In recent years, a burgeoning group of activists and scholars who combine anti-psychiatric with psychiatric survivor approaches have emerged as vocal champions of patient voices. This group includes various social critics, revolutionary theorists, historians and radical professionals who challenge medical paradigms of mental illness and often look to history as a guiding force. In this context, madness is no longer reviled — either as a label or as an Otherising concept:. The identification is made explicit:.
With this double-edged blessing we have the ability to fly to places of great vision and creativity, but like the mythical boy Icarus, we also have the potential to fly dangerously close to the sun into realms of delusion and psychosis and crash in a blaze of fire and confusion. But this is not just about identity. To this effect, the collective activities they organise are aimed at directly influencing the psychiatric discipline in the hope of emulating past accomplishments — witness the removal of homosexuality from the DSM in the s.
With these considerations in mind, it is interesting to reflect on the selective appropriation of theoretical models undertaken by these various groups of scholars and activists alike. This has taken unique forms in various national contexts. In France, perhaps more than anywhere else, the association between psychiatry and the abuses of power became a dominant trope after it was discovered at the Liberation that half of the psychiatric patients had starved to death during the war.
Unlike in France, it was also rapidly criticised. Historians emphasise the importance of turning to the stories of the insane, following in the footsteps of Porter. Meanwhile, by embracing a more Foucauldian approach, they highlight the historical rarity of such stories. Consequently, many have postulated that those actors who did manage to write or speak were exceptional anomalies save for a few icons such as Daniel Paul Schreber, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Antonin Artaud.
What to make of all this body of work? In , Swiss historian Flurin Condrau offered a rather provocative answer to this question. Unlike other areas of research, such as the history of medical sciences or the history of disease, not much further methodological reflection has taken place and this has left the history of patients intellectually less stimulating than other research fields. According to Condrau, the history of patients mostly gave birth to disparate collections of individual cases.
These myriad personal stories, although unique and at times interesting, are all enclosed in their singularity. To be sure, a number of the aforementioned remarks are justified with regard to the history of psychiatry. And the charm of the source certainly contributes to this phenomenon. In other words, calling for history from below and actually accomplishing it in any systematic and constructive fashion are different enterprises.
He did not elaborate as to how his successors should go about this. Neither did the content of his Social History of Madness indicate any concrete methodological paths. Instead, it consisted in a thematic presentation of diaries and autobiographies written by famous institutionalised individuals: Vaslav Nijinsky, Robert Schumann, etc. In recent years, researchers from various fields have brought fresh intellectual and methodological perspectives to this discussion by turning to different corpi.
Some have analysed the experiences of more ordinary patients, notably through medical files 64 and asylum newspapers. In the process, he revisits the historical case study. The above suggests that there lurks, even in the most extravagant of voices, historical material that ought to be analysed and conceptually reflected upon.
Psychiatric Drug Industry in Trouble
But the reverse is also true. In fact, we could even argue that patients have never talked more than after having been reduced to silence. By creating asylums and large-scale inmate populations, psychiatric modernity has also rendered this population more visible. It has created a collective identity. Some eg. It should, on the contrary, be interactively included with other madness discourses.
The time, then, has come to write new scripts. We ought to renew our sources beyond the textual to include different modes of expression. We ought to extend chronological and geographical boundaries. We ought to realise that patient-centred narratives answer different aims and take several forms. We ought to understand how madwomen and madmen have mattered in the past to better understand how their perspective can also be relevant in the present. These real and imagined stories of mental illness help throw light on the complex ways in which psychiatry has been construed, explained and fictionalised since its inception.
How have individual subjects influenced the construction of clinical categories? How have patients and indeed their loved ones come to play a decisive role in effecting medical and extra-medical changes? In what ways have patients chosen to voice their experience? How have their demands been met by the legal system?
And how have various methods of treatment been accepted or rejected by those actors in differing social, cultural and political settings? The five contributions below deal with the above topics from resolutely inter-disciplinary perspectives. This neologistic expression refers to someone who has been misidentified as exhibiting symptoms of mental illness and admitted to a mental hospital.
It also underlines the complex nature of patient agency against a rapidly shifting social, cultural, political and medical landscape. Perhaps most importantly, Wu shows that these various voices should not be considered subaltern narratives. Instead, the actors of bei jingshenbing have played an important part in transforming mental health policies and lay opinions about psychiatry. Their activities should thus be read not as tangential accounts but as powerful contributions to a new cultural phenomenon.
This has given rise to a disproportionate focus on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This is largely due to the dominance of such fields as Science and Technology Studies in which the focus tends to be less on human subjects than on their chemical counterparts eg.
- The Salt Palace?
- A Stubborn Lack of Redemption, an interview with Hanya Yanagihara, author of A Little Life!
- Les visites de Jésus et de sa mère, la Très Sainte Vierge Marie (JE.RELIGION) (French Edition).
Also highlighted in this volume is the multidimensionality of asylum life. By centring on two patients at Bethlem Hospital who actively participated in the formulation of contemporary medical discourse, Sarah Chaney leads us to reconsider a story that we thought thoroughly exhausted. Chaney shows that, rather than being merely passive, patients sometimes had input into the way madness was represented and understood. Chaney analyses the impact of this distinction on asylum experiences and on therapeutic relations.
Both of her protagonists seemingly accepted certain elements of the patient role while rejecting others.
Both also, however, took on additional identities and even contributed to medical debates over the ways in which madness could be defined and represented. Psychiatric Drug Industry in Trouble 16 Jul. Chemical Imbalance Myth Psychiatrists themselves confess the chemical-imbalance theory is a myth. Yet psychiatrists continue to embrace and circulate their chemical imbalance theory. Drug Company Lawsuits Abound Additionally, drug company execs may have second thoughts about continuing to develop and market psychotropic drugs that have resulted in so many damaging lawsuits.
Share this: Tags:. Prev post. Next post. Comments No Comments. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Name First Last. When her mother found the task too difficult, Genie was moved through a series of foster homes, where she was often subjected to further abuse and neglect. While the lawsuit was eventually settled, it raised important questions about the treatment and care of Genie.
Did the research interfere with the girl's therapeutic treatment? Unfortunately, the progress that had occurred during her first stay had been severely compromised by the subsequent treatment she received in foster care.
- The Shocking Story of the Famous Wild Child Raised in Isolation.
- Bilan technique du roman moderne (French Edition).
- Posttraumatic stress disorder.
- The Secret of Spring Hollow.
- A Girl Not Named Sybil - The New York Times.
- Account Options.
- Psychiatrists: the drug pushers!
- An Executives Guide to Fundraising Operations: Principles, Tools and Trends (The AFP/Wiley Fund Development Series)?
- Note di gonna (quando il jazz lo suona lei) (Italian Edition)?
- What is Gaslighting?;
- in the name of help a novel exposing psychiatric abuse Manual?
Genie was afraid to open her mouth and had regressed back into silence. Today, Genie lives in an adult foster care home somewhere in southern California. Little is known about her present condition, although an anonymous individual hired a private investigator to track her down in and described her as happy.
This contrasts with the account of psychiatrist Jay Shurley who visited her on her 27th and 29th birthdays and characterized her as largely silent, depressed , and chronically institutionalized. If you want to do rigorous science, then Genie's interests are going to come second some of the time. If you only care about helping Genie, then you wouldn't do a lot of the scientific research.
So, what are you going to do? To make matters worse, the two roles, scientist, and therapist , were combined in one person, in her case. So, I think future generations are going to study Genie's case … not only for what it can teach us about human development but also for what it can teach us about the rewards and the risks of conducting 'the forbidden experiment.
Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? Sign up to get these answers, and more, delivered straight to your inbox. There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. More in Psychology. Teaching Genie. Critical Period. Language Progress. Arguments Over Care. The Beginning of the End. Where Is Genie Today?
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Overview of Feral Child Genie Wiley
What are your concerns? Article Sources. Lenneberg, E. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: Wiley. The secret of the wild child. Pines, M.
The civilizing of Genie. Kasper, Ed.. Rolls, G. Classic Case Studies in Psychology. London: Hodder Arnold.