In light of this and the heterogeneity of rock music performing environments, which is difficult to control for, it is unreasonable to consider the discrepancy between these study findings as significant. Since rock music-induced hearing loss risks have been clearly established, Hearing Education and Awareness for Rockers H. Since their inauguration in , H. The protective effect of ear plugs in music professionals has been mentioned and encouraged for both rock musicians 13 and orchestra musicians 17 in studies included in this review.
Since musicians represent a group especially dependent on optimally functional hearing, other proposed strategies to improve musician hearing health, such as regular evaluations for types of loud-music induced hearing problems other than hearing loss tinnitus, hyperacusis, and diplacusis and continued education about the risks to hearing and the benefits of ear protection 13 should be taken seriously. Furthermore, similar strategies should be used for symphony orchestra musicians, although the risk of music-induced hearing loss is not as clearly defined for the whole of this population 22 , Both studies regarding employees of music venues agree on the reality of a substantial risk of developing NIHL from occupational exposure to loud music 25 , Their prevention strategies differ, however, since Gunderson et al.
Although different in their implication of hearing safety responsibility and readiness to enact change, both approaches are important to improve hearing health in this population. In the non-occupational setting, high-intensity music listening has been clearly linked to temporary hearing impairment and disturbances in the setting of pop and rock music concerts 15 , 16 , 34 , 35 , Meanwhile, data on discotheque attendees although sparse, shows considerable rates of post-exposure tinnitus in those attending 34 , 36 ; temporary threshold shifts have so far not been documented Nevertheless, measured sound intensities alone are enough to suggest the possibility of hearing damage risks for discotheque attendants An interesting conclusion can be drawn from the three studies undertaken by Weichbold and Zorowka: in the high-school age population under study, information on hearing risks alone leads to significantly limited hearing protection behaviour.
Although this finding may yet be key in planning future prevention programs, such a conclusion undermines the value of risk education and must not be accepted without caution, for the information and educational campaigns mentioned and undertaken in these studies can reasonably be assumed to have a variety of impacts on their target population. These impacts may, for example, not be noticed because the post-educational assessment happens a year after the educational program.
It is commendable that the course PROjectEAR consists of four minute sessions, spread over three days, and uses not only a variety of didactic approaches multimedia, demonstrations, role-play, and creative group work but also interactions with patients that are hearing impaired and suffering from tinnitus.
It may, however, be too short-lived to create an impact on healthy music listening behaviour. Alternatively, as also noted by Folmer et al. Education about the hearing risks of loud music exposure can still play an important role in hearing health protection, as Chung et al. The dangers of listening to personal music players have been difficult to define because of the lack of consensus in the literature.
While concluding that more studies should be undertaken to clarify risks, it could also be useful to agree to a temporary consensus guided by findings suggesting that using PMPs for less than seven hours per week at moderate volumes is not likely to cause NIHL, while listening in excess increases the risk of music-induced NIHL 47 , Increasing the knowledge of the risks to hearing from listening to PMPs is certainly advisable in light of the accepted and increasing popularity of such devices Besides awareness of the risks of music-induced hearing loss, attitudes are also important in protecting the hearing of those at risk.
Interestingly, the Chung et al The studies presented in this review are those most recently part of the literature. If no clear answer has been provided here regarding certain aspects of the risks of loud music exposures, it is due to the lack of consensus on the topic in the literature. Of the weaknesses of this review, two are very important. The review only included articles published in English, while a number of the articles found initially were published in other languages. Time and resource restraints did not permit translating and using these resources.
Secondly, this study attempts to elaborate on the sources of music-induced hearing loss that the author has found most important, and it has consciously restricted the review to those only, choosing to not address several other occupational and non-occupational sources of potentially dangerous loud music exposures. In partial reparation for such omissions, the author suggests the reviews by Clark 5 and Davis et al. There have been proposed explanations, albeit not formally investigated, for why, despite knowledge of the risks, loud music exposure continues.
Conservative sources have suggested that since sounds are not clearly offensive to the ear until they reach dB A 28 , and since TTS is often insidious 15 , the exposure of those not yet affected by NIHL continues unabated. A bolder study mentions the unique response in listeners to the sound of music: unlike other sounds airplanes, lawn mowers, etc.
Finally, a study conducted by Florentine et al. The group found that, according to the clinical conceptualization of an addictive syndrome, the 8 subjects scored above diagnostic threshold criteria on the NEMLS Northeastern Excessive Music Listening Survey , a questionnaire based on the MAST Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and on criteria used in the formal assessment and treatment of people with addictions. These individuals were found to be similar to addicts via their self-reported maladaptive music-listening behaviour based on criteria such as continued listening despite negative consequences e.
These hypotheses indicate that there is still much to investigate and uncover regarding music exposure as a risk for noise-induced hearing loss. While questions about exposures, effects, attitudes, and behaviours in the music-listening settings of work, leisure, and changing technologies await answers, there is currently ample evidence to strongly support establishing and ongoing efforts to educate and protect the public, music professionals, and music venue employees from the hazards of high intensity music exposure. The author would like to thank Dr. Isaac Bogoch for the impetus he provided to the project idea, and Dr.
Rob Sargeant whose expertise and guidance has been very helpful. Nicolae Petrescu M.http://mestralonline.org/sites/14-wo-sie.php
Loud Music Listening
He received a B. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Mcgill J Med v. Mcgill J Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. Keywords: noise-induced hearing loss, music, occupational noise, health knowledge, health attitudes, ear protective devices. Employees of music venues According to a study that investigated eight live-music clubs in the United States, employees of establishments hosting regular live music performances were found to be exposed to sound levels ranging from Music Exposure: Recreational Setting Two significant studies revealed the frequency and habitual exposure to music in the recreational setting.
Concerts Concerts attendees have been repeatedly found to suffer hearing damages from exceedingly high music sound intensities, rock concerts being the settings of highest risk.
Discotheques Discotheque sound levels are similarly hazardous to hearing as they can cause significant tinnitus and significant temporary hearing loss in the 3—4 kHz range Personal music players The role of personal music players PMPs walkman, diskman, mp3 players, etc. May JJ. Occupational hearing loss. Am J Indust Med. Consensus National Conference. Noise and hearing loss. Available from: www. Clark WW. Noise exposure from leisure activities: A review. J Acoust Soc Am. The effects of noise on hearing and the ear. Med Times. Rock music and Hearing Disorders. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. Dey F.
Auditory fatigue and predicted permanent hearing defects from rock and roll music. N Eng J Med. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl Stockh ; Suppl :5— Damage to hearing from leisure noise: A review of the literature. Int J Audiol.
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Ear Hear. Risks to hearing from a rock concert. Can Fam Physician. Incidence of spontaneous hearing threshold shifts during modern concert performances. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Teie PU. Noise-induced hearing loss and symphony orchestra musicians: risk factors, effects, and management. Md Med J. Jansson E, Karlsson K. Sound levels recorded within the symphony orchestra and risk criteria for hearing loss. Scand Audiol.
Noise and the classical musician. Sound exposures and hearing thresholds in symphony orchestra musicians. Hearing impairment in orchestral musicians. Hearing development in classical orchestral musicians. A follow-up study. The hearing of symphony orchestra musicians. Noise induced hearing loss in dance music disc jockeys and an examination of sound levels in nightclubs. J Otolaryngol Otol. Risks of developing noise-induced hearing loss in employees of urban music clubs. Am J Ind Med. Noise exposure and hearing loss among student employees working in university entertainment venues.
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Ann Occup Hyg. Mercier V, Hohmann BW. Is Electronically Amplified Music too Loud? What do Young People Think? Noise Health. Hearing loss due to leisure time noise is on the rise. The ear also needs a rest period. MMW Fortschr Med. A clinical study to evaluate rock music, symphonic music and noise as sources of acoustic trauma.
J Aud Eng Soc. Fearn RW. Level limits of music. J Sound Vib. We will securely transmit this information consistent with payment card industry rules to the appropriate payment facilitators. We may offer you the option to save information about the method and choice of payment on our Site.
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