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Cash Island. Cashmere Mafia. Cassandra French's Finishing School. Cast Offs. Castle Rock. They could see themselves in the same role as Avitabile and shared his views in matters of law and order. They were fascinated by Avitabile and his personality, and expressed positive opinions on his governorship, dismissing his harsh penal system as the least evil The most famous is certainly Henry Montgomery Lawrence, who served as assistant of Mackeson in the last months of the war. A young officer with a good cultural competence, Lawrence used his knowledge of the European adventurers of Ranjit Singh to write a semi-biographic novel, Adventures of an Officer in the Paunjab, in which Avitabile is described.
The Neapolitan is praised by Lawrence for his talents as a governor 67 , but the British author then describes the harsh repression at Peshawar in a much more negative tone than his predecessors:. Under his rule, summary hangings have been added to the native catalogue of punishments, […] the ostentation of adding two or three to the string suspended from the gibbet, […] added to a very evident habitual carelessness of life, lead one to fear that small pains are taken to distinguish between innocence and guilt Lawrence view is clear: a European should reform the native barbarous customs and laws, instead of adopting them.
The last opinion on Avitabile sounds like an absolution, but the blame for his sins remains:. He has, at the expense of his own character for humanity, by the terror of his name, saved much life. He admitted that Avitabile was skilled and probably the best governor in Punjab, but immediately he called him cruel, unscrupulous and corrupted:.
He […] certainly keeps his province in better order than any other Sikh governor. What was not accepted or understood by Mackenzie was the need for Avitabile to legitimize his power with the adoption of a luxurious appearance, associated by the local population to political power and the retribution character of the Islamic law applied by him.
For the Christian spirit of Mackenzie the exhibited atheism and scepticism of Avitabile were even more scandalous, if not the cause of his excesses However, these details, it must be pointed out, were not included in his otherwise extremely detailed official report to the Ludhiana Agency. The answer is simple. These men were to form the bulk of the functionaries who built up British India after the Great Mutiny in , as well as being the greatest part of the Victorian Age historians.
This generation left little room for comprehension or appreciation of a man like Avitabile, who adapted his governorship to the native customs for a stronger effectiveness. Cotton is the first, the most important, and also the most influential biography of the Neapolitan adventurer, but it is not the first historiography work to speak about him.
The first historians who spoke about Avitabile were those who narrated the history of the Sikh Kingdom of Punjab or that of the First Afghan War. All these works have in common a rather neutral, if not openly positive, view on general Avitabile. The Neapolitan is regarded mainly as a professional soldier, his governorship in Peshawar is only superficially considered and the main concern of the authors is to underline the aid given by Avitabile to the British cause in Afghanistan.
The reason of this positive view lies in their sources: their works are based on the first group of memoirs analysed above, which shared a good image of the Italian adventurer. Having been the personal secretary of Henry Lawrence, Edwardes shared his senior views on colonialism and in the few pages he dedicated to Avitabile he built a decisively negative image of the Italian.
In few words, this was the portrait of a real evil-genius. Another Victorian biographer of Lawrence, F. Cotton wrote his biography of the Italian adventurer. Born in India of British parents, Cotton was a functionary of the British Empire in Madras, like his father before him. He married a Neapolitan woman and, during the months he spent in Naples, he did the researches for his Life of General Avitabile. An exam of this Life of Avitabile reveals how Cotton was not truly interested in writing a rigorous historiography work, but rather in representing Avitabile as a half-fictional character.
For his purpose, Cotton amassed without much continuity or method any story he found and deemed curious, interesting or shocking. Cotton also derived information from secondary memoirs which contains rather unlikely even for him particulars about Avitabile, like those of Gardner or Honigberger In the same way, the author grants great room to the totally unconfirmed legend that figures Avitabile dying poisoned by his young and unfaithful wife However, Cotton reserved also much space to positive opinions about Avitabile and his Peshawar governorship and showed a sort of sympathy for this man who liked the pleasures of life as well as admiration for the fearless governor who tamed the Afghans.
But, despite Cotton did not condemn Avitabile in the book, the maybe accidental result of his more literary than historic work is to strengthen permanently the image of Avitabile as a cruel, blood-thirsty and evil adventurer. Even faultless authors such as Olaf Caroe used this stereotyped image in their work The fortune of the black legend about Avitabile spread also in French historiography 96 and endures today in popular books such as the recent Khyber Pass.
Italian biographies about the Neapolitan adventurer are few and scattered over the decades. Victorian historians progressively adopted this negative vision of the Italian adventurer, as long as new memoirs full of gruesome anecdotes were published: for literary purposes Cotton or because they had become deeply rooted in the above mentioned colonial mentality Edwardes, Grey.
Sources suggest that he was simply a soldier that, like his more renowned predecessor Benoit De Boigne, seeing no chance of career in his homeland sought it in the fabulous Orient. Once he found an assignment he worked hard and pragmatically and also without many scruples to get his tasks accomplished and return to Europe with the profits of his career. On the traditional Indian warfare dating back to the Mughal era, see J. Gommans , Mughal Warfare.
Le Treguilly, M. Moraze dir. On the Sikh military modernization, see K. On the European adventurers in the service of the Sikh Empire, see the classic C. Grey , European Adventurers of Northern India. On the interesting figure of Ventura see M. Balboni , Ventura. On Avitabile the fundamental biography is James J. Cotton , Il generale Avitabile, Napoli, Tip. Trani [ed. Life of Generale Avitabile, Calcutta Review , p. Furthermore they were only seldom instructed, leaving very rarely memories about their careers.
The main works about them date back to the early 20 th century: H. Its articles were a big disadvantage of the officials who, like Avitabile, served under Joseph Bonaparte and Murat. The biographers tell us only a few details, and no source has yet been found in the British or in the Persian archives. The few details we possess are provided by Grey and Cotton. On Avitabile Persian period, cf. Grey , European Adventurers , op. Cotton , Il Generale Avitabile , op. The memoirs will be analysed in the afterwards of this article. Furthermore, many rumours suggest that Avitabile was poisoned by his wife; however there is no evidence that confirms this story.
James J. Il Generale Paolo Avitabile , Malta , p. I, Lahore , passim. Punjab District Gazetteer Sialkot , , p. To control effectively the revenue collection and prevent corruption Avitabile also introduced a system based on books of receipts in the villages. Raynor , H. V, Political Diaries of H. Edwardes, Lahore , p. Also commerce and finance were encouraged, cf. VI, Political Diaries: R. Taylor, J. Nicholson and others , Lahore , p.
On the respect of religious tradition and customs, see B. Sohan Lal Suri translated by V. Joseph Wolff. Grewal, Indu Banga eds. X Sept. Lemoine, A. See: Harbaugh, T. Thomas Chalmers , Grant, A. Stand to! John L. Grant, Part 1. English as Author Personal Memoirs of U. Grant, Part 2. Grant, Part 3.
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Grant, Part 4. Grant, Part 5. Grant, Part 6. Punch's History of Modern England, Vol. English as Author Gray, Emma J. Also, an Authentic Account of the Whole Insurrection. English as Compiler Gray, Walter T. Highland Light Infantry. Board of Trade. Monarch See: Great Britain. Sovereign Great Britain. House of Commons. During the Summer of Greely, A. Volume I. English as Translator Tales from the German. Volume II.
English as Translator Greene, Robert, ? Jacob D. Greenstreet, W. Thompson, A. LXX, Dec. Grenfell, Georgina Adelaide See: G. Grey, Mrs. Described by Francis Gribble. Beecher, in reply to an essay on slavery and abolitionism, addressed to A. Occasional Papers No. The American Negro Academy. Occasional Papers, No. See: Stanley, Frank C. Smith, F.
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Volume 1 of 2. Volume 2 of 2. In Three Volumes. Life of Mozart, Vol. Ioannes N. Aufzeichnungen des k. Legationsrathes Dr. Joseph V. I Italian as Author Il secolo che muore, vol. II Italian as Author Il secolo che muore, vol. Guibert, Abbot of Nogent-sous-Coucy, ?