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EOPs and horns are just not created in the same way. Even bone spurs in other regions are hard to feel or see in most people and they may not be permanent. Hawks, a paleoanthropologist who specializes in bone evolution, said the study did not provide the X-rays needed to confirm that the researchers were even measuring bone spurs. Providing X-rays is important because an EOP is a trait that can develop in normal people with normal posture, Hawks said. One study of 3, rheumatology patients found 16 percent had spurs somewhere in the body. However, young, healthy people can grow these spurs too.
One study of healthy schoolchildren revealed these spurs 29 percent of the time. The X-rays included in the study look to be taken with different exposure conditions, Hawks said. You can see a lot of soft tissue in some, for instance, but not in others, he said. Example radiographs of two male participants years-old and years-old presenting with large EOPs, according to the study.
Image by Shahar D. Many primates have a nuchal ligament, but only humans experience bone spurs on their necks because of the way we run: upright. The strain created by upright physical activity can cause muscles and the nuchal ligament to pull on connective tissue, which in turn can stress the bone into forming a spur. Nuchal ligament is highlighted in bright red. Hawks said when comparing ancient skeletons to those of people today, you can see humans have been gradually losing their EOPs. This is largely because as nations become more Westernized, people are less physically active.
The study claims these bone spurs on the back of the skull predominately occurred in males. Notice that in the youngest group — year olds — there are more females with EOPs than males. The pattern switches for those in their 40s, but otherwise there are no sex differences. Both Goldsmith and Nuzzo said the study did not include data behind its statistical models, which are necessary to confirm the connection between millennials and the EOPs. In Figure 4, the authors group the subjects by age and compare those groups with a statistical test called a Chi-squared.
You lose the ability to tell how people are changing as they age, she added. Without a more robust test, the study cannot allege a correlation between young age and EOPs. Shahar and Sayers have used these statistical alternatives, both in this study and others on the same subject. The other in tried to make the same conclusions in healthy teenagers but only involved 4 male patients.
Rather than use it to individually measure the influence of age, sex and forward head protraction, all of those factors are lumped together to make a connection to EOP. They needed to do the opposite analysis — make a linear regression model that could peel apart those factors and look at how each one influences those bone spurs. Nuzzo said such an analysis is nowhere to be found in the study. An outsider perspective — from a source not involved with the research — can be invaluable when trying to put a piece of science into its appropriate context or even when deciding to pass on a story.
When The Washington Post published its story early in the morning on June 20, the original version did not include an interview from a researcher who was not involved in the study. The Washington Post updated its story with additional context, more than eight hours after publication, according to the Wayback Machine. Molly Gannon, a communications manager for The Washington Post, shared this statement in response to our questions:.
Our story reports on the findings of studies that ran in multiple peer-reviewed journals and includes interviews with the scientists who conducted the research. It also includes an interview with an outside expert, which reflects our standard practice, and which was moved higher in the story to make it more prominent. Even if this EOP study is retracted and every news story is corrected with additional context, people who saw the first story may not notice or see the update.
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Indeed, a correction can at times reinforce the misinformation. Support Provided By: Learn more. Watch Jun 29 New York City students are fighting for school integration. Science Jun Politics Jun World Jun Nation Jun Agents for Change Jun Arts Jun Saturday, Jun Cape Horn. Examples from the Web for horn So I asked the driver to honk the horn , which he does, and Rod looks over. Oliver Twist, Vol.
III of 3 Charles Dickens. Banbury Chap Books Edwin Pearson. Cliff's Yacht Frank R. Also called: horn balance an extension of an aircraft control surface that projects in front of the hinge providing aerodynamic assistance in moving the control. Also called: acoustic horn , exponential horn a hollow conical device coupled to the diaphragm of a gramophone to control the direction and quality of the sound any such device used to spread or focus sound, such as the device attached to an electrical loudspeaker in a public address system Also called: horn antenna a microwave aerial, formed by flaring out the end of a waveguide.
British slang an erection of the penis. Bible a symbol of power, victory, or success in my name shall his horn be exalted. See also horn in. Derived Forms hornless , adjective hornlike , adjective. Cape See Cape Horn. Word Origin and History for horn 1 of 2 horn. One of the hard, usually permanent structures projecting from the head of certain mammals, such as cattle, consisting of a bony core covered with a sheath of keratinous material.
A hard protuberance that is similar to or suggestive of a horn. The hard, smooth keratinous material forming the outer covering of animal horns. Any of the major subdivisions of the lateral ventricle in the cerebral hemisphere of the brain: the frontal horn, occipital horn, and temporal horn. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Either of the bony growths projecting from the upper part of the head of certain hoofed mammals, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The horns of these animals are never shed, and they consist of bone covered by keratin. A hard growth that looks like a horn, such as an antler or a growth on the head of a giraffe or rhinoceros. Unlike true horns, antlers are shed yearly and have a velvety covering, and the horns of a rhinoceros are made not of bone but of hairy skin fused with keratin.