Experience sampling approaches are an important method in emotion research as they minimize retrospective biases such as retrieval distortions, cognitive and memory limitations, or influences from personality factors or social desirability e. However, as the present study focused on a variety of antecedents of teacher emotions i. An experience sampling design with random signals during a lesson as employed in the study by Keller et al.
Therefore, the present study used a diary approach in order to obtain information on situational characteristics, appraisals and emotions without disrupting instructional processes and still keeping retrospective biases to a minimum. A further advantage of using an intraindividual diary approach is the fact that it is capable of capturing the dynamics of emotions i.
Emotion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Previous research on academic emotions suggests that there is a considerable amount of intraindividual variability in emotional experiences across and within subject domains e. The present study, therefore, also explores the amount of within-person variability for emotional experiences and their antecedents. Figure 1. The present study was conducted in compliance with ethical standards provided by the Federation of German Psychologists Association Berufsverband deutscher Psychologinnen und Psychologen, and the American Psychological Association Prior to participation, teachers and students were informed about the goals of the research, duration, procedure and anonymity of their data.
Participation was voluntarily and it was possible to withdraw participation at any time. Verbal informed consent prior to data collection was provided by all teachers and students. Data was collected and analyzed anonymously; all identifiers that could link individual participants to their results were removed and destroyed after data entry.
For the present study, 39 secondary school mathematics teachers from the highest track of the German school system i. Teachers were on average Students were on average Trained research personnel gave teachers and students a diary a small booklet consisting of the state-level questionnaires and briefly instructed them on how to fill it out. The diary was designed to sample 5—10 lessons per class, thus lasting 2—3 weeks in which the teacher and the whole class filled in the short state-questionnaire in the last 5 min of each mathematics lesson.
The teachers initiated the diary data collection in their classrooms without any trained research personnel present. Teachers were requested to end their lessons 5 min early so that their students and they could fill out the diaries. Furthermore, students and teachers used an individual code instead of their names in the diary so that the data remained anonymous. After the last assessment, trained research personnel collected the diaries. For participating in the study, classes received 50 euros for their class fund and teachers were compensated with a book voucher.
Items were based on trait measures from the Achievement-Emotion Questionnaire for Teachers Frenzel et al. Items were adapted to suit the diary-based assessment of emotional experiences after each lesson. All items were rated on a scale from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. Items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree.
For the emotion-related facet, two items were selected from the Academic Emotion Questionnaire Pekrun et al.
Mean scores for the scale were aggregated for all students of one class onto the lesson level i. That is, 5, student ratings The intraclass correlation [ICC 2 ] gives an estimate of the reliability of the aggregated variable. ICC 2 for class motivation was 0. ICC 2 for class discipline was 0.
The data of the diary assessment represents a nested data structure, with teacher diary entries i. The average cluster size was 8. In order to correctly estimate standard errors, multilevel analyses were applied, which take the nesting of lessons within teachers into account. As the study hypotheses refer only to within-person relations, all relationships were modeled on the within-level, that is, lesson level. To this end, independent variables were group mean centered to focus on relations occurring within persons.
Descriptive results means, standard deviations, percentage of within-teacher variability and within-teacher correlations for all study variables are provided in Table 1. Intercorrelations of study variables are displayed as occurring within teachers intraindividually , that is on Level 1. As such, those correlations describe the extent to which two constructs co-occur, on average, in the same lesson. In comparison, withinteacher variation for classroom conditions was considerably low 0. Thus, variance in classroom conditions can be equally attributed to situational variation and stable characteristics of the teacher or the class.
Teacher enjoyment and anger were negatively correlated. That is, if more enjoyment was experienced within a lesson, then less anger was reported. In order to test this assumption, two MSEMs were run, one for each teacher emotion enjoyment and anger. The regression coefficients are shown in Table 2. Specifically and as hypothesized, high levels of class motivation and discipline within one lesson corresponded to teachers reporting higher levels of enjoyment H1a and lower levels of anger H1b. The results are shown in Figures 2 and 3.
Overall, both models achieved good model fit. Thus, the explained variance increased considerably as compared to the model in which only classroom conditions were considered as antecedents. Figure 2. Teacher appraisals mediating the relationship between classroom conditions and teacher enjoyment. Standardized coefficients are shown; the regression coefficients for the latent variable indicators and residuals are not displayed.
Estimates at the dependent variables represent explained within-level variance R 2. Figure 3.
Teacher appraisals mediating the relationship between classroom conditions and teacher anger. For the first time, some of the key theoretical propositions outlined in Frenzel et al. To improve the ecological validity of the findings and to allow for intraindividual analyses, a diary approach with teachers and students was employed. This supports the assumption that interactions with students can be charged with positive emotions and offer emotional rewards e.
Since each teacher only participated with one class, it is not possible to determine whether Level 2 variance actually pertains to stable personal characteristics between the teachers e. This indicates that there is no such thing as classes that are always motivated and disciplined or teachers who are always capable of motivating and disciplining their classes. Theoretical underpinnings in appraisal theories of emotion e.
Rather, the subjective interpretation of situational characteristics determines emotional experiences. This direct effect could possibly be explained by emotional contagion processes Hatfield et al. Assessing accountability appraisals would require specifying a particular event and classifying it as either goal conducive or unconducive, which is not feasible for a diary-approach. Thus, not only is it important what happens in class and while teaching and interacting with students, but even more so how teachers interpret and appraise these events.
The present study was designed so as to overcome some limitations of previous studies. Secondly, by introducing student reports as a proxy for classroom conditions, the single-source bias of earlier studies was overcome. Nevertheless, the present study has its own limitations. Even though the present study used two data sources teachers and students , it still relied on self-reports. Another important limitation regards the study sample.
Teachers were recruited based on voluntary participation and could personally choose—in case they had more than one 9th or 10th grade class in mathematics—with which class they wanted to participate. This could have resulted in a bias in the direction of generally highly motivated teachers and well-disciplined and highly motivated classes.
Furthermore, the sample size is rather small; although 39 teachers as the number of units on Level 2 in multilevel analyses should yield reliable results Maas and Hox, , a validation of the present study findings with a larger sample would be desirable. This also pertains to the breadth of the sample, which included only secondary school teachers from Gymnasium and 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes. Although from a theoretical viewpoint, no differences in relations between classroom conditions, appraisals, and emotions should be expected for different school tracks, subjects, or age level of students, this needs to be corroborated in future studies.
A third limitation pertains to the chosen appraisals within the present study. As a consequence of the study design relying on diaries and evaluations of appraisals and emotions pertaining to one lesson, only the appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential were included. Yet, undoubtedly, other appraisals also play a role in the emergence of teacher emotions e. Future studies could focus on such reciprocal effects between students and teachers by using repeated assessments in various lessons within 1 day to model initial levels of emotions from the previous lesson.
Such a design would require a sample with teachers who teach more than one subject in one class e. Despite the fact that teachers also report to find their job exhausting see, e. From a theoretical viewpoint, the experience of positive emotions can be considered a resource individuals can actively draw on and benefit from Fredrickson and Joiner, ; thus, helping teachers to become aware of the presence and strength of their enjoyment in the classroom e. Teachers should be reminded of that fact and strive toward accepting that sometimes students are more distracted or less motivated due to situational constraints.
Thus, teachers should adjust goals in a realistic way for example, not all students need to be motivated in all lessons so that they are protected against experiencing frustration while teaching a lesson.
Second, interventions could offer for example on-the-job or video-based trainings on classroom management strategies e. A highly adaptive way of doing so is through cognitive reappraisal strategies see, e. Futures studies could consider how such an intervention needs to be designed in order to instill effective and adaptive cognitive reappraisal strategies in teachers so that they benefit emotionally. It thus, advances our understanding of the involved processes on an intraindividual level and derives not only vantage points for future in-depth studies, but also important practical implications for teachers.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Adolf, J. Measurement invariance within and between individuals: a distinct problem in testing the equivalence of intra- and inter-individual model structures. Ahmed, W. American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Google Scholar.
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Method Educ. Chang, M. An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: examining the emotional work of teachers. Toward a theoretical model to understand teacher emotions and teacher burnout in the context of student misbehavior: appraisal, regulation and coping. Schutz and M. Zembylasb New York: Springer. Covington, M. Darby, A. Denny, B.
Behavioral effects of longitudinal training in cognitive reappraisal. Emotion 14, — Ellsworth, P. Davidson and K. Scherer Oxford: Oxford University Press , — Federal Statistical Office [Statistisches Bundesamt]. Schulen auf einen Blick [Schools at a glance]. Fredrickson, B. The person can, for example, go into a virtual bank and handle the cash machine, similar to what he would do with real equipment, or even interact with an employee, represented in the environment by a virtual digital humanoid, commonly referred as avatar.
This interaction is accomplished in real time, using computer equipment and techniques that increase the sense of presence. During experimental studies that research the processing of emotional expressions, virtual faces are an essential advantage, since they can be easily animated and vary according to the needs of the researcher. Regarding cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, both in terms of evaluation or rehabilitation, several experiments have used VR 7,8. However, few were about emotions. Kim and collaborators 8 used VR as a methodology to assess the social perception of individuals with schizophrenia, arguing that it can be more widely used in the evaluation of strategies for problem solving, assertiveness and, generically, in social skills.
A similar perspective is presented by Wendt 6 , who emphasizes the use of RV in diverse contexts and proved effectiveness in healthcare. For an adequate social functioning, it is necessary to decode and interpret social and emotional clues from other people, a capacity that have deficits 8 in people with schizophrenia.
Traditionally, to elicit and recognize emotions, researchers use stimuli such as pictures, music or sounds. RV-REF program innovates, since it allows to analyze with more detail interactive recognition methodologies, and those are more specific for the evaluation of individuals' competence of emotional recognition. Thus, the RV-REF aims to assess the ability of recognizing the six basic facial emotions happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise.
This program was developed based on published studies and a literature review on emotional recognition, including previous studies made with the widely published methodology of Ekman and Friesen 2. The RV-REF uses three-dimensional avatars within virtual three-dimensional environments, which is an innovative and ecological approach more representative of the individual's real world. The visualization of the avatar was carried out using 3D technology systems where each of the six basic emotions was prepared. To build the avatar and its three-dimensional environment, several tools were used in a sequence of stages.
After obtaining all the necessary data, they were exported through the "Customizer" tool to an "obj" format that allows the three-dimensional model to be worked on a wide range of 3D modelling programs. After completing this stage, another avatar was filmed and integrated within the 3D virtual environment a room of a house. This avatar has a full body and is a guide to the user of RV-REF it serves as cicerone , and also allows the user to have a training with the application and the three-dimensional environment.
Finally, there is another virtual character in the scene, a cat with extremely realistic appearance and expressions, which was introduced to create a familiar scenario of a house Figure 2. The full body human avatar introduces the task to the user and, after the explanation, presents the three-dimensional faces on a screen on the wall of the virtual room, reproducing each of the emotions for a period of 7 seconds. This period comprises elapsed time from neutral emotion, through expressed emotion and returning to neutral Figure 3.
All these actions take place in a three-dimensional environment, using the created stereoscopic effect that allows the user to feel within the environment. This effect is achieved by exporting the files to a high definition video xi format obtained with a Side by Side SbS method. This method is the most basic and was the most useful within various ways of performing the VR application. An application can provide a VR session in three different forms: passive, exploratory or interactive A session of passive VR gives the participant an opportunity to automatically explore the environment without interference.
The pathway and the observation points are explicit and controlled exclusively by software, and the participant has no control, except to exit the session. It was also used passive polarized glasses that allowed the sense of depth, into and out of the screen and a surround sound system, allowing the verbal presentation of the emotions to remember the user the sis emotions under evaluation. Additionally to the emotions recognition registration, it was made an EEG register for the values of power qEEG of alpha activity in the electrodes F3 and F4 Figure 4 in order to check whether the different types of emotion represented by the avatars induced specific electroencephalographic changes upon presentation according to the Davidson's asymmetry model Given the specific characteristics of this methodology, it was intended to develop an innovative program to assess the individual competence of emotion recognition, having a great discriminatory power sensitivity and effectiveness , and promoting adequate assessment of emotional recognition using power qEEG of alpha activity in the electrodes F3 and F4, as an indicator of the occurrence of affective processing 12 during stimuli presentation.
It this study we present the preliminary results of the RV-REF effectiveness of stimuli built under the RV-REF, whose data were collected during the first semester of from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and individuals with no psychiatric pathology. The sample included 12 patients, of both sexes, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia DSM-IV 13 from a private institution of social solidarity in the area of mental health. This convenience sample 14 had as selection criteria, a to be stabilized from the psychopathological point of view for at least one year period, and b to have an effective control of compliance with prescribed psychopharmacological treatment.
All participants were medicated with anti-psychotic drug and the absence of mental deterioration in all patients was checked applying the Mini Mental State Examination The psychosocial functioning of the participants with schizophrenia was characterized by the Personal Social and Performance Scale 16 and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale 16 , revealing moderate values i. It was also used a reference group ii of 12 volunteers with no psychiatric disorder, obtained from an intentional sampling procedure, in order to match some independent variables, including age and gender Table 1.
All participants gave their informed consent to participate in this study and followed the ethical principles recommended by the University of Porto. We used a socio-demographic questionnaire for charactering both groups. Within schizophrenia group additional data was collected regarding the disease, hospitalization, medication and psychosocial functioning.
For both groups was also rated the emotional recognition during the first stage of the Virtual Reality Program for Emotional Recognition for RV-REF , considering the number of correct answers and the number and type of data errors. Data on participants' psychosocial functioning was collected in their own institution, before the 3D emotional recognition task in PING's laboratory. The task of emotional recognition was processed in the laboratory in the following sequence:.
Thus, it was possible to obtain the registration of baseline eyes open EO relevant for comparison with other values F3 and F4. After confirmation that the participant was prepared, the application was initiated after the individual had the polarized glasses on. Stimuli were than presented by another avatar, corresponding to the face of Figures 2 and Figure 3 in a white screen placed in one of the walls of the room virtual environment. The avatar cicerone tells the participant that all stimuli have a countdown timer of 5 seconds before starting the task, so the participant knows exactly when to start.
The display of the stimulus lasts 7 seconds between neutral stimulus, the stimulus elaboration and the return to neutral stimulus. After this display, a list with emotions is shown for 10 seconds, after which the avatar remains a neutral stimulus, slightly axially moving his head for 15 seconds to allow the participant to return to a baseline record. After the identification of the emotion by the participant, the avatar cicerone appears at the bottom right of the screen miniature verbalizing a phrase of positive reinforcement and inviting the participant to identify the next emotion. In this scene, as well as briefly in the overview scene and also in the scene of the instructions for the task, there is a third element that is also considered an avatar: a cat that at the end of the application receives a feast by the cicerone avatar and reacts to the touch.
This element as well as all the preparation of the room has the purpose of creating a familiar environment fostering the participant's involvement. This concept is directly related to the motivation level that connects individuals with a certain activity.
The total time of the session for collecting data was approximately 25 minutes, including the placement and removal of the electrodes. The performance of participants in the task of emotional facial recognition was analyzed by the total number of emotions correctly identified of the global set of stimuli presented, and the electroencephalographic response. Statistical analysis was performed using the PASW-v20, with resource to nonparametric tests due the small size of the two groups of participants. Regarding the emotional recognition task Table 2 no statistical significant differences were found between the two groups.
The results of the qEEG showed evidence of absence of significant changes in the reference group Table 3. However there were changes in alpha frontal activity for the stimuli anger and disgust in the group of people with schizophrenia. Regarding anger, the most significant statistically value occurred during the comparison of the value of F3-EO with the value of F3 to the stimulus 1. This result corresponds to an increase in EEG power for the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere electrode F3 when emotional recognition of the face of anger, which means a decrease in the activation of that region and therefore a preponderance of the contralateral hemisphere for this stimulus.
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This same stimulus was also associated with an increased EEG power for the alpha rhythm in the right hemisphere comparison of the value of F4-EO with the F4-value for stimulus 1 , suggesting a decrease in activation in this region and a preponderance of the contralateral hemisphere. A similar change occurred to the stimulus disgust, having in common the increase in EEG power for the alpha rhythm in the left hemisphere F3-EO value compared to the value of F3 for the stimulus 3 which means a decrease in activation in this region and a preponderance of the contralateral hemisphere for that stimulus.
Finally, regarding the correlation between age and correct responses, no statistically significant results were found for the two groups. Although we didn't find any significant statistical differences between both groups during emotional facial recognition, the performance of people with schizophrenia was inferior. It should be noted that this methodology is not comparable with the existing literature, since three-dimensional stereoscopic stimuli is different from static or posed methods photography and dynamic and spontaneous method 2D movie , which are traditionally used among researchers.
In the recognition of the emotion happiness minor differences were found between groups, and the performance of schizophrenic group was similar to the reference group, result corroborated by some literature The stimuli of fear present the worst performance in both groups, with a massive exchange of stimuli fear for the stimuli surprise. Some authors argue that negative emotional facial recognition is comparatively worse to positive one in patients with schizophrenia The fact that the reference group presents similar results is discussed in the literature, by authors such as Ekman 21 that highlights the difficulty of distinguishing fear from surprise using pictures.
According to Kohler et al. Regarding the results of the EEG, the emotional recognition of anger suggests respectively the dominance of the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere. This result is supported by the research of Demaree et al. The meta-analysis study of Wager et al. Exploring the relationship between variables, it is possible to identify within the reference group, a relationship of weak intensity between the number of correct responses and age of the participant.
Regarding the group with schizophrenia, the relationship is moderate and assumes a negative correlation. None of these results may be attributed to mental deterioration, since it was an exclusion criterion. Despite we haven't any concrete indicator, it might have motivational influences, such as emotional state of the participant, acceptation of the task, or generally the level of involvement during the task. On the other hand, the state of the art related with equipment to work with basic emotions such as happiness, anger, fear, disgust, appears to be quite advanced, especially when it comes to analyze monitors with recorded activity in environments limited to the laboratory However, the analysis of equipment for social emotions such as empathy, envy, admiration has not yet been tried While some of the social emotions could be arguably represented in terms of the dimensions of affection valence, activation, expectation, power and intensity there are pioneering efforts towards a dimensional emotional recognition and continuum that were recently proposed A set of critical issues need to be first addressed, according to Pantic et al.
Another limitation relates to the fact that our group with schizophrenia has been obtained by an intentional sampling method, and cannot be considered representative of the population of patients with schizophrenia in Portugal. The fact that the sample is coming from a group of outpatients attending a socio-occupational forum may be a possible influence, as well as the mean time of residence 58 months in the project and the fact that they were stimulated in this area.
For its characteristics related specifically to virtual reality, RV-REF's approach seems to have potential of a future powerful tool, since it includes characteristics and attributes that may support many situations and research contexts, such as learning and rehabilitation. Virtual reality as a resource seems to be an advantage from a clinical point of view, since the emotional expressions of virtual faces have the possibility of being animated 29 by the therapist.
Thus, they allow training emotional recognition in non-anxious setting and try to minimize the impact of the disease on social interaction and integration. As far as we know, RV-REF is the first attempt to use the VR as a methodology for evaluating the recognition of emotional faces, suggesting that "the limitations on the use of virtual reality in health sciences depend only on the imagination of researchers" Building materials, more specifically the emotional facial stimuli for this purpose, was a difficult task, since although there are several software tools semi-intuitive, they aren't always oriented to these therapeutic aims.
Reproducing human facial emotions is a reliable manner for this type of study and its effectiveness depends on this. We suggest for future work, the use of software that develops better facial emotional stimuli. Additionally, we must consider issues related to a new challenge and a new field of research: the theory of Social Signal Processing SSP that aims to understand and modulate social interactions human and scientific purpose , and develop computers with similar competencies of interaction in human-computer scenarios technological purpose In the context of the SSP, the clues that reveal a person's individual emotions and the emotions of the mass-media include, beyond facial expressions, vocal actions and "explosions", body gestures and postures 28 , which turns more complex the "signs" that must be valorised when designing a methodology ecologically valid for emotional recognition.
Another research is needed to study a full body avatar in a virtual environment in a meaningful social context. Social skills training for schizophrenia: a step by step guide. New York: Guilford;