And even if digital didn't suffer from degradation, you should still have a master or archival copy. It's not a good idea to assume that you will always be able to find a good quality copy in the future should you need to create a new edition.
Chances are it will be a degraded copy with lower quality images and other issues introduced in the conversion process. I would archive everything from the original source documents and images to the intermediate file formats and including whatever preferred archival file format is common at the moment. Don't forget to also include any material discarded from the published book; it could prove useful in a future edition. I expect, if the graphics was ever available as such - or designed so by the publisher - they would be stored as vector graphics, unrendered or uncompressed original formats.
Complex images though, aren't impossible to do by vector - but extremely time consuming. As have nicely been informed by the other users here - with older, "analog" media video and audio , the primary function of the "Master" was to branch out a handful of copies, and duplicate further from those - due to physical wear and tear during the copy process. Books were "set" manually, and the letters separated after the print was run.
Original manuscripts were usually print or writing on paper, depending on age. In modern day - the "Master" still serves as an unadulterated original and this is usually duplicated several times - but not primarily due to wear and tear during a copy process.
Master Copy: The Painters of Xiamen
A straight digital copy does not pose any wear on the original, or detoriation of the new copy. Its all 1s and 0s. Most data transfer processes have data corruption control. The "recieving" end will let the "sender" know what it actually got. If the data don't match the original, the "sender" will send that package again. This will loop util it "gets it right" or a defined limited set of times whatever occurs first - this "limit" can be indefinite. The actual transfer process from the "manufacturing master", is physical pressing. Any physical pressing procedure, is actually very much analog - and thus both long-time wear or a foreign object like a speck of dust, can introduce detoriation resulting in data corruption.
First off - most of todays digital storage media, will be detoriate with time. This is mostly down to physical properties of the materials the storage media is manufactured from. Paper and cellulose film will deteriorate too. So will modern polyester film eventually, but its designed to last for hundreds of years given ideal circumstances.
But the good thing about digital media, is that its fairly easy and little work - to replicate and migrate to a new "Master Copy". It is also fairly easy to make it automated, if you administer hundreds or thousands of "Masters". Second: A digital master copy is usually completely without compression. If the format is 24 frames per second - then thats what this copy will be: 24 full uncompressed images per second of "film".
A "standard" Blu-Ray disc double layer may hold up to 50 Gigabyte of data. Special triple layer discs may hold as much as Gigabytes, although these are rare. This was shot in 48fps, 3D 5K resolution. Now lets do the math for the uncompressed, RAW digital video data without sound. Some numbers are theoretical likeliness, as I couldn't find those filming details :.
Without ANY compression, that is Per second of film. Thats almost 50 Terrabytes for a 3 and a half hour movie. And to squeeze this raw digital movie footage onto a Blu-Ray disc, is actually going to require some very serious compression. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Ask Question. Thank you for your time. A book is an example of a "simulacrum" each one is a "copy of an object that has no original", fact fans.
Don't think that's what a simulacrum is. A simulacrum is the representation or imitation of a person or a thing. Isn't what you describe closer to the concept of a second-order simulacra from Jean Baudrillard. Incidentally, the "copy of an object that has no original" is something that the Ghost in the Shell TV series used, the so-called "stand alone complex".
A bit similar to memes, too. There's actually a large part of the academic field called "textual studies" that involves trying to piece together "master copies" from drafts, edits, and the like, and often will even track the history and variance in changes. The resulting product is called a "critical edition. Cugel Cugel 3 3 bronze badges. Thank you for your answer. After this thread died a while ago I asked a friend who took a publishing class some time ago and she practically told me the same thing. Also, this article explains how InDesign got so popular: arstechnica.
Why do films need master copies?
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Do we still need master copies? Do books need master copies? In short: Master copies are necessary where the process of creating copies causes quality loss in the original. Chances are it will be a degraded copy with lower quality images and other issues introduced in the conversion process What should that master copy contain? In my opinion: Everything. Copying does not degrade even images using lossy compression changing size would force a recompression and there are several image formats that use lossless compression e.
Digital content prefers copying as a means of preservation. Clayton May 21 '14 at Following up on the last sentence of Paul's comment: A digital "master copy" will become unretrievable because of the decay of storage media en. Re-storing the data, i.
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One of the longest lasting storage media is still simple acid-free paper! A printed book or handwritten manuscript will be readable long after a digital file has been permanently corrupted. Which is why state archives print their files and store them in filing cabinets.
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Paul I've seen images with degraded color, so I know that it can happen. And BTW, I was assuming that the master copies would be digital. Search How to Titles Subjects Organizations. Description 2. Facilities 3. Preparing the master copy 4. Preparing the screen 5. Printing Process. Printing process 1.
Description Silk-screen printing is a very simple but effective printing process for both monochrome and multi-coloured prints. Any smooth surface may be used for the prints - for example, paper, textiles, leather, glass, metal, wood - and any type of paint or ink provided that you have the appropriate material as a mask. By using different screen fabrics, you can produce the kind of prints you need, using as many colours as you wish, but for each colour a separate mask must be prepared.
In addition, since the process does not require the use of special printing machines, you can print both vertically and horizontally. Facilities The Screen First of all you will need to make a frame so that you can stretch the fabric you are going to use as a screen very tightly. You may use small wooden or metal strips depending on what material you have available. The material used must be strong enough to withstand the pull of the fabric, otherwise the frame will warp and this will affect the quality of the prints.
You may use a mosquito screen metal or plastic , which is the simplest type, and so on through to silk fabric and nylon materials. Nowadays, nylon is the most commonly used material. To achieve prints of reasonably good quality for educational and organisational purposes, it is advisable to look for a nylon fabric of 90 threads per cm 2. This is a standard measure. Figure - The material should be stretched very tightly, like the skin of a drum, so that there will be no bulges in the screen. Figure - You should fix hinges to the top edge of the frame to be able to move it up and down and to achieve a proper adjustment for each print.
The hinges are used to keep the frame in the same position all the time. Figure Other printing utensils Squeegee : - This is used to ensure an even, thin layer of ink for each print. SQUEEGEE You will also need the correct type of thinner for each kind of ink to determine the thickness needed and to clean the screen when you have finished printing. Some stencils need a special solvent to remove the mask from the screen and to clean the screen thoroughly spot remover, nitrate.
It is always useful to have some jars or other containers with well-fitting lids in order to keep the prepared ink mixture airtight and to prevent it from drying out. An apron and rubber gloves will provide protection against splashes. Here is a check-list of the materials you will require for printing: Frame wooden or metal strips Fabric silk, nylon or mosquito screen Stapler and staples or small nails Pliers and cardboard or soft metal Bolts metal frame Linen ribbon to protect the fabric Hinges of adequate size Clamps to fix the frame to a plate Squeegee rubber and wood Printing ink and thinner Solvent for cleaning Jars or other containers with lids Apron, rubber gloves 3.
Preparing the master copy - In order to produce precise stencils for each colour, you need to have the original or master copy to copy from. You should make sure that the lines are bold enough and you should avoid details which are too small, so that all the information can be understood easily. Preparing the screen - For each colour you must prepare a separate mask also called a stencil. These can be made of paper, gelatine, glue, acetate or photographic solutions.
The mask should cover all the areas of the original diagram or drawing which are not to be printed so that only the areas you want to print show through. You will then prepare a paste, such as fish-glue or cellulose glue. Use a stiff card or stiff acetate sheet to make the surface of the mask even and to avoid bubbles and bulges, and then leave the screen to dry. These marks are important for readjustment and further registering.
Cut only the mask paper. The cutting should be very precisely carried out keeping exactly to the contour lines of the part you wish to print. Then prepare a stack of old newspapers slightly smaller than the inner area of the frame and about cm high. Figure Place your mask on top of it in the correct way up and wet it with glue fish-glue or cellulose paste.
Put the screen on top of this pad, making sure that it is in the correct position. Then even out the surface of the mask as described above and let it dry.
Master copy: Synonyms in English
The paper mask should be used only for very simple images. In order to have part of the chart or the whole chart covered with ink, you can mask the rest of the screen with adhesive paper or with glue. The paper should not be less than 70 g per m 2. Figure Cut-out stencils : Gelatine mask. The stencil consists of two layers of material: a transparent plastic backing with a thin transparent film of gelatine emulsion. Then tape this over the master copy, gelatine side on top. With a sharp blade you then trace the area you wish to print, making sure that your cut corresponds to the requested image.
Do not press too hard, since only the gelatine film has to be cut. Do not crease or cut the base. When you have finished, peel off the gelatine where you want the ink to print. Check to see if there are any corrections to be done. Figure - Prepare your newspaper pad as described above and place the prepared stencil on it in its proper place with the gelatine side on top. Figure Synthetic stencil : The procedures are the same as those above.
To fix the mask properly, you will need the newspaper pad and you should dampen your mask with the appropriate solvent. Photographic stencil : - Sensitize the screen with a solution of gelatine and potassium or ammonium bichromate. You can buy the appropriate components for mixing this solution. The sensitivity should not be too high so that the screen can be handled in subdued light.