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For example, Coppa cooperated with the Paduan authorities during the plague of —6, at which time he dedicated himself to the care of a great number of patients in the lazaretto and the city. This investigation, above all, vindicates his positive role on the occasion of the —6 epidemic, when he used his secretum to cure the disease. And this honourable activity was recognized also in when Coppa petitioned for the right to practise in hospitals and other locations in Venice.
XVI Turin: Loescher, , As in the performative and musical arts, professional categories in medicine were fluid. The same was true of the sphere of humanistic or literary culture, which sometimes could collide with the world of the piazza and of performance. In fact, the biography of the itinerant performer Jacopo Coppa also traverses the peaks of Renaissance literary culture. One of his cultural encounters is documented by a letter addressed to Coppa and written in October by Pietro Aretino. Paolo Procaccioli, 6 vols. Rome: Salerno Editrice, — , Vol.
At the end of his performance, Coppa also sold a work by Aretino that the charlatan himself had had printed and associated also to the humanist Francesco Sansovino. Dressed in a long robe with a black velvet cap, he appeared to the sound of drums and trumpets, astride a stage decorated with images, medical privileges obtained from various authorities and a standard which depicted the emblem of a nude woman with a severed tongue.
In the weeks following his condemnation by the Venetian Provveditori and his public performance in Ferrara, we find Coppa engaged in yet another successful activity: as editor and publisher. Possibly precisely in the same period when piazza performances were banned in Venice, he kept himself busy with the publication of a collection of poems by various authors, including a piece written by himself.
The collection was dedicated to the Venetian noblewoman Caterina Barbaro. Soon after, he managed to lay his hands on some unpublished works of Ludovico Ariosto: an edition of the lyric poems of Ariosto that Coppa edited and published, in which Caterina Barbaro appears as the author of a dedication to Lodovico Morosini, can be dated to Venice, February Capitoli Stampate in Vinegia: ad instantia de Iacopo Modanese, February [more veneto] , the dedication is at fol.
All the editions published by Coppa epitomize the hybrid intellectual professional profile of the Modenese performer, but the Herbolato in particular unites on paper the publisher and the charlatan, in a publishing success that reproduces perfectly the oratorical modes of the latter profession.
Coppa represents a cultural model; a figure operating in that mobile space of the piazza. And indeed, mobility is another prominent characteristic of such figures. This incessant mobility brought charlatans into contact with opposite poles of Renaissance culture and society, from the piazza to the palazzo. This is evident from the protracted conflict —61 which saw him opposed by the Venetian College of Physicians and which is reflected also in his poetic works. In the poem, Coppa argues that envy had been the root of all his troubles. In Florence in October , he confronted a similar situation, when we find him penning a petition to Duke Cosimo I in which he asks for permission to exercise the medical profession.
Maria Nuova, b. In , he was guilty of envy himself: he fled Florence condemned for having anonymously and falsely accused a competing charlatan of selling false remedies on the public square. Professional jealously and rivalry were common characteristics in the biographies of such characters. Such recent archival discoveries, aside from extending the biography of Coppa by over a decade more than was previously known, allow us to add numerous details to his portrait as a Renaissance man, who not only traversed various social strata but also linked many important cultural and religious nodes.
In fact, the documents also show him repeatedly to have been part of a network of suspected heretics denounced to the Venetian Inquisition around the end of the s.http://mlsit.ru/includes
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This unexplored role in the circulation of heterodox religious ideas led him from the Venetian lagoon high into the Alps, to Chiavenna. As we shall see, hints of heresy are also evident in the biographies of other highly mobile piazza performers who were active in the world of print.
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Artieri, inventori, impostori Milan: Il Saggiatore, , —3. Possibly in order to flee such accusations, Coppa left Venice after several decades during which that city seems to have been his base and relocated to Florence. But the history of the heretical charlatan is one that still remains to be told, and is one that may greatly enrich our understanding of the many suggestive links between the universe of the piazza and the world of heterodoxy.
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Prince of charlatans, seller of soaps, toothpaste and perfumes, successful publisher and popular entertainer, humanist and religious dissident, friend of the powerful and enemy of official medical culture, Latin and vernacular poet, healer and itinerant doctor: there perhaps exists no figure more paradigmatic than Jacopo Coppa to illustrate the dynamic and polyhedric category of piazza performer in the social and cultural panorama of the Renaissance.
But he was obviously not alone. Costantino Saccardini detto il dottore Florence, The association between medical activity and entertainment was very common. In Venetian authorities prohibited anyone from singing from their benches, selling soaps, broadsheets or histories, or pulling teeth in the San Marco area until the end of the Corpus Christi 60 days after Easter. For the rest of the year they were required to stay away from the Piazzetta and instead remain near the Clocktower. Similarly, other street singers of the sixteenth century were particularly famous for their medical and cosmetic recipes, for their persuasive advertisement of them during their public performances, for their activity in streets and markets all over Italy, but also for their publishing activities.
Ippolito Ferrarese sold soap, perfumes, and cosmetic remedies as well as news pamphlets, almanacs, and chivalric poems, but he also published — like Coppa, a few years later — the poems of Ariosto in At a certain point, Nanna searches for a comparison to make clear to Pippa how a courtesan should string her lovers along.
She must allow them a foretaste of the joys of love just up to the point at which business gets serious, and then suddenly refuse them, so that they will be at her mercy thereafter, willing to resume intercourse at any price. Do you recollect how you laughed when we were visiting my good old friend Piero, and you listened to him together with Luchina and Lucietta?
NANNA You know that Zoppino sang the tale up to the midway point; and when he had gathered a mob about him, he would turn his cape inside out and before getting set to finish the tale, he wanted to peddle a thousand other trifles. Non ti ricordi tu, Pippa, quando il Zoppino vendette in banca la leggenda di Campriano?
Mi ricordo di quel Zoppino che quando canta in banca tutto il mondo corre a udirlo. Hai tu in mente il ridere che tu facesti sendo noi dal mio compar Piero, mentre con la Luchina e con la Lucietta sue lo ascoltavate?
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In this case, the book is Campriano contadino , a popular novella in ottava rima about a cunning peasant who outsmarts some rich town merchants in a series of funny pranks. I, ed. Giuseppe Crimi Rome: Salerno, , Stefano Pittaluga Milan: Garzanti, , 88— But his performative repertoire, as we shall see, also included many ephemeral political ballads and songs. Although he based his business in Venice, where he operated initially as a publisher — with his bottega in campo San Fantino — and then as a printer as well, 46 Harris, Bibliografia, II, 87—8. His mobile activity, for fifteen years —24 in partnership with the performer Vincenzo di Polo from Faenza, spread all over the peninsula, through an extensive network of local bookshops and through editions that he commissioned from local printers on the eve of important fairs and markets.
Such a cultural and social profile is strikingly similar to the likes of Coppa, sharing some key common features: mobility, performativity, and printing. Until very recently, though, the most common response has been a cautious disbelief, and two different Zoppinos have long lived side by side in the historical account. Zoppino the publisher, after all, was one of the most enterprising and productive of the sixteenth century, a respectable businessman whose activity lasted for more than forty years —44 and whose impressive annals, recently published even if not comprehensive, fill a volume of pages.
Annali — Manziana: Vecchiarelli, I libri ritrovati di Renzo Bonfiglioli e altri episodi di storia del collezionismo italiano del Novecento Florence: Olschki, Therefore, the idea of identifying him with a crafty peddler has appeared awkward to many, and would probably still be deemed so, if it were not for a couple of recent archival findings, which have unequivocally identified the one and only Zoppino as a publisher and a street singer at the same time. Gianni Venturi Florence: Olschki, , —89, at This is yet another case of street singer and bookseller who was able to enter the graces of powerful rulers.
The two cities were at war and, even if the publisher already had based his activity in Venice, his loyalty to Ferrara and his role of public voice and singer of current affairs, supporting the Este side and encouraging the Ferrarese populace, put him in a tight spot with the Venetian authorities. In March , Zoppino and his partner were arrested and tried by the courts of the Serenissima. After all, as we have seen with Coppa, running into troubles with political and religious authorities was a common problem for Italian cantimpanca.
Zoppino himself often operated on dangerous and heterodox religious ground. Nevertheless, no matter how fictional some details may well be, what is factual beyond doubt is the symbiosis that linked book publishing and street performances in early modern Italy at all levels of the two professions. Such links between itinerant performers and print, and between written and oral culture, sometimes can be substantiated through material objects, and in particular through printed books.
Such encouragement is particularly striking because we know for certain that this specific cheap print really had been publicly sung and sold, but it is rather common for similar references to appear in the final lines of popular pamphlets in verse.
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Allusions to performance remain evident in the printed text, which might contain ritual expressions which hint at the commercial, gestural or performative dynamics of this profession. Among many other possible examples, there is at least one other which is directly connected with documented performances of the text. The first and only known edition of this work was published in Venice in , and the author had held the privilege to print it since January Rinaldo Fulin, Federico Stefani et al.
Visentini, — , Vol. However, the example of Zuan Polo confirms that even when they did not become publishers in a general sense, piazza performers arranged to have their own works printed and sold copies of them in the streets. Apparently, it made no difference that Altissimo had not been a refined writer but was instead a humble, albeit very famous, poeta canterino : a street performer. After all, his works, composed in the first quarter of the century, were still successfully published and reprinted.
Already in his own lifetime Altissimo had received reverential dedications from well known publishers like Bernardo Giunta, who in called for the protection of the Florentine poet, very famous in his home town, in support of no less than the Arcadia by Sannazaro. Today Arcadia is considered one of the masterpieces of the Renaissance, while Altissimo is lucky to receive a fleeting mention in literary histories.
Effectively, Altissimo was a street singer just like Coppa and Zoppino, one particularly talented at improvisation, like many before and after him. Even if his contemporaries and the generations immediately after treated Altissimo on a par with the most cultured poets and included him among the ranks of the greatest authors, at the end of the day he was no different from the common street singers of Renaissance Italy.
There is nothing in the little we know of his biography that induces us to distinguish him from the norm. Indeed, the fact itself that we know so little about him starting from his family name, which remains obscured by his stage name superlative is a typical trait of this category. It is also true that in May he managed to attract the attention, praise, and money of Marin Sanudo along with a myriad of other spectators, both locals and foreigners, who watched his performances in Piazza San Marco in Venice where he appeared again in September , and where he possibly remained.
The references to his poverty that Cristoforo, like many of his colleagues, scattered throughout his works thus had a solid foundation in truth. Nevertheless, there is at least one thing about Altissimo that makes him unique. In the cantari of the Primo libro, Altissimo draws heavily on his abundant thematic and stylistic repertoire, which, like that of many of his colleagues, ranges from chivalrous battles to storms at sea, from political orations to amorous laments, from moral precepts and dilemmas to techniques for the use of explosives, and includes aspects of astrology, medicine, theology, ancient and contemporary history, moral philosophy, nautical skills, politics, etc.
In order to entertain and instruct his variegated audience, the street singer displayed an equal mastery of countless subjects, exhibiting a versatile and omnivorous culture that respected no boundaries between the refined and popular. It was a proudly vernacular culture, ignorant of Greek and Latin, but nevertheless very interested in classical traditions accessed through Medieval and humanist vulgarization. The underlying plot is provided by the popular prose romance on the Reali di Francia written about a century earlier by Andrea da Barberino, upon which the street singer embroidered extensively with additions and digressions modelled on street performance traditions, on Dante, as well as on the leading authors of the previous Florentine generation: poets like Angelo Poliziano and Luigi Pulci, and even the humanist Marsilio Ficino.
The faithfulness with which the printed text of the Primo libro corresponds to the street recitations also makes it possible to see in action, almost live, the performing and compositional art of the street singer, and to uncover a few tricks of the trade. These ranged freely over recurrent subjects like battles and duels, or managed theatrical turning points like preambles and envoys, by making use of impromptu compositional techniques typical of the tradition of oral poetry, like formulas and themes.
In the almost 29, verses of the Primo libro there are countless repetitions of hemistichs, verses, and other brief textual segments either identical or derived from a matching formulaic scheme in which alternative words are combined, permutated, and adapted. No mass production, we paint and create by hand in Italy All of our work is done in-house by hand and with original ideas. You can have your own little piece of Italian Art that one can find nowhere else! Category: Canvas bags Italian Style. Measurements: 38 x 42 cm 15 inch x Customize and work directly with wedding planners and private clients.
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