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When shall i and when shouldn't I use it before nouns? Not that easy.
I would say " la politique migratoire de la France " but I couldn't explain why. CapnPrep Senior Member France. Hi, there was a recent thread about this, but not very conclusive it is a difficult question. In your first example, you have to say politique de la France. So, if you can say from France in English, you can probably use de France in French. Of France or France's usually corresponds to de la France.
Sorry about the "almost always", "probably", "usually": There are many exceptions. I generally go with what sounds right, but I am sure there is a rule Here the "de" are different. Note that there's an article if the country is masc. Thanks Pieanne. So if I were expressing this as a general rule: the article is omitted when the preposition "de" expresses origin, but not omitted when it expresses possession?
Does that sound about right?
It does sound right, but remember the article is omitted only when the name of the country is singular and feminine. Don't ask me why! You use the article in all cases. I understand "les vins de France" more as "the wines from France", but you're right for "la reine d'Angleterre". Let me be picky: to me "l'histoire de France" is "France history", whereas "l'histoire de la France would be " the history of France".
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Perhaps, France's history or French history The you would say: les vins de la France for the wines of France? Somehow that sounds odd. Are there any rules for deciding between ils viennent de la France or de France ils viennent de l'Angleterre or d'Angleterre ils viennent de l'Inde or d'Inde? For masculine countries, I think it has to be du eg du Maroc Similarly, for of les pays de l'Afrique or d'Afrique une carte de l'Inde or d'Inde la capitale du Maroc? Happy New Year to all! I'm trying to create a PowerPoint about the rivers of France, and am wondering if someone could verify which of the following phrases are correct.
La Loire est le plus long fleuve de France. La Loire est le plus long fleuve en France. Is there a rule for when to use le or la before a place name? Thanks so much for your help! Happy new year to you too To be honnest, i don't know the rule, maybe because i am french. C'est une question difficile. Parfois il faut dire "de France" et parfois "de la France". De la France 1 La France a cinq grands fleuves.
Les cinq grands fleuves de la France sont Il suffit de remplacer "France" par le nom d'un autre pays pour mieux voir. Last edited by a moderator: Feb 20, Je ne dirais d'ailleurs pas Les cinq grands fleuves de la France sont Qu'en pensez-vous, les uns et les autres? Insistez, patassa! Donaldos Senior Member French - France. Where did you find department of France?
JDS, department of France is a normal expression in English. I suppose that patassa just found it spontaneously. See, for example, the English Wikipedia article. Mais ce n'est pas toute l'histoire. Last edited: Feb 10, D'autres articles permettent d'autres constructions qui sont elles plus courantes et qu'il ne faut pas compter ici. CapnPrep said:. The article also contains an example in the singular: the 90th department of France Territoire de Belfort. And if you look up " Guadeloupe " you will see that it is described as an overseas department of France.
Moon Palace Senior Member Lyon. I have always been told at university that saying departments in English is erroneous, since no English-speaking country has any equivalent for this system that is specific to France. But we are getting off-topic here, since Patassa's question has to do with how we say this in French.
If talking about France from a foreigner's viewpoint, I am not so sure we should include d'outre-mer since this is the internal organization of the country.
The application uses location data to build interfaces and visualizations which highlight changes in personal routines, with the aim of stimulating reflection. Data is processed to extract significant places and temporal information about them. The paper presents the questions that can be answered by a data processing layer and the strategy to handle the different types of queries.
Location data is processed to identify significant locations, discover patterns and predict future behavior. Science has historically divided itself into disciplines. Some scientific disciplines have a hierarchy of knowledge acquisition e. As science moves away from single disciplines into research that combines multiple scientific fields, it is less easy to define one fixed hierarchy.
Here we have jumps and bridges between different hierarchies, suggesting dynamic heterarchy born in the interstices that exist between these multiple hierarchies. Yet, we seek to suggest a multi-perspective approach that also explores extra-scientific knowledge. Thus science and the arts provide differing perspectives that can be brought into dynamic relationality.
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Here truth does not belong to one discipline but becomes illuminated through dynamic relation. Building a cross-disciplinary dynamic heterarchy out of the traditional hierarchies raises concrete problems of language and categorization that anyone who is used to transdisciplinary approaches has already experienced.
The genetic metaphor speaks for itself: when species have diverged too much, no mating is even possible.
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The notion of a bridging or symbiotic metaphor may make more sense here. Yet we also point to the limits of metaphor in reflecting the complexity of the thoughts we are discussing. We will discuss the creation of a taxonomy of Art Science relations as a long term goal. Je discute avec Alexis. Je les mets dans un aquarium dans la cuisine de mon enfance.
La moule est rectangulaire comme un coffret. Et je me coupe l'index gauche.
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Puis, plus tard? Dans ma main elle se transforme en une carte hybride, un 4 dans le coin gauche et des 5 dans les trois autres coins. This workshop is an introduction to Arduino and DIY electronics. Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping environment widely used in the art community to design interactive objects or systems sensitive and responsive to the analog world. Each participant will build a simple machine that sends and receives signals.
All the machines will eventually interact in a single communicative system, inspired from Chinese Whispers. Errors typically accumulate through retelling, noise in the transmission channels, miss-communication and the probable oddness of the machines may add to the experience and set the ground for exploring some key concepts of cybernetics, such as feedback mechanisms and order from noise.
Encounters between artists and scientists may result in new kinds of cognitive experiences or knowledge production. Proponents of a this rapprochement sometimes claim a possible convergence of art and science. I will focus on the contrary on some divergences, that I believe are constituent of each approach. This presentation is aiming neither at objectivity nor at truth. The style in which an RNA molecule folds in space obeys laws of nucleotide binding and attraction which are encoded in its primary structure, that is, in the sequence of nucleotides conforming it.
Natural language sentences can also be viewed as encodings for a structure in space- in this case, a parse tree- which exhibits relationships or bindings between different parts of the sentence. We explore the possibilities in adapting a recent, simple and elegant methodology for bioinformatics which has been successfully used for RNA design, to the problem of parsing poems that follow specific stylistic trends. Themethodology introduced in this paper can be easily express in terms of multi-agent systems. In combinatorial abstract games, such as Chess or Go, the player's posture has something similar to the posture of a mathematician demonstrating a theorem, such games are indeed likely to stimulate similar schemes of thougth, resulting internally in a similar experience and, externally, in a physical attitude characteristic to that kind of activity.
Certains artistes trouvent eux aussi quelques vertus au bruit. Context: RNA secondary structure prediction depends on the situation: when only a few sometimes putative RNA homologs are available, one of the most famous approach is based on a set of recursions proposed by Sankoff in Although this modus operandi insures an algorithmically optimal result, the main drawback lies in its prohibitive time and space complexities. A series of heuristics were developed to face that difficulty and turn the recursions usable.
Results: In front of the inescapable intricacy of the question when handling the full thermodynamic model, we come back in the present paper to a biologically simplified model that helps us focusing on the algorithmic issues we want to overcome. We expose our findings and forthcoming developments by using the constraint paradigm which we believe is a powerful framework for heuristic design. By doing so, we show that the main heuristics proposed by others structural and alignment banding, multi-loop restriction can be refined in order to produce a substantial gain both in time computation and space requirements.
An implementation of our approach, named ARNICA, exemplify that gain, specially on sample sets that often remain unaffordable to other methods. We propose a refined heuristic for pairwise RNA secondary structure prediction based on the recursions of Sankoff. Since two decades, a series of new ncRNA families are being discovered, usually coming as a set of putative, sometimes poorly conserved, homologs. The function of these ncRNA in the cell, like for proteins, is related to their three-dimensional shape and an ordinary problem is the computational prediction of this shape ie.
This hard problem is addressed stepwise by using intermediate levels of description of the molecule.
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Secondary structure, which is more or less the graph of the intra-molecular base-pairing interactions, provides such an intermediate, topological description of the molecule that happens to be well suited for an algorithmic approach: given a sequence, the set of possible secondary structures that minimize a free energy function within a realistic, yet simplified, thermodynamical model can be computed in reasonable time by dynamic programming. But as there is usually no clue to guess which structure in that set is the correct one, it makes sense to use several homologs, when available, and improve the accuracy of the results by seeking the common structure.
The extension of the previous framework to several sequences turns out to be computationally expensive, although still polynomial in space and time, and calls for heuristic adaptations. I will present our algorithmic results, that prove to apply successfully to that arduous context, usually unaffordable for other methods. Ces sont deux attributs qu'elle partage avec le jeu, tout au moins sur un plan formel.
Je laisse une grande ouverture de possibles au niveau de la forme, comme l'impose le paradoxe, mais je me permets de poser avec rigueur les termes de ma participation The unique efficiency of science is due, at least partially, to the exactness and specificity of its languages. Since scientific research is an enacted production, formal and natural languages probably inform each other.
I explore this theme in a participative video installation, by enhancing the esoteric charge of scientific discourse. The work is based on interviews. The participants expose their research as naturally as they would do with their colleagues or in a specialized seminar, but they have to face some language constraints eg. Due to the concentration requiered by the exercise, the participants often relax their control and reveal a subjective and sensitive personnality that may be hidden by the ideal of objectivity imposed by science.
The participants end up building on their free will a discourse bordering on absurdity, providing for themselves and for the others an insightful experience of the limits of language and the fragility of thoughts. Peut-on donner une forme sensible aux logiques personnelles qui animent nos langages?
We revisit the constraint programming approach we initiated in [KB02] and define a simpler model, where only the protein backbone is considered, which has the obvious advantage of dealing with one order of magnitude fewer atoms but also poses other problems, namely a less constrained problem, where the structure of the backbone defined by the existing constraints is less defined when compared with the full protein model. In this paper we describe our findings, concentrating on the alternative modelings that we have been addressing, together with the preliminary results obtained.
Taking place in Schokofabrik, an abandoned former chocolate factory where all the group is staying, the workshop explores the relations between architecture and game. During one week the participants are invited to conceive and implement games in relation to the building. Three instructors with different technical skills are guiding participants in the use of a wide variety of digital and analog media dealing with light and sound, with a specific focus on interactivity: the visitors plays with the building as if they were controling it.
The workshop is complemented by lectures and ends with a party where the work is shown and experimented by the public.