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Scotland’s opportunity
Contents:


  1. Building Buyer Personas for Banking Websites
  2. Aarti Kapoor, the Fitness-Banker Whiz Kid
  3. Background

The new rules will have a significant impact on those member firms that produce research, particularly multiservice banks. For example:. The new rules, and their important differences from the Current Equity Rules, are summarized in a chart attached to the full publication, available here. Highlights include: Blackout Periods. The blackout periods during which firms may not publish or distribute equity research reports and equity analysts may not make public appearances relating to the issuer will be significantly shortened: the current day blackout period for IPOs will be reduced to a minimum of 10 days after the completion of the offering for any firm that participated as an underwriter or dealer; the current day blackout period for secondary offerings in which a firm participated as a manager or co-manager will be reduced to a minimum of three days after the completion of the offering; and the blackout period around the time of lock-up expiration will be eliminated.

The rules require firms to adopt written policies and procedures incorporating specific elements. Debt research provided solely to certain eligible institutional investors will be exempted from many provisions of the Debt Rule, provided that certain disclosure and other requirements are met; Prepublication Review.


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Both rules will explicitly require firms to maintain information barriers or other safeguards reasonably designed to ensure research analysts are insulated from the review, pressure or oversight by persons who might be biased in their judgment or supervision, including IB and sales and trading personnel, and, in the case of the Debt Rule, principal trading personnel; Annual Attestation. The current research-specific annual attestation requirement will be eliminated; Retaliation. Both rules will extend the current anti-retaliation prohibition to employees other than IB personnel; and Exemptive A uthority.

Impact of New Rules The new rules will have a significant impact on those member firms that produce research, particularly multiservice banks. Subscribe or Follow. Anti-Popery was at a peak. Disgust at what was being done to Protestants abroad was paralleled by fears about what might be done by the Catholic James II in England.

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Building Buyer Personas for Banking Websites

Anti-Popery underlay English preparedness to believe the lies of Titus Oates, the length and bitterness of the Exclusion Crisis, and eventually James' loss of his throne. It, more than anything else, ensured that the normal hostility to foreigners would be suspended in the case of the Huguenots. When, three years before James' accession, Samuel Bolde warned his readers in a printed sermon that they did not know how soon they might share the refugee condition, he was hitting a vital nerve.

The appearance of so many people fleeing government action abroad had no previous parallels in English history. The Jews who had come to medieval England had been comparatively few in number, although their isolation from their Christian English hosts accentuated their presence.

Dutch and Walloon Calvinists arrived in force in Elizabethan England — there were over 15, foreign Protestants in the country in the s, the majority Dutch and almost all of the remainder Walloon and Huguenot — but few needed to come once the independence of the United Provinces was secured. Most of the refugees from the German Palatinate in were immediately resettled in Ireland and America.

Irish and Scottish migrants, who chose to come for their individual economic benefit, belong to a different category. Not until the nineteenth century can any other swell of refugees be said to compare remotely with the Huguenots. From their ranks have come names so well-known in England that their foreign origins are now hidden beneath a cloak of familiarity: names like Bosanquet, Courtauld, Dollond, Gambier, Garrick, Minet, Portal, Tizard.

But the very survival of such names hinders recognition of just how completely the Huguenots have been assimilated. Nor, of course, is there necessarily anything foreign about them. Other names have become even harder to disentangle. Worse still from the historian's point of view, the corruptions and translations may stem from the very earliest months of a refugee's arrival in Britain.

It is worth digressing to point out one result of such transmogrifications: estimates of, for example, the number of MPs of foreign extraction in eighteenth-century Parliaments, or of foreign capital tied up in the English banking system during the wars against Louis XIV's France, are likely to be too low, even if based not on the inadequate published naturalisation records but on lengthy, detailed genealogical research. The number of Huguenots who sought refuge in England was so large, in relation to a national population of perhaps five and a half million at the end of the seventeenth century, that assimilation and intermarriage mean that most English readers of this journal will have some Huguenot blood in their veins.

It runs strongly in the upper echelons of English society. It runs strongly too in the south-west and south-east of England, and also in Ireland, where a further 10, refugees settled. It is rarer in the north and west, and in Scotland and Wales; the only Huguenot communities known to have had organised congregations north of a line from the Severn to the Wash are the small settlement at Chester and the more substantial one at Edinburgh.

Just as most Huguenot names have vanished in the process of assimilation, many Huguenot contributions go unrecognised as such because they are deeply embedded. David Garrick did so much for the theatre, especially in terms of rehabilitating Shakespeare, that it is hard to remember that he was the grandson of a Huguenot refugee who was an elder of the French Church of London. No doubt that is as it should be, for — especially after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes robbed them of the hope of toleration in France — the Huguenots proved very willing to become English.

Those who came to Elizabethan England had been less prepared to cut all ties with their native country, where the ebb and flow of the fortunes of civil war continued to give them hope of re-establishing themselves when peace finally arrived. Protestants from Dieppe, for instance, took refuge in Rye and Winchelsea on the Kent coast on several occasions, only to return to France when. After the fall of La Rochelle in and the Peace of Ales the following year, however, the Huguenots could no longer hope to resort successfully to force of arms to protect themselves against hostile action.

It followed that unless outside pressures could be brought to bear, they could not influence or change the thinking that had underlain t he Revocation. They did. By then, too, children of the refugees had grown up who were ambivalent about returning to a land that was their parents' rather than their own. As the eighteenth century brought with it successive Anglo-French wars, the pressures on such descendants to underline their Englishness could only grow.

In any case, their sense of identity with the Hanoverian succession and their abhorrence of the regime that had unjustly forced their parents to flee were both very strong.

Aarti Kapoor, the Fitness-Banker Whiz Kid

In When the Young Pretender appeared in , the Huguenots were quick to come forward with loyal addresses promising men for service against him. By the time of the Napoleonic Wars, no-one could doubt their Englishness. On July 26th, a mass meeting of Londoners unanimously declared its 'determination to stand or fall with our King and country' because:.

The independence and existence of the British Empire The declaration was signed by the chairman: Jacob Bosanquet, grandson of David Bosanquet who had taken refuge from Languedoc in Assimilation was not accomplished without strains within Huguenot families. Some of the steps that might be involved are revealed in the autobiography of Sir Samuel Romilly , a law reformer whose career was important for its long and successful. His great-grandfather, a landowner at Montpellier, had remained in the south of France after the Revocation, but continued to worship in Protestant ways within the security of his own home, and brought up his children as Protestants.

It was Samuel's grandfather, Etienne, who became a refugee in , at the age of seventeen. He went to Geneva for the specific purpose of receiving Communion, and there decided not to return home but to go instead to London. Only then did he inform his family of his decision, but his father accepted the situation and sent money to him from France which helped him establish himself as a wax-'bleacher in Hoxton, It is typical of first-generation refugees to marry others of their own kind, and Etienne married Judith de Monsallier, the daughter of another Huguenot immigrant.

Samuel Romilly's father, Peter, was apprenticed to a Frenchman in the City, a jeweller named Lafosse. In due course Peter too married the daughter of a refugee, Margaret Gamault, so Samuel was brought up in surroundings which retained strong Huguenot influences. He described his father as attaching more importance to practical charitable behaviour towards his fellow men than to forms of worship, but Peter made his family regularly attend morning and evening worship on Sundays, alternating between the parish church and the French chapel in which he had a pew.

Otherwise he was far from impressed:. Nothing was ever worse calculated to inspire the mind of a child with respect for. Most of the descendants of the refugees were born and bred in England, and desired nothing less than to preserve the memory of their origin; and their chapels were therefore ill-attended. A large uncouth room, the avenues to which were narrow courts and dirty alleys, and which, when you entered it, presented to the view only irregular unpainted pews and dusty plastered walls; a congregation consisting principally of some strange-looking old women scattered here and there, one or two in a pew, and a clergyman reading the service and preaching in a monotonous tone of voice, and in a language not familiar to me, was not likely either to impress my mind with much religious awe, or to attract my attention to the doctrines which were delivered.


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Nor did he respect the school to which he was sent, 'of which the sole recommendation seems to have been that it had once been kept by a French refugee, and that the sons of many refugees were still scholars at it'. Writing, arithmetic, and the rules of French grammar. As for 'the more familiar use' of French, that was something which he and his brother acquired at home, for it remained 'a rule established by my father, that French should be spoken in the family on a Sunday morning, the only time Despite his strictures on the French services he had known in his youth, Samuel Romilly continued to attend the chapel, and found it a changed place when a new minister, John Roget, replaced the old man whose monotony had so bored him.

Roget indeed became a close friend, and married his sister Catherine. Samuel's Huguenot background must have continued to influence him, and in he followed his elder brother and father in being elected a director of the French Protestant Hospital.

Background

But by and large it was the members of his — the third — generation of refugees who were the last to show any profound awareness of the Huguenot character of their families. In those Protestants who remained in France finally won toleration, and shortly afterwards special rights were offered to Huguenot descendants who might wish to return there. Very few of those who had crossed the Channel can have been tempted, for assimilation was complete.

What had been French had become British. Various stages can be discerned in the process of assimilation. Just as modern West Indian immigrants may be specifically Grenadian or Trinidadian in the first generation but more generally West Indian in the second, so the Huguenots moved from a close attachment to their provinces of origin towards simply a consciousness of having had roots in France. Between the s and , a series of Friendly Societies — the first in England — were founded, almost all with a French regional basis: the 'Societe des Enfants de Nimes', the Society of Dauphine, the Norman Friendly Society and so on.

In London, where there were many French congregations, certain churches drew markedly on some provinces rather than others, so that in Spitalfields refugees from Picardy were likely to attend the church of St Jean, while those from Poitou were drawn to La Patente. Refuge relief — a massive operation which involved the transfer of over one and. La Providence , the French Protestant Hospital, was founded in , also in London; it still exists today, located now at Rochester in the form of flatlets for the elderly. French congregations dwindled in number and lost their regional bases of membership.

The Westminster French Protestant School, founded in for descendants of the refugees, survived into this century and continues to assist with their education in the new guise of the Westminster French Protestant School Foundation.