy ; see also Joshua , which omits the Girgashites.
For a brief time this was consolidated into a unified Israelite kingdom, then split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah, both of which were subsequently conquered. Over the centuries the territory, or part of it, has been part of a variety of foreign empires, including the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Seleucid, Roman and Ottoman empires.
It has been under the control of the Egyptians, of Alexander the Great, the Arabs, the British and others. The term Palestine dates at least to the fifth century BCE, when it was first used in writing by Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Comments follows Herodotus and most other scholars in using the term Palestine neutrally to refer to this much- contested and blood-soaked land, without making any claim or comment on political jurisdiction. Our knowledge of his writings is limited to quotations in the works of Irenaeus q. One of these fragments states that he understood from an authority that Mark, as interpreter of Peter, set down accurately, though not in order, everything that he remembered of the words and actions of the Lord.
Parallelism A literary device common in Hebrew and other Semitic poetry, in which related thoughts or phrases are juxtaposed. Parallelism sometimes called thought rhyme is a balance not only of form but also of the though between successive members in a poem. A line of poetry is divided into parts. Parallelism is more than mere repetition of words or ideas in successive parts. The second part is a specification, often an intensification, of the first. Where there is a third part, the third complements the thought of the first part. In synonymous parallelism , the same thought is expressed in successive parts; the second part simply repeats the sense of the first in slightly different terms.
In antithetic parallelism , the thought expressed in the second part is in contrast to that of the first part. In formal parallelism , also called synthetic parallelism , a verse contains neither repetition in different terms nor contrasted assertions. In it the thought of the first part is carried further and completed in the second. In climactic parallelism , the characteristics of synonymous and formal parallelism are combined.
The second part echoes or repeats a phrase in the part and also adds to it an element which carries forward or completes the sense. In staircase parallelism , the second part of the verse develops the thought of the first, without quoting words from the first part. In internal parallelism , the balance of form and thought is between individual parts of a verse. In external parallelism , there is balance not only within but also between verses. In complete parallelism , each term in the first part is matched by a corresponding term in the second part.
Parousia Greek for coming , advent , presence as of a deity or emperor. In Christian usage Parousia developed into a technical term referring to the coming of Christ as judge at the end of the era. It is equivalent to Second Coming. Exodus tells us that the Israelites fled before their bread had risen, so yeast-less bread is eaten during the week-long festival. They are called pastoral because they express a pastoral concern for the addressees, and because they exhibit a concern for the orderly pastoral care of Christian communities. Patristic Age the period of Church history after the sub-apostolic age, beginning after the middle of the second century CE, marked by great theological developments and the writings of the Church Fathers , from which the name comes from the Latin pater , meaning father.
The writings from, and study of, this period are often referred to as Patristics. Pausanias Pausanias was probably born in Lydia in Asia Minor. He was a Greek geographer who travelled to many lands around the eastern end of the Mediterranean. He wrote Description of Greece , a sort of tourist guidebook. In writing about Athens, he discusses the pictures, portraits, and inscriptions recording the laws of Solon; the great gold and ivory statue of Athena in the Parthenon; and the monuments to famous men and of Athenians who died in battle.
He lived in the s AD. Pentateuch The first five books of the Bible Greek for five-volumed work , traditionally attributed to Moses. Also referred to as The Torah meaning law. Pesher is an application of Old Testament scripture with little concern for context of the passage. The authors assume that the Old Testament authors were speaking to an audience contemporary with those who wrote peshers. Pharisees The Pharisees were a sect of Judaism, or a religious party, which arose about a century before Christ in protest against laxity in keeping the Law and the introduction of foreign customs into Palestine.
Their emphasis on the exact observance of dietary and ritual rules led to the movement known as rabbinic Judaism. They believed that the soul survives death and is punished or rewarded in another life. They were admired by the people. Paul says that he is a Pharisee in Philippians and Acts They were distinuguished from the Sadducees chiefly in their belief in a two-fold Law: written and oral. Philo Philo ca. Judaism i. Philo combines a fierce loyalty to Judaism with a profound love of Greek philosophy to present a literary defence of Judaism to his racially troubled city and extensive allegorical interpretation of Scripture that made Jewish law consonant with the ideas of Stoic, Pythagorean, and especially Platonic thought.
Plato In explaining the Christian faith, we couch it in the thought patterns of our society. In the early days of Christianity, these were the patterns of Greek philosophy. Plato was a Greek philosopher who lived from to BC. He was a native of Athens. Plato distinguishes being from becoming. In this world, everything is subject to change and decay. But he also held that there is realm of being which is eternal and unchanging.
Premillenarianism Premillenarianists believe, influenced by apocalyptic writings q. In the early centuries of the Church, some mainline Christians use the word millennium in their writings but in the context of an allegorical interpretation of scripture. Since Augustine of Hippo q. Priestly Source One of four sources identified in the Pentateuch q. This source is characterized by concern with matters of ritual and religious observance, describing in detail the keeping of festivals, vestments, rites of ordination and sacrifice, the tabernacle and its furnishings.
Genesis and covenants. Though probably dependent on earlier sources, it was given its final shape after the end of the exile sixth or fifth century BC. The Priestly Source gives The Torah q. Commentaries often indicate the Priestly source as P. Psalms of Solomon A pseudepigraphical collection of eighteen psalms in a style similar to the biblical collection of Psalms, probably written near Jerusalem in the second half of the first century BCE c. Pseudepigrapha The term Pseudepigrapha is Greek for writings with false superscriptions , or documents whose authorship is falsely attributed.
The term is now used mainly because of accepted custom, but is not used literally as a value judgement, although the attributions of authorship are generally accepted to be incorrect. The Pseudepigrapha are a collection of some 65 documents, most written between c. They cover a wide range of literary styles including apocalyptic q. Ptolemy dynasty Alexander the Great ruled much of the Near East. He captured Jerusalem in BC. When he died in BC, his empire split up. Ptolemy, one of his generals, captured Jerusalem in BC. Q From the German Quelle , meaning source. Q is a hypothetical document which is the source for passages found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark.
This material consists largely of sayings of Jesus. Whether this source was in oral or written form is not known definitively. Many scholars believe that such a document must have existed, but to this day no physical evidence of one has been discovered. Either way, it is a useful way to refer to material common to the two Gospels. Occupied between the mid-second century BCE and the First Jewish Revolt CE ; some scholars believe the inhabitants to have been the Essenes, while others disagree.
Qumran literature refers to the scrolls found on the site. This literature reveals the Qumran community to have been well outside the mainstream of Jewish teaching at the time. The architecture of the site indicates a highly communal lifestyle.
Qumran literature Near the ruins of Qumran q. Community building, various scrolls were found in caves. Some of these scrolls are of Old Testament books; others appear to have been written by the community. The latter are known as Qumran literature. The literature also includes commentaries and para-biblical works. Redact, Redaction Redaction is another term for editing.
As applied to biblical studies, it refers to a process of producing a new version of a text, either by incorporating new material, or by combining two existing texts. Rubric A rubric is a ritual or ceremonial direction printed at the beginning of an order of service or in the course of the text. The name comes from the Latin word for red ; rubrics were and are often printed in red type to distinguish them from the text of the service. From about BC it consisted chiefly of the aristocratic priestly and lay families.
Politically, they were concerned primarily with maintaining good relations with the Roman occupying power. Salvation history Salvation history is a technical term for the historical process through which we come to understand God and his ways, as revealed in the Bible, culminating in Christ. Samaria, Samaritan When the united monarchy of David and Solomon split up, Samaria became the capital of the northern kingdom, Israel.
After the conquest of BC, the Assyrians brought people of other lands into the north; over the centuries, there was significant inter-marriage. By New Testament times, the Samaritans worshipped Yahweh q. Samaria can refer to the city or to the territory. Samaritans lived not only there but also elsewhere around the Mediterranean.
Jews disliked them for their lack of racial purity and deviant religion. Samaritan Pentateuch The Samaritan scriptures are limited to the first five books of the Bible, Genesis to Deuteronomy. Written in the Samaritan alphabet, it is an early form of the Old Testament text.
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While there are many differences, they are mostly small, being grammatical or spelling. In many of its variants it agrees with the Septuagint q. Sanhedrin A sanhedrin was a council of leaders. In the New Testament, this term sometimes refers to local councils see Matthew ; ; Mark ; Acts and most often to the supreme court of chief priests and elders in Jerusalem. Sanhedrins served as courts. According to the Passion narratives e. Seder The seder service is the highlight of Passover celebration, a family banquet held on the first and second evenings of Passover.
The ceremony is a dramatisation of the story of the Exodus. Selah This word is probably a liturgical direction, added to the original text of the psalm. It may mean lift up, either to indicate the lifting up of the voices of the singers in a doxology, or to call for lifted-up instrumental music in an interlude in the singing.
Seleucid After Alexander the Great died, his empire split into three parts, with one of his generals governing each. Initially, Palestine was under Ptolemaic control but by BC the Seleucids had gained control of this territory. Antiochus IV Epiphanes q. Seneca Seneca ca. His brother, Gallio, Proconsul of Achaia, is mentioned in Acts A Stoic q. He wrote essays and tragedies.
His works have been much studied for the similarities and contrasts between Stoicism and the ethic to which Christians are called. Traditionally it was believed to have been done by seventy-two scholars, which is the origin of its name. The Septuagint contains some material not found in the Hebrew text. This material is now known as the Apocrypha. The Septuagint was the usual form of the Bible used by the earliest Christians. It is almost always the source of scriptural quotations in the New Testament.
Servant Songs Four poetic sections of Isaiah ; ; ; are designated Servant Songs. The precise identity of the Servant is unknown, though various scholars identify him variously as Israel, Moses, Isaiah, or one of the kings of Israel. Christian theology has generally interpreted the Servant as a prophecy of Christ. The last of the sections speaks of redemption through suffering; hence the term Suffering Servant. Servant theology In the Old and New Testaments, servant is a translation of words which literally mean slave. Thus Israelites and Jews recalled their own bondage in Egypt.
The most striking case of servant theology is found in the Servant Songs q. Shema The Shema is the Jewish confession of faith. It is made up of three biblical passages: Deuteronomy , 11; Numbers It is recited every morning and evening by observant Jewish men. Sheol In ancient Jewish cosmology, Sheol was the place of the dead, or the underworld. Psalm , Sheol is not to be confused with the later concept of Hell as a place of punishment, but was simply the place where all the dead were supposed to go. Its existence in cosmology indicates an undeveloped idea of an afterlife, which later became more definite.
It is approximately equivalent to the Greek idea of Hades q. It contains a revelation given to a person called Hermas in the form of an apocalypse q. The name comes from the person who reveals, a shepherd. Over the centuries, the concept of women who were filled with divine spirit being channels for prophecies from the gods spread throughout the Hellenistic q. Jews and Christians composed sibylline oracles of their own. Socrates Socrates was a Greek philosopher who lived between BC. Partly through engaging in debate in the marketplace in Athens, he turned public attention to questions of ethics and virtue.
At the age of 70, he was convicted of atheism, treason and corruption of the young. He was sentenced to death. Sophists Sophists were travelling teachers who were prepared to teach anything — for a hefty fee. Others did not charge for teaching wisdom. Whether they knew a subject or not, they were prepared to teach it. They first appeared ca. In ancient Greece the most popular career was politics, so there was an opportunity to teach young men rhetoric, the art of argumentation.
The search for truth was not a priority; rather they trained their students in how to persuade the multitude of whatever they wished them to believe, true or not; hence our word sophistry , the use of fallacious arguments knowing them to be such. Recognizing how Christ died and rose to save sinful humanity, the New Testament holds together inseparably the saving function and personal identity of Christ as Son of God.
Stoicism The name of this Greek philosophical school comes from the place where they met, a stoa colonnade in Athens. While scholars of this school developed theories of physics, cosmology and logic, they are best known for their emphasis on moral conduct. They held that the entire universe was a living creature animated by the divine Logos reason or mind , whom they identified with Zeus.
Every person was a slave of the ruling Logos. Whatever happened in the universe was governed by this universal law of nature or providence.
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Enduring hardship was seen as a test of character. Stoic or stoic-like elements are to be found in several Old and New Testament books. He studied in Rome and Alexandria and became a geographer and a historian. He wrote a volume work called Geography in which he described all parts of the known world. Suffering Servant See Servant Songs. Syllogism A syllogism is a form of logical reasoning. From two given or assumed prepositions which have a common or middle term, a conclusion is reached.
The conclusion does not include the middle term. For example: all philosophers are people; all people are mortal; therefore, all philosophers are mortal. Synoptic means view together. These three contain many similar, and in places identical, passages. It is therefore almost universally agreed that the three are literarily interdependent.
It is generally but not universally held that Mark is the earliest of the three, and that material common to Matthew and Luke, but not in Mark, came from a common lost source, referred to by scholars as Q q. A synopses of the three Gospels may be viewed on-line or purchased; they present the various related passages in three columns for ease of comparison.
Israel the northern kingdom, Ephraim and Syria formed an alliance in the hope of stemming the expansion, and invited Judah to join it. Judah appealed to Assyria for help. Judah ended up a vassal of Assyria, paying a heavy tribute.