A s adaptation of general relativity, called the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, takes into account effects from quantum mechanics. It not only provides a step towards quantum gravity but also leads to an alternative picture of the universe. This variation of general relativity incorporates an important quantum property known as spin.
Particles such as atoms and electrons possess spin, or the internal angular momentum that is analogous to a skater spinning on ice. In this picture, spins in particles interact with spacetime and endow it with a property called "torsion. Bending the rod corresponds to curving spacetime, and twisting the rod corresponds to spacetime torsion. If a rod is thin, you can bend it, but it's hard to see if it's twisted or not.
Spacetime torsion would only be significant, let alone noticeable, in the early universe or in black holes. In these extreme environments, spacetime torsion would manifest itself as a repulsive force that counters the attractive gravitational force coming from spacetime curvature. As in the standard version of general relativity, very massive stars end up collapsing into black holes: regions of space from which nothing, not even light, can escape. Here is how torsion would play out in the beginning moments of our universe.
Initially, the gravitational attraction from curved space would overcome torsion's repulsive forces, serving to collapse matter into smaller regions of space. But eventually torsion would become very strong and prevent matter from compressing into a point of infinite density; matter would reach a state of extremely large but finite density. As energy can be converted into mass, the immensely high gravitational energy in this extremely dense state would cause an intense production of particles, greatly increasing the mass inside the black hole.
The increasing numbers of particles with spin would result in higher levels of spacetime torsion. The repulsive torsion would stop the collapse and would create a "big bounce" like a compressed beach ball that snaps outward. The rapid recoil after such a big bounce could be what has led to our expanding universe. The result of this recoil matches observations of the universe's shape, geometry, and distribution of mass.
In turn, the torsion mechanism suggests an astonishing scenario: every black hole would produce a new, baby universe inside. If that is true, then the first matter in our universe came from somewhere else. So our own universe could be the interior of a black hole existing in another universe. Just as we cannot see what is going on inside black holes in the cosmos, any observers in the parent universe could not see what is going on in ours. The motion of matter through the black hole's boundary, called an "event horizon," would only happen in one direction, providing a direction of time that we perceive as moving forward.
The arrow of time in our universe would therefore be inherited, through torsion, from the parent universe. The top bottle symbolizes a black hole, the connected necks represent a wormhole and the lower bottle symbolizes the growing universe on the just-formed other side of the wormhole. Bibcode : FoPh A short version of which is available at Fixsen, D.
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Making sense of many universes
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Namespaces Article Talk. Compared to this, the case where the electron is spinning in the other direction is very straightforward. Two words: zombie cat. This time, our electron starts in its simultaneous clockwise and counterclockwise spinning state. Now the million dollar question: what happens when we turn our electron spin detector? Will it click, or not click? According to quantum mechanics, it does both.
Next, we wait for the signal to propagate from the detector to the gun. Will the gun go off, or will the bullet stay in the chamber? The answer is the same as for the detector: it will do both. The gun will be split in two, one version of it having gone off, the other never having fired:. By now, you can probably guess what its fate will be: the cat, just like the spin detector and the gun, will be split in two: one version will be killed by the bullet, and the other will go on to do great cat things.
Notice that we now have two fully independent stories to tell about the contents of the box: in one, the electron spin was clockwise, the gun went off and the cat died. Both are true. Neither is more true than the other. They coexist inside the box. Is the electron spinning clockwise or counterclockwise? Is the cat alive or dead? He came up with the first real attempt at explaining the zombie cat problem.