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Farnham: Ashgate. Version of December 10, China's G20 Leadership Abingdon: Routledge. Version of December 21, Draft of August 23, Version of February 9, Version of February 24, See also Alagh et al. Kirton, John and Jenilee Guebert James Hospedales. Version of April 2, Kirton, John and Madeline Koch, eds.


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London: Newsdesk Media. The G20 Pittsburgh Summit Newsdesk Media. Russia's G20 Summit: St Petersburg Farnham: Ashgate, Version of March 22, Version of June 11, Kirton, John and Dilbar Sadykova Version of August Kirton, John and Junichi Takase, eds. Kirton, John and George von Furstenberg, eds. Kirton, John and Brittaney Warren Version of December Version of June 28, Kloke-Lesch, Adolf Koch, Madeline Draft of May 16, Kokotsis, Ella Kulik, Julia Draft of December 13, Labardini Inzunza, Adriana Larionova, Marina Draft of November 1, Larionova, Marina, and John J.

Kirton, eds. Larionova, Marina and Andrey Shelepov Lee Dong-hwi Second G20 Summit: Evaluation and Prospects. Challenges for the G20 after the Mexico Summit. Lesage, Dries Preliminary Draft.

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Liu Zongyi Manuel, Trevor Martinez-Diaz, Leonardo Masson, Paul, and John Pattison Meyer, Laurence, et al. Moschella, Manuella Narlikar, Amrita O'Neill, Jim and Robert Hormats Goldman Sachs, New York, June 3. Ostry, Sylvia Parkinson, Martin Payne, Anthony Porter, Tony Postel-Vinay, Karoline Paris: Presses de Sciences Po. Preyma, Lida Rewizorski, Marek Commentary No 4, July 7. The G A Practitioner's Perspective.

Global Economic Governance Programme. Oxford: University College. Sainsbury, Tristram Sainsbury, Tristram and Hannah Wurf Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, and Sanket Mohapatra Samans, R. Lopez-Carlos Lopez-Carlos, eds. Scholte, Jan Aart Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Schmucker, Claudia and Katharina Gnath Slaughter, Steven Steiner, Sherrie Sage Open, October—December , vol. Studer, Isabel and Talia Contreras Round Table 3 : Taylor, Ian Tietmeyer, Hans Tussie, Diana, and Pablo Trucco Truman, E. The Soviets were engaged in a broad campaign to convince the world of the attractiveness of its Communist system.

In , the Soviet Union was very effective in attracting many in Europe from its resistance to Hitler, and in colonized areas around the world because of its opposition to European imperialism. Despite all of this, the Soviets' closed system and lack of popular culture impeded the ability of the Soviet Union to compete with the U. A number of non-democratic governments have attempted to use migration as an instrument of soft power: Egypt under the rule of Gamal Abdel Nasser trained and dispatched thousands of teachers across the Arab world in an effort to spread ideas of anti-colonialism and anti-Zionism.

After Pope John Paul II visited Poland in , some political commentators said his visit influenced events against Poland's communist government, the Soviet Union , and ultimately communism , which promoted atheism. His was what Joseph Nye calls "soft power" — the power of attraction and repulsion. He began with an enormous advantage, and exploited it to the utmost: He headed the one institution that stood for the polar opposite of the Communist way of life that the Polish people hated.

By identifying with him, Poles would have the chance to cleanse themselves of the compromises they had to make to live under the regime. And so they came to him by the millions. They listened. He told them to be good, not to compromise themselves, to stick by one another, to be fearless, and that God is the only source of goodness, the only standard of conduct. Millions shouted in response, "We want God! We want God! Had the Pope chosen to turn his soft power into the hard variety, the regime might have been drowned in blood. Instead, the Pope simply led the Polish people to desert their rulers by affirming solidarity with one another.

The Communists managed to hold on as despots a decade longer. But as political leaders, they were finished. Besides the Pope's visit, American-government broadcasting and propaganda into Soviet-occupied Europe, particularly Poland, contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement and to the collapse of the Soviet-backed governments there and in the rest of the Warsaw Pact alliance.

The United States and Europe have consistently been sources of influence and soft power. Unlike the U. In , the European Union was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for over six decades [it has] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe.

Asia and more recently China have been working to use the potential soft power assets that are present in the admiration of their ancient cultures, arts, fashion and cuisine. Soft power extends beyond the operations of government, to the activities of the private sector and to society and culture at large. The information age has also led to the rise of soft power resources for non-state actors, Primarily, through the use of global media, and to a greater extent the internet using tools such as the World Wide Web , non-state actors have been able to increase their soft power and put pressure on governments that can ultimately affect policy outcomes.

Instead of front organizations, non-state actors can create cyber advocacy organizations [51] to recruit members and project their voice on the global stage. China's traditional culture has been a source of attraction, building on which it has created several hundred Confucius Institutes around the world to teach its language and culture. The enrollment of foreign students in China has increased from 36, a decade before to at least , in China's expansion of trade and investment on the African continent and the spread of Chinese-led infrastructure projects gives positive impressions of China to people in Africa.

China's economic engagement in African countries is considered as much more pragmatic and in consistency with the priorities of many African countries. Moreover, China's increasing role as a global superpower seems appealing and this drives a desire to tie African economies more closely to China's economy. Through the use of GONGOs otherwise known as a Government-organized non-governmental organization , China exerts soft power through foreign aid and development in Africa.

The commitments of China's soft power ranges from health, humanitarian assistance to academic, professional and cultural exchange. China's assistance to Africa, however, is not near the U.

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Cultural exchange between China and Africa can be a representative example of how China has been spreading its soft power. In , the first Confucius Institute was established in Africa.


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  • The institute is funded by the Chinese government and it provides Chinese language and cultural programming to the public. There are 19 institutes today in Africa and China has planned to spend 20 million renminbi for education projects in South Africa, including the teaching of Mandarin in 50 local high schools. Furthermore, there is an increasing support for cultural visitors programs which gained momentum in when the African Cultural Visitors Program was established.

    There is a rising number of African entrepreneurs who choose to move to China and there are also diaspora communities in many Chinese cities that have been found. Outside of Africa, Chinese soft power extends to countries like Barbados. Barbadian Prime Minister David Thompson expressed admiration for the Chinese economic model and sought to emulate the way Chinese state controlled banks guided development. France has long exerted a great amount of soft power. The country and its culture have for centuries been admired in many parts of the world; so much so that Thomas Jefferson is famously quoted as saying "Every man has two countries, his own and France.

    The French Revolution was one of the most significant events in European and world history. France has since then been instrumental in spreading Republican ideals. The Napoleonic Code , which influenced much of the rest of Europe and beyond, is regarded as one of the most important law document of the modern era. The French language has for centuries been an important diplomatic language. For example, French has to be used — on par with English — for all documents issued by the United Nations Treaty Series , ensuring that all UN treaties are equally valid in their English and French versions.

    France has also followed for decades a very active diplomatic and cultural policy. France, and in particular Paris , [66] has long been considered one of the most romantic places to be. France was in the most visited country in the world. The famous elements of Italian soft culture are its art, music, fashion, and iconic food. Italy was the birthplace of opera , [71] and for generations the language of opera was Italian , irrespective of the nationality of the composer. Popular tastes in drama in Italy have long favored comedy; the improvisational style known as the Commedia dell'arte began in Italy in the midth century [72] and is still performed today.

    Before being exported to France, the famous Ballet dance genre also originated in Italy. The country boasts several world-famous cities. Florence was the heart of the Renaissance , a period of great achievements in the arts that ended the Dark Ages. Milan is a fashion capital of the World. Venice , with its intricate canal system, attracts tourists from all over the world especially during the Venetian Carnival and the Biennale. Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites 51 to date, [74] [75] and according to one estimate the country is home to half the world's great art treasures.

    Italy is considered the birthplace of Western civilization and a cultural superpower. The concept has been adopted by the Japanese government as well as trade bodies seeking to exploit the commercial capital of the country's culture industry. He also argued that Japan's recession may even have boosted its national cool, due to the partial discrediting of erstwhile rigid social hierarchies and big-business career paths.

    Russia has been developing its soft power by investing in various public diplomacy instruments throughout the s [83] but the term was first used in an official document in as President Medvedev approved an Addendum to the national Foreign Policy Concept. The term was not defined but it was described as related to cultural diplomacy. In , he was named most powerful person by Forbes magazine.

    The size of its network reflects the extent of its undiminished global ambition. According to a Washington Post reporter, the spread of South Korean entertainment has led to higher sales of other goods and services such as food, clothing, and Korean language classes.

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    In , the BBC 's country rating poll revealed that public opinion of South Korea has been improving every year since the first rating poll for the country was conducted in In several countries such as Russia , India , China and France , public opinion of South Korea turned from slightly negative to generally positive. The report cited culture and tradition as among the most important factors contributing to positive perceptions of South Korea.

    First driven by the spread of Korean dramas televised across East , South and Southeast Asia during its initial stages, the Korean Wave evolved from a regional development into a global phenomenon due to the proliferation of Korean pop K-pop music videos on YouTube. Since the period of Pax Britannica the United Kingdom has held significant soft power.

    The UK has strong diplomatic relations with countries around the world, particularly countries in the Commonwealth of Nations and many others in Europe, Asia, the Middle-east, Africa and the United States. The influence of British culture and sports are widespread, particularly notable during the British Invasion , Cool Britannia , and more recently the Diamond Jubilee and Summer Olympics.

    British film and literature have international appeal, and British theatre helps make London one of the most visited cities in the world. Alongside the English language, English contract law is the most important and most used contract law in international business. Following the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in , the UK responded with bilateral and multilateral diplomatic efforts that led to nations around the world expelling one hundred and fifty Russian diplomats , described by CNN as a "remarkable diplomatic coup for Britain". British prime minister Theresa May stated in parliament that the coordinated global response was the "largest collective expulsion of Russian intelligence officers in history.

    The United States has long had a great deal of soft power. Examples include Franklin D. Roosevelt 's four freedoms in Europe at the end of World War II , young people behind the Iron Curtain listening to the government's foreign propaganda arm Radio Free Europe , Chinese students symbolizing their protests in Tiananmen Square by creating a replica of the Statue of Liberty that they called "Goddess of Democracy", newly liberated Afghans in asking for a copy of the Bill of Rights and young Iranians today surreptitiously watching banned American videos and satellite television broadcasts in the privacy of their homes.

    The launch of the Arabic-language Alhurra satellite channel in early to provide news and entertainment in ways more beneficial to the U. Though it calls itself the largest Arabic-language news organization in the world, the Virginia-based Alhurra lacks the cachet and brand recognition of Al Jazeera, but its balanced presentation of news has earned it a small but significant viewership.

    Controversial innovations in radio broadcasting that target young mass audiences through a mix of light news and mild American popular music — Radio Sawa in Arabic and Radio Farda in Persian — have captured a substantial market share in their target regions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Politics Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy. Political systems. Academic disciplines. Political science political scientists.

    International relations theory. Public administration. Bureaucracy street-level Adhocracy. Public policy doctrine Domestic and foreign policy Civil society Public interest. Organs of government. Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics. Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Soft power of China. Main article: Cool Japan. Main article: Korean Wave. Play media. As is clear with the recent rise of Psy's " Gangnam Style ", the Hallyu -wave and Korean pop music, Korean culture is making its mark on the world. Hard power Sharp power Power projection Smart power Power international relations Power social and political Cultural hegemony Fifth power Great power Netpolitik Power projection Intangible asset Democratic peace theory Public diplomacy Social influence.

    The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 December Gates, Secretary of Defense November 26, Landon Lecture Kansas State University. Archived from the original on Retrieved 18 April Real Instituto Elcano. Retrieved December 5, International Relations and Security Network. October 28, London: I. Tauris Publishers. Karl-Heinz Ladeur. Peter G.


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    • Rowe and Seng Kuan. Munich: Prestel. Barabara Ehrenreich and Russell Hochschild. New York: Holt Paperbacks. Charles Madigan.

      کتاب شناسی ساسکیا ساسِن

      Mark Bevir and Frank Trentmann. Philip N. Howard and Steve Jones. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Indiana Journal of Legal Studies , vol. Review of International Political Economy 10 1 Feb. Engin F. Isin and Bryan S.

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