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Development of the germ cells in the ovary
Contents:


  1. Developmental Biology. 6th edition.
  2. AK LECTURES - Oogenesis
  3. You must create an account to continue watching
  4. 3.4 Oogenesis

The production of sperm is called spermatogenesis and the production of eggs is called oogenesis. Oogenesis occurs in the outermost layers of the ovaries. As with sperm production, oogenesis starts with a germ cell, called an oogonium plural: oogonia , but this cell undergoes mitosis to increase in number, eventually resulting in up to one to two million cells in the embryo.


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A primary oocyte begins the first meiotic division, but then arrests until later in life when it will finish this division in a developing follicle. This results in a secondary oocyte, which will complete meiosis if it is fertilized.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

The cell starting meiosis is called a primary oocyte. This cell will begin the first meiotic division, but be arrested in its progress in the first prophase stage.

Developmental Biology. 6th edition.

At the time of birth, all future eggs are in the prophase stage. At adolescence, anterior pituitary hormones cause the development of a number of follicles in an ovary. This results in the primary oocyte finishing the first meiotic division. The cell divides unequally, with most of the cellular material and organelles going to one cell, called a secondary oocyte, and only one set of chromosomes and a small amount of cytoplasm going to the other cell.

This second cell is called a polar body and usually dies. A secondary meiotic arrest occurs, this time at the metaphase II stage. At ovulation, this secondary oocyte will be released and travel toward the uterus through the oviduct. If the secondary oocyte is fertilized, the cell continues through the meiosis II, completing meiosis, producing a second polar body and a fertilized egg containing all 46 chromosomes of a human being, half of them coming from the sperm. Spermatogenesis occurs in the wall of the seminiferous tubules, with stem cells at the periphery of the tube and the spermatozoa at the lumen of the tube.

Immediately under the capsule of the tubule are diploid, undifferentiated cells. These stem cells, called spermatogonia singular: spermatagonium , go through mitosis with one offspring going on to differentiate into a sperm cell, while the other gives rise to the next generation of sperm.

Spermatogenesis : During spermatogenesis, four sperm result from each primary spermatocyte, which divides into two haploid secondary spermatocytes; these cells will go through a second meiotic division to produce four spermatids.

Meiosis begins with a cell called a primary spermatocyte. At the end of the first meiotic division, a haploid cell is produced called a secondary spermatocyte. Hanley Rd, Suite St. Louis, MO Subject optional. Home Embed. Email address: Your name:. Example Question 1 : Understanding Oogenesis. Possible Answers: Oogenesis results in a diploid germ cell, while sperm cells are haploid. One uses meiosis, while the other uses mitosis. Oogenesis results in one egg cell, while spermatogenesis results in four sperm cells.

AK LECTURES - Oogenesis

Correct answer: Oogenesis results in one egg cell, while spermatogenesis results in four sperm cells. Explanation : When a primary oogonium undergoes meiosis, it will only result in one viable germ cell, or egg. Both eggs and sperm are haploid, and both processes can involve crossing over during meiosis. Report an Error. Example Question : High School Biology.

Possible Answers: The formation of egg cells during prophase. The inability to form egg cells during mitosis. The inability to form egg cells during meiosis. Correct answer: The formation of egg cells through meiosis. Explanation : Gametes are formed during the process of meiosis. Example Question 51 : Cell Division.

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Possible Answers: During mitosis. Correct answer: During meiosis. Explanation : Down's syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome Which of the following is closest to the definition of "ovarian follicle atresia"?


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  • Possible Answers: The process by which the dominant follicle releases large amounts of estradiol during the late follicular phase, preparing the follicle for the LH surge. Correct answer: The process by which all but one primary ovarian follicle degenerates and are absorbed back into the ovary, allowing the surviving follicle body to develop into a corpus luteum following ovulation.

    Explanation : Follicular atresia is a hormone-controlled, apoptotic cell-suicide process by which immature follicles degenerate and are resorbed into the main body of the ovary, leaving one out of typically 20 primary follicles standing as a secondary follicle. Possible Answers: Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum. Primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum. Oogonium, secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, and ovum. Ovum, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and oogonium. Secondary oocyte, primary oocyte, oogonium, and ovum.

    Correct answer: Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum.

    3.4 Oogenesis

    Explanation : Oogonia are the primordial oocytes formed inside females either during or shortly after birth. Possible Answers: Sperm. Correct answer: Ovum. Explanation : The female gamete is called the ovum ova, plural. Possible Answers: polyploid. Correct answer: haploid. Explanation : After completing meiosis II, ova are haploid cells containing one chromosome. Possible Answers: ovulation. Correct answer: ovulation. Explanation : The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovaries is ovulation.

    Possible Answers: Anaphase I. Correct answer: Prophase I. Explanation : Primary oocytes enter meiosis I and replicate their genomes, but they do not make their first meiotic division. Example Question 61 : Cell Division. Possible Answers: a secondary oocyte. Correct answer: a secondary oocyte. Explanation : A primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte when the follicle grows and matures and the primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division. Copyright Notice. View Tutors.


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