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- Negotiable Instruments – Meaning, Types & Uses
- Negotiable instrument - Wikipedia
- Negotiable Instruments
A bill of exchange is essentially an order made by one person to another to pay money to a third person. A bill of exchange requires in its inception three parties—the drawer, the drawee, and the payee. The person who draws the bill is called the drawer. He gives the order to pay money to the third party. The party upon whom the bill is drawn is called the drawee. He is the person to whom the bill is addressed and who is ordered to pay.
He becomes an acceptor when he indicates his willingness to pay the bill.
The party in whose favor the bill is drawn or is payable is called the payee. The parties need not all be distinct persons. Thus, the drawer may draw on himself payable to his own order.
A bill of exchange may be endorsed by the payee in favour of a third party, who may in turn endorse it to a fourth, and so on indefinitely. The "holder in due course" may claim the amount of the bill against the drawee and all previous endorsers, regardless of any counterclaims that may have disabled the previous payee or endorser from doing so. This is what is meant by saying that a bill is negotiable. In some cases a bill is marked "not negotiable"—see crossing of cheques.
In that case it can still be transferred to a third party, but the third party can have no better right than the transferor. Thus, for a writing to be a negotiable instrument under Article 3,  the following requirements must be met:.
The latter requirement is referred to as the "words of negotiability": a writing which does not contain the words "to the order of" within the four corners of the instrument or in endorsement on the note or in allonge or indicate that it is payable to the individual holding the contract document analogous to the holder in due course is not a negotiable instrument and is not governed by Article 3, even if it appears to have all of the other features of negotiability. The only exception is that if an instrument meets the definition of a cheque a bill of exchange payable on demand and drawn on a bank and is not payable to order i.jodb-api.eila.io/veju-chloroquine-phosphate.php
Negotiable Instruments – Meaning, Types & Uses
UCC Article 3 does not apply to money, to payment orders governed by Article 4A, or to securities governed by Article 8. Persons other than the original obligor and obligee can become parties to a negotiable instrument. These real defenses include 1 forgery of the instrument; 2 fraud as to the nature of the instrument being signed; 3 alteration of the instrument; 4 incapacity of the signer to contract; 5 infancy of the signer; 6 duress; 7 discharge in bankruptcy; and, 8 the running of a statute of limitations as to the validity of the instrument.
The holder-in-due-course rule is a rebuttable presumption that makes the free transfer of negotiable instruments feasible in the modern economy. A person or entity purchasing an instrument in the ordinary course of business can reasonably expect that it will be paid when presented to, and not subject to dishonor by, the maker, without involving itself in a dispute between the maker and the person to whom the instrument was first issued this can be contrasted to the lesser rights and obligations accruing to mere holders.
Article 3 of the Uniform Commercial Code as enacted in a particular State's law contemplate real defenses available to purported holders in due course. The foregoing is the theory and application presuming compliance with the relevant law. Practically, the obligor-payor on an instrument who feels he has been defrauded or otherwise unfairly dealt with by the payee may nonetheless refuse to pay even a holder in due course, requiring the latter to resort to litigation to recover on the instrument. While bearer instruments are rarely created as such, a holder of commercial paper with the holder designated as payee can change the instrument to a bearer instrument by an endorsement.
The proper holder simply signs the back of the instrument and the instrument becomes bearer paper, although in recent years, third party checks are not being honored by most banks unless the original payee has signed a notarized document stating such. Alternatively, an individual or company may write a check payable to "cash" or "bearer" and create a bearer instrument. Great care should be taken with the security of the instrument, as it is legally almost as good as cash.
Under the Code, the following are not negotiable instruments, although the law governing obligations with respect to such items may be similar to or derived from the law applicable to negotiable instruments:. It is payable on demand and it can be considered as a bill of exchange. The cheque can be crossed to end its negotiability. The acceptance of cheque is not always needed.
The cheque is always accepted into the account of the payee. A cheque bounce is a cheque which cannot be able to process due to the insufficiency of funds in the account holder.
Negotiable instrument - Wikipedia
Banks will always return such cheques. There are different types of cheques. Two parties, i. No Yes Yes Stamping Yes Yes No Notice of dishonour No notice needs to be given in case of its dishonour In case of its dishonour, due notice has to be given by the holder to the drawer In case of its dishonour, due notice has to be given by the holder to the drawer. The Negotiable Instrument Act was passed to make the road of trade go smooth.
Since the laws of different countries differ from each other the cases of payment problems were observed. There was indeed a need for a negotiable instrument which is accepted by every law internationally. Negotiable instrument include promissory notes, Bills of exchange and Cheque had conditional and unconditional undertakings signed by the maker.
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These instruments are internationally accepted. Swati is presently based in Mumbai. She started her career as a teacher working with reputed school like Delhi Public School. She had successful career as a teacher for more than 8 years, where she taught humanities. Besides teaching she diligently performed other duties like being subject- coordinator, in charge of awards and discipline.
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The Bill of Exchange contains an order from the creditor to the debtor to pay a certain person after a certain period. The person who draws it is called drawer creditor and the person on whom it is drawn is called drawee debtor or acceptor. A Check cheque in royal Britain is a bill of exchange drawer a specified banker not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand. It is an instrument in writing, containing unconditional order, signed by the maker depositor , directing a certain banker to pay a certain sum of money to the bearer of that instrument. Some other instruments have acquired the character of negotiability by customs or usage of trade.
Negotiable instruments by custom or usages are mainly, the government promissory notes, delivery orders, and railway receipts have been held to be negotiable by usage or custom of the trade.