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  1. Cosmic inflation
  2. Making sense of many universes
  3. Universe - Wikipedia
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A s adaptation of general relativity, called the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, takes into account effects from quantum mechanics. It not only provides a step towards quantum gravity but also leads to an alternative picture of the universe. This variation of general relativity incorporates an important quantum property known as spin.

Particles such as atoms and electrons possess spin, or the internal angular momentum that is analogous to a skater spinning on ice. In this picture, spins in particles interact with spacetime and endow it with a property called "torsion. Bending the rod corresponds to curving spacetime, and twisting the rod corresponds to spacetime torsion. If a rod is thin, you can bend it, but it's hard to see if it's twisted or not.

Spacetime torsion would only be significant, let alone noticeable, in the early universe or in black holes. In these extreme environments, spacetime torsion would manifest itself as a repulsive force that counters the attractive gravitational force coming from spacetime curvature. As in the standard version of general relativity, very massive stars end up collapsing into black holes: regions of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape. Here is how torsion would play out in the beginning moments of our universe.

Initially, the gravitational attraction from curved space would overcome torsion's repulsive forces, serving to collapse matter into smaller regions of space. But eventually torsion would become very strong and prevent matter from compressing into a point of infinite density; matter would reach a state of extremely large but finite density. As energy can be converted into mass, the immensely high gravitational energy in this extremely dense state would cause an intense production of particles, greatly increasing the mass inside the black hole.

The increasing numbers of particles with spin would result in higher levels of spacetime torsion. The repulsive torsion would stop the collapse and would create a "big bounce" like a compressed beach ball that snaps outward. The rapid recoil after such a big bounce could be what has led to our expanding universe. The result of this recoil matches observations of the universe's shape, geometry, and distribution of mass.

In turn, the torsion mechanism suggests an astonishing scenario: every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside. If that is true, then the first matter in our universe came from somewhere else. So our own universe could be the interior of a black hole existing in another universe. Just as we cannot see what is going on inside black holes in the cosmos, any observers in the parent universe could not see what is going on in ours. The motion of matter through the black hole's boundary, called an "event horizon," would only happen in one direction, providing a direction of time that we perceive as moving forward.

The arrow of time in our universe would therefore be inherited, through torsion, from the parent universe. The top bottle symbolizes a black hole, the connected necks represent a wormhole and the lower bottle symbolizes the growing universe on the just-formed other side of the wormhole. Bibcode : FoPh A short version of which is available at Fixsen, D.

Why Does the World Exist? Liveright Publishing. Baker Academic. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Horizons of Cosmology.

Arguing against a parallel universe

Templeton Pressr. Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe. Harper Perennial. Bibcode : biba. Sivaram Astrophysics and Space Science. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. October 28, Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved October 26, October 20, Bibcode : Natur. Namely, every closed surface in a finite space encloses on each side of itself a finite region of space. Therefore the flux of the electric field through this surface is equal, on th eone hand, to the total charge located in the interior of the surface, and on the other hand to the total charge outside of it, with opposite sign.

Consequently, the sum of the charges on the two sides of the surface is zero. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved October 19, Retrieved June 9, Ribas; C. Jordi; F. Vilardell; E. Fitzpatrick; R. Hilditch; F.

Cosmic inflation

Edward Guinan Astrophysical Journal. McConnachie, A. Vannesa Janek. Universe Today. February 20, Retrieved June 6, Section: Expansion of the Universe". Philip Gibbs. Archived from the original on November 17, Science News. Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ How the Universe Works. Discovery Channel. New York Times. A First Course in General Relativity 2 ed. Cambridge University Press. Nature Submitted manuscript. Roukema Bibcode : ASIC.. General Relativity and Gravitation. Bibcode : GReGr..

Cosmology: the science of the universe. Liddle; David Hilary Lyth April 13, Cosmological inflation and large-scale structure. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved August 23, Gaudin Astronomy and Astrophysics. Classical and Quantum Gravity. Bibcode : CQGra.. Michael Banks. Physics World. Retrieved March 21, Index to Creationist Claims. TalkOrigins Archive. Retrieved October 31, Retrieved July 26, Physics 7:Relativity, SpaceTime and Cosmology.

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Making sense of many universes

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Parallel Universe or Multiverse Theory Documentary Why we may Live in a Multiverse

October 23, Retrieved January 8, October 12, What they really care about is the Higgs field , because it is so important. Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang Second ed. IOP Publishing. Retrieved September 29, In Balian, R. Les Houches Summer School Proceedings. MIT News Office. April 18, Guinevere Kauffmann. Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. Retrieved January 6, Eric Chaisson. Havard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The physics of the Universe.

Bibcode : ZPhy April 2, Retrieved April 15, Journal of the History of Ideas. Bibcode : MPLA Linde A. Bibcode : PhLB.. Retrieved March 17, Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations". Barrow; P. Davies; C. Harper eds. F Chinese Science. Creation Myths of the World. In common usage the word 'myth' refers to narratives or beliefs that are untrue or merely fanciful; the stories that make up national or ethnic mythologies describe characters and events that common sense and experience tell us are impossible.

Nevertheless, all cultures celebrate such myths and attribute to them various degrees of literal or symbolic truth. Myth and Reality Religious Traditions of the World. Steiner , pp. Young, Louise. The Unfinished Universe. Charles Hartshorne and the Existence of God. SUNY Press. De Mundo. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Wiley, p. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Journal of the American Oriental Society.

Universe - Wikipedia

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Universe at Wikipedia's sister projects. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Universe " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Audio help. More spoken articles. Age of the universe Big Bang Chronology of the universe Universe. Discovery of cosmic microwave background History of the Big Bang theory Religious interpretations of the Big Bang Timeline of cosmological theories.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Compared to this, the case where the electron is spinning in the other direction is very straightforward. Two words: zombie cat. This time, our electron starts in its simultaneous clockwise and counterclockwise spinning state. Now the million dollar question: what happens when we turn our electron spin detector? Will it click, or not click? According to quantum mechanics, it does both.

Next, we wait for the signal to propagate from the detector to the gun. Will the gun go off, or will the bullet stay in the chamber? The answer is the same as for the detector: it will do both. The gun will be split in two, one version of it having gone off, the other never having fired:. By now, you can probably guess what its fate will be: the cat, just like the spin detector and the gun, will be split in two: one version will be killed by the bullet, and the other will go on to do great cat things.

Notice that we now have two fully independent stories to tell about the contents of the box: in one, the electron spin was clockwise, the gun went off and the cat died. Both are true. Neither is more true than the other. They coexist inside the box. Is the electron spinning clockwise or counterclockwise? Is the cat alive or dead? He came up with the first real attempt at explaining the zombie cat problem.