- 20 million year old primate jaw bones show that lemurs came to Madagascar much later than thought
- Lab-grown organoids hold promise for patient treatments
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A temperature-controlled environment with the ability to supply humidity or nebulized medications can be the difference between life and death in these situations. Sadly for Ozma, a full examination, lung x-rays, and a consultation with a radiologist indicated cancer in various locations throughout her body; and ultimately our beloved aged aye-aye was humanely euthanized. She lived a full, long life here at the Lemur Center and is missed by all who knew her.
We rest assured knowing she was bright-eyed and vigorous up to the end, and that thanks to the ICU kennel, her last hours were as comfortable and pain-free as they could possibly have been. Your support will bring comfort to lemurs at the DLC for years to come. Ozma, pictured here at age Photo by David Haring January Ozma in February When she died this spring at age 34, Ozma was one of the oldest lemurs in the world. Photo by David Haring. Thank You, Donors! New ICU kennel purchased and installed. The wall was thickened and the mucosa appeared edematous with small cystic structures.
Histologically the bladder wall was moderately hyperplastic with multifocally eroded urothelium. There was evidence of submucosal edema, eosinophilic and lymphocytic aggregates, neovascularization, and congestion. These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of idiopathic hemorrhagic cystitis. In our colony, hemorrhagic cystitis is often observed during potentially stressful events, such as quarantine or times of intense research protocol activity. Our average age at presentation is 8.
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Clinical presentation includes intermittent gross hematuria with negative culture and an average bladder wall thickness of 0. Similar disease has been reported in both human and feline medicine, but there is minimal published information in the nonhuman primate literature. An additional 2 SHIV-infected rhesus macaques were inoculated intradermally as positive controls. PCR and dark field microscopy were used to detect T. Treponemal assays Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay, TP-PA; syphilis screening tests as well as nontreponemal methods evaluated serum antibodies. Rectal lesions were first observed as early as day 3 postchallenge and serum antibodies were TP-PA positive wk after inoculation.
Antibody levels peaked at , by week 14 before reaching a plateau. Syphilis assays detected antibodies as early as week 5. RPR has been nonreactive. We have successfully developed the first NHP model for rectal syphilis. This new model is being further refined and has applications for use in the context of other STI coinfections and antiretroviral drug efficacy studies. Coccidioides spp. Coccidioidomycosis has been documented in a wide variety of mammalian species, as well as some reptiles.
Among nonhuman primates, spontaneous coccidioidomycosis has been documented in rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta , bonnet macaques M. From October to December , coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 65 pig-tailed macaques M. The most common clinical signs were weight loss and diarrhea. Other common clinical findings include respiratory signs such as coughing, hypothermia, the presence of cutaneous draining tracts, and acute decompensation with spontaneous death.
Thirty-five of these macaques were evaluated for Coccidioides spp. Fungal spherules were identified in 5 of these macaques on cytology. Culture of 1 animal identified Coccidiodes immitus. The most frequent gross pathologic findings include hilar lymphadenopathy with pyogranulomas, pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and frequent dissemination. The most frequent histopathologic findings include pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis and pneumonia with fungal organisms, and frequent dissemination to distant organs.
Additional common, potential secondary, findings include gastroenterocolitis and amyloidosis. The emergence of Coccidioides spp. Favorable environmental conditions allow the fungi to proliferate, and increase airborne exposure of the resident macaque population. The veterinary staff have implemented multiple management changes in response to these infections, including surveillance with serologic testing, moving animals to indoor HEPA-filtered air housing, and the use of fluconazol- impregnated feed.
A 3-y-old, captive-reared, female, Indian-origin rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented for preassignment physical examination. The patient had a history of mild splenomegaly and lymphadenomegaly. During physical examination, a firm, immobile subcutaneous mass was palpated in the left inguinal region. Uterine bimanual palpation revealed a degree leftward turn between the cervix and the uterine body. An abdominal and inguinal ultrasound exam was performed.
The uterine body was normal in size and echogenicity with a clearly defined hyperechoic endometrial stripe. However, the organ was displaced from its normal location. The uterus was herniated through the inguinal ring and corresponded to the externally palpable mass. To confirm the diagnosis and correct the hernia, the patient was scheduled for a herniorrhaphy. A linear incision, parallel to the long axis of the leg, was made over the herniated tissue in the left inguinal region, with subsequent dissection to and penetration of the vaginalis.
All reproductive organs including the uterus, ovaries, oviducts, and fimbria, along with a small portion of the omentum, were present in the hernia sac. The organs and omentum were manually reduced into the pelvic cavity. The thickened left round ligament was partially transected to allow tissue replacement. A single, nonabsorbable cruciate suture was used to partially reduce the internal inguinal ring. This case represents the first report of indirect inguinal herniation of the uterus and adnexa in a rhesus macaque. While uterine inguinal herniation is a rare condition most often seen in infant humans, it can present in subadult macaques without any associated clinical signs and minimal observable abnormalities.
As such, uterine inguinal herniation should be considered as a differential diagnosis in animals with unilateral subcutaneous enlargements in the inguinal region.follow url
20 million year old primate jaw bones show that lemurs came to Madagascar much later than thought
Spontaneous cardiopulmonary arrest is a rare but serious potential problem in nonhuman primate research colonies. Although primates have been used albeit infrequently as models of resuscitative therapy following induced arrest, occasionally veterinary personnel are required to respond to an unexpected spontaneous cardiopulmonary arrest. Nonhuman primates are often sedated for routine procedures, such as physical examinations, and therefore have a higher risk for adverse events than other species that do not have to be sedated for handling.
We have devised a coherent, straightforward flow chart detailing the sequence of events that should take place following an arrest, based on recommendations from the Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society RECOVER documents and human pediatric guidelines. The flow chart is included in all rooms that have the greatest potential for a spontaneous cardiopulmonary arrest, such as areas in which primates are sedated for physical exams, surgical preparation rooms, and operating rooms. We have also developed a standard operating procedure for training research and veterinary staff to respond immediately and efficiently following a cardiac arrest, as well as charts with relevant emergency drug dosages for old world as well as new world species.
The goal of this management initiative is to decrease morbidity and mortality of primates undergoing sedation or anesthesia for routine procedures by implementing protocols to achieve a fast and efficient response in the event of a cardiopulmonary arrest. We were unable to intubate, due to severe decreased range of motion of the temporomandibular joint TMJ. There was no indication of illness prior to surgery stable weight. Radiographs and blood work were unremarkable. Degenerative joint disease is not uncommon in captive rhesus macaques, however this was an odd presentation. The animal was treated with steroids and supportive care.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA , can cause both superficial and invasive disease and is responsible for millions of serious and sometimes fatal human infections worldwide. Currently, alternative antimicrobial therapies need to be developed due to the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of fewer new antibiotics. Lytic enzymes obtained from bacteriophages lysins and other bacteria bacteriocins are being studied as the source of potential novel antimicrobial agents. These enzymes can degrade the bacterial cell wall of their target species resulting in hypotonic lysis of the bacterium.
Currently, a colony of nonhuman primates NHPs, Macaca mulatta with cranial implants tested positive for cutaneous MRSA despite standard decontamination protocols and antibiotic treatment. Besides concerns for animal health and zoonotic transmission, these animals could serve as MRSA infection models to test these lytic enzymes as a novel treatment therapy.
In brief, both animals and their environment underwent a 3 d decontamination protocol to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. Culture swabs were collected from their cranial implant margins during the decontamination, treatment, and posttreatment periods.
Unfortunately, 6 d after the second treatment the CFU count of the treatment animal increased and was similar to the control animal. Thus, we concluded that lysostaphin treatment alone was effective at reducing MRSA shortterm but not longterm. Results from these studies should prove useful in the development of novel treatment strategies for MRSA cutaneous infections. An 8-y-old, 5 kg female Indian-origin rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented for tachycardia on routine physical exam. Heart rate exceeded beats per minute bpm when the patient was seated upright under ketamine sedation; when the monkey was placed in lateral recumbency, her heart rate was bpm.
ECG revealed a sinus tachycardia with moderately elongated QRS complexes suggestive of mild left ventricular hypertrophy. Radiographs demonstrated a normal cardiac silhouette and cardiac dimensions. A human cardiologist was consulted, and echocardiography revealed no abnormalities in cardiac size, wall thickness, great vessels, or valve leaflets. Noninvasive blood pressure readings demonstrated a prolonged decrease in systolic blood pressure of mm Hg after the patient was moved from a recumbent to a seated position.
A tentative diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome POTS was made based on postural tachycardia accompanied by prolonged orthostatic hypotension under sedation. Due to the risk of syncope as a sequela of this condition, which precluded long-term assignment to a social group or research protocol, euthanasia was elected. POTS is a dysautonomic condition most commonly diagnosed in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by tachycardia with or without hypotension, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, syncope, or discomfort. At necropsy, typhlocolitis was the prominent gross lesion.
Generalized lymphangiectasia, epicardial and intestinal submucosal edema, villous blunting, and gastrointestinal lymphoid proliferation were apparent on histopathological examination. Although difficult to definitively diagnose, dysautonomic conditions such as POTS should be included as a differential when evaluating NHPs with cardiac abnormalities in the absence of apparent antemortem pathologic findings. A 2-y-old, 2. The monkey was nonweightbearing on the ipsilateral hindlimb in the social group and toe-touch lame on cageside evaluation. A 5 cm area of soft-tissue swelling encompassing the right stifle was apparent on intake evaluation.
His lameness clinically improved with administration of meloxicam, tramadol, and cephalexin. However, a bilateral, 1 cm bony prominence distal to the stifles remained on recheck examination 7 d after presentation, and the monkey remained aversive to pressure applied at the right tibial tuberosity. Radiographs demonstrated increased bone density at the level of the tibial tuberosity with increased soft tissue radiopacity on the dorsal aspect of the tibia.
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the right and left stifle joints demonstrated apparently normal menisci with mild periosteal elevation at the right tibial tuberosity. A diagnosis of apophysitis of the tibial tuberosity Osgood-Schlatter disease was made, and the monkey was given cage rest and meloxicam for an additional 7 d prior to release to the social group.
On recheck exam 6 wk posttreatment, he demonstrated a normal gait with no muscular atrophy. Residual radiographic changes included bony proliferation at the tibial tuberosity with increased soft tissue radiopacity overlying the area. Osgood-Schlatter disease results from an overuse injury to the patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity in fast-growing adolescents, resulting in traction apophysitis at the tendon insertion site. Clinical signs in humans include knee pain centered over the tibial tuberosity that is exacerbated by athletic activity. It is generally self-limiting, though symptoms may wax and wane until bone maturation is complete.
Treatment generally includes analgesia and physical therapy. This condition has not previously been reported in rhesus macaques; awareness of this syndrome may assist in more rapid treatment and recovery of affected individuals. In this study, a new commercially available microsampler was optimized for routine serosurveillance of nonhuman primate colonies.
The tips of the blood specimen collection device consist of inert, porous, hydrophilic material that quickly wicks up a consistent volume 20ul of whole blood. The device has several advantages versus serum as they are quantitative, have improved reproducibility, and reduce animal stress due to easier sample collection. Qualification studies were conducted comparing analytical and diagnostic performance of paired microsampler and serum from rhesus and cynomolgus macaques.
Matching sera samples 8 per species from naturally and experimentally infected macaques known positives as well as from SPF macaques known negatives were tested. Study samples were tested by macaque MFIA assessment panel with 13 different assays. Average scores analytical performance , titration curves, and limit of detection using polyspecific and monospecific sera were similar for microsample and serum. Diagnostic reproducibility and ruggedness was tested by 2 techs performing MFIA assays on 3 different d 6 runs total. Diagnostic sensitivity of microsample and serum was found to be Qualification data demonstrates that the microsample is an excellent alternative to submitting serum for routine NHP serology testing.
Microsample eliminates the steps, reagents, material, and equipment needed to prepare and ship serum samples thus saving labor and time in collection and shipping of test samples. In addition, use of a microsampler reduces overall stress in NHPs during collection of blood for routine serosurveillance or from study animals and fits in with the 3Rs animal welfare principle. A y-old intact male rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented for significant chronic weight loss and purulent discharge along the margins and within the recording chamber of his acrylic cranial implant.
Relevant medical history includes a traumatic fracture and repair of the cranial implant acrylic 2 y prior and a craniotomy 2 mo prior to the current presentation. During the craniotomy, purulent discharge was noted, cultured, and treated with antibiotics. Serial complete blood count and serum biochemistry panels were performed due to continuation of clinical signs and revealed a chronic leukopenia and anemia. Multiple anaerobic and aerobic bacterial cultures and sensitivities were obtained from recording chambers and implant margins, and infections were treated with various antibiotics regimens including metronidazole, trimethoprim sulfa, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, and ceftriaxone.
The patient failed to gain weight despite antimicrobial treatment. A computed tomography CT scan of the skull revealed osteolysis of the skull under the acrylic implant. The patient underwent a surgical procedure to remove the implant, which was completed in sections using a bone saw and dremmel. Implant removal revealed significant caseous debris, purulent discharge, and granulation tissue over the skull and implant margins.
The entire implant was removed due to significant infection and osteolysis over the rostral skull exposing dura. Bacterial culture and sensitivity of the skull surface indicated Enterococcus species growth. The tissue was lavaged copiously with vancomycin-polymixin B flush to remove remaining infectious debris. Calcium sulfate beads impregnated with vancomycin were placed around the bone defect before closing the incision.
Postoperatively, the patient was administered enrofloxacin and trimethoprim sulfa for 4 wk. Bloodwork was repeated 12 wk postoperatively and revealed a white blood cell count and hematocrit within normal reference ranges. An 8-y-old female rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented for a swelling on the left lower limb distal to the inguinal region directly above the femoral artery.
Physical and ultrasound examination revealed a probable combination of an arteriovenous fistula and pseudoaneurysm. After review of possible treatment options described here, it was determined that open surgical repair was the best course of action. The pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula were surgically resected and the animal recovered without complication. A 6-y-old male squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus presented with reduced activity 8 d after an IACUC-approved chamber implant surgery.
Decreased activity persisted for 2 d despite pain management meloxicam, 0. No clinically abnormalities were noted on CBC or blood chemistry. Under isoflurane gas anesthesia, the external portions of the head cap device were cleaned with dilute chlorhexidine diacetate solution 0. A sample of fluid from the head cap recording chamber was collected for culture and sensitivity.
The chamber was flushed with dilute betadine and sterile saline and ophthalmic triple antibiotic ointment was applied prior to closing the chamber with a sterilized cap. Activity and behavior returned to and remained normal following the first head cap cleaning. Results from the fluid sample revealed multidrug resistant Pseudomonas spp. A second fluid culture and sensitivity obtained 11 d after the first culture revealed many nonhemolytic Streptococcus spp but no Pseudomonas spp.
These Streptococcus spp were found to be resistant to all drugs tested except for chloramphenicol. After 3 wk, the chamber was confirmed free of Streptococcus spp, and cleaning was reduced to 3 times per week.
Lab-grown organoids hold promise for patient treatments
Consecutive negative cultures resulted in reduction to twice weekly head cap cleanings and removal of hydrogen peroxide from the cleaning protocol. After 1 mo of twice weekly head cap cleanings, cytology confirmed the presence of many yeast but no bacteria within the recording chamber. After approximately 6 mo of consistent head cap disinfection, the squirrel monkey reached experimental endpoint and was euthanized.
Histopathology of meninges revealed evidence of chronic inflammation. This case illustrates the need to tailor therapy to changing environments within a recording chamber and how with meticulous care even a chronically infected chamber can be maintained with no adverse effects to the animal and the science.
Excision biopsy of the mass was sent for cytology and histopatology evaluations. Cytology revealed some large intracytoplasmic dark brown to black material suspected to be melanin. Histology revealed large polygonal dermal cells that were tightly packed in some areas and loosely arranged in others.
These cells had large oval nuclei, granular chromatin, small nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm containing numerous dark brown granules melanin. No mitotic figures were seen. A blood vessel in the subcutis had tumor cells in its walls. The final diagnosis was malignant melanoma. A 2-mo follow up examination revealed complete healing of the skin and no recurring melanoma. Malignant melanoma is rarely reported in nonhuman primates and is seen in other animal species including rabbits, dogs, cats, and horses.
Etiology in humans may be based on UV ray exposure in light skinned people but can occur in anyone and if caught early may be surgically excised with a good prognosis. If caught late, the prognosis is poor with extensive metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, other organs, and bone. Current treatments also include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy. In children at risk for HD, body measurement growth abnormalities exhibited include a reduction in body mass index BMI , weight, height, and head circumference. We developed a transgenic HD monkey model first reported in This study discusses the progression of body measurements in our first generation HD monkeys from infancy through adulthood.
The animals were evaluated monthly from 0 to 72 mo of age and every 3 mo from 72 mo of age onward. Compared to wild-type control monkeys, HD monkeys displayed increased BMI, head circumference, and sagittal head measurements. The physiological comparability between nonhuman primates and humans underscores the translational utility of our HD monkeys to evaluate growth and development patterns associated with HD. An y-old Indian-origin, female rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented with severe fight wounds consisting of diffuse crush injuries.
Ultrasound examination revealed a late-term nonviable fetus with a biparietal diameter of 43 mm, indicating a d gestational age fetus. A complete blood count, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were consistent with muscle injury and revealed a urinary tract infection with no evidence of secondary renal compromise.
Aggressive fluid therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics were initiated. Following stabilization, a coagulation panel revealed decreased prothrombin PT and partial thromboplastin time aPTT. This is 3 times higher than published reference ranges and significantly higher than inhouse controls submitted for comparison age-matched, trauma- matched, and infection-matched.
Cesarean section was elected for removal of the nonviable fetus. Necropsy of the fetus and placenta revealed a moderate, fibrinous subacute, multifocal-to-coalescing placentitis that was phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin PTAH stain positive, indicative of fibrin deposition in the placenta in the zone demarcating normal from necrotic tissue. Within this region of distinction, focal areas of fibrin clots consistent with an ischemic event were apparent. At this time it is unknown what distribution of thrombi are necessary to induce fetal death in humans or macaques though an association has been established in human literature.
In this case, elevated D-Dimers are indicative of a hypercoagulable state that may have resulted in microthrombi in the placenta and subsequent late term fetal loss. In humans living in developed countries, thromboembolic complications are the leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality. Pregnant women exhibit a progressive increase in plasma D-Dimer levels throughout the course of gestation.
This increase corresponds in magnitude to the risk of developing deep vein thromboses during pregnancy. We are currently in the process of establishing whether a similar increase occurs during pregnancy in rhesus macaques, and whether elevated D-dimer levels are associated with an increased risk of late term fetal loss for individual female macaques in our colony. A y-old female sooty mangabey SM, Cercocebus atys presented for weight loss, lethargy, and intermittent lateral recumbency. Multiple blood samples and lymph node biopsies were collected throughout her lifespan.
Physical exam revealed a necrotic and ulcerated lesion in the mouth and marked submandibular lymphadenopathy. Thoracic radiographs revealed multiple radiopaque, variably sized nodules throughout right and left lung lobes. Due to poor prognosis, the animal was euthanized, and submitted for a necropsy examination.
Pathologic findings revealed a B-cell lymphoma affecting multiple lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and lungs. Malignant lymphoma has been described for decades in a variety of nonhuman primates NHPs. However, many of the original descriptions of lymphoma in these species were made prior to the discovery of oncogenic viruses. SIV infections are nonpathogenic in their natural simian hosts, including SMs, and multiple studies have reported that SIV-infected SMs remain disease free for up to 24 y despite relatively high levels of viral replication.
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- Antitumor and Angiostatic Activities of the Antimicrobial Peptide Dermaseptin B2.
The lesions in this animal did not reveal presence of giant cells as seen in classic AIDS cases. Therefore, possibility of spontaneous development of B-cell lymphoma is speculated in this case. A 3 y-old male cynomolgous macaque Macaca fascicularis of Cambodian origin presented for necropsy after being found dead in his cage. The animal had been released from internal quarantine 2 d prior, had not yet been assigned to study, and had appeared clinically normal when observed that morning.
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On gross examination, the animal appeared in good body condition with normal hydration and fat stores. No significant lesions were observed until the calvarium was opened to reveal moderate quantities of yellow-green purulent discharge originating from the cerebellum. Swabs of the material were taken for bacterial culture and sensitivity and a standard tissue set, including the brain, was collected for histologic examination. Histologic examination revealed a focal abscess within the cerebellum that was composed of necrotic debris and inflammatory infiltrates, accompanied by occasional clusters of gram-negative rods.
Additionally, there was multifocal, marked expansion of the cerebellar and cerebral meninges with large numbers of neutrophils and lesser numbers of macrophages. Multifocal aggregates of lymphocytes and macrophages surrounded meningeal vessels as well as vessels within the pia mater in sections of the spinal cord. Neutrophils were also noted to infiltrate the pia mater and follow along nerve roots. The remaining organs examined were overall histologically unremarkable. Culture and sensitivity testing conducted in conjunction with PCR revealed a preliminary diagnosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei ; this was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining of brain and spinal cord and additional PCR testing.
While B. Therefore, animals imported from these regions may unintentionally introduce the bacterium into the laboratory environment, putting both other animals and humans at risk, as was demonstrated in this case.
Recent historical perspective
Maximizing animal welfare by minimizing drug-related side effects is a major consideration when choosing pharmaceutical agents for chemical restraint in nonhuman primates. This is further supported by the principle of refinement which dictates that efforts should be made to reduce animal distress and discomfort during scientific procedures. A novel drug that may promote these ideologies is the combination of butorphanol 2. The potential benefits of BAM include anesthesia and analgesia in a single, low-volume injection with agent reversibility.
Physiologic parameters including heart rate, rectal temperature, arterial hemoglobin saturation SpO2 , and mean arterial pressure MAP , as well as anesthetic quality assessments pedal reflex, spontaneous movement , were recorded every 5 min. Induction was rapid and smooth for all animals 4. Animals in the low-dose group had higher heart rates and MAP compared to the high-dose group. Based on the results of this study, the use of BAM for the immobilization of rhesus macaques may have limited utility and did not result in the enhancement of animal welfare.
During routine physical exam, a y-old outdoor-housed, female Rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta presented with a superficial cutaneous mass in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen and considerable weight loss. The mass was surgically excised, fixed in buffered formalin, and submitted for histopathological evaluation. Hematological results were within normal range. Abdominal and thoracic radiographs revealed areas of increased radio density with a diffuse distribution.
The animal was euthanized due to continued weight loss and poor prognosis. At necropsy, hepatomegaly and multifocal hepatic raised white nodules were observed. The lungs had similar multifocal, variable sized, white, raised nodules scattered throughout. Histologically, the mass was well demarcated but nonencapsulated and composed of cuboidal cells arranged in a glandular pattern with markedly desmoplastic stroma. The neoplastic cells had round-to-oval nuclei, a centrally located nucleolus, moderate cytoplasm, and distinct cell borders.
The final diagnosis was apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. Apocrine gland adenocarcinoma, a subtype of sweat gland carcinoma, are rare with only a few cases found in dogs, cats, and humans. Many of these carcinomas are indolent, slowly developing, locally aggressive, but rarely metastatic.
The potential of metastasis is considered in this case, given the findings in the liver and lungs. The underlying hypothesis was the program of care during quarantine produced healthy animals as noted by few animals losing weight, that minimal significant disease occurred, and the husbandry practices caused no harm. Three criteria were identified as indicators of animal health, including body weight, presence of skin disease, and diarrhea. The medical records from 2, animals were examined.
The results of the data collected demonstrate 1, The prevalence of diarrhea was 2 0. All 25 groups cleared quarantine. Therefore the current standard of care does not cause harm and that adapted animals are released from quarantine. We hypothesized body-weight growth following the 2 standard deviations below predicted mean of healthy infants would act as a cut-off criteria for screening infant rhesus macaques for diarrhea-associated growth stunting. We used healthy outdoor-housed infant rhesus macaque weight records from through to develop a multiple linear model of predicted body weight-for-age with coefficients for housing type and sex.
A second set of all outdoor-housed infant rhesus macaque weight records from through were split into 4 quartiles by age d, d, d, and d and compared to the cut-off criteria of 2 standard deviations below the predicted mean from the body weight model. Weight records in quartiles corresponding to infants aged d contained a significantly greater proportion of diarrhea weight records than healthy weight records.
Additionally, the negative and positive predictive values cut-offs for infants housed in medium-size shelter breeding groups outperformed cut-offs for infants housed in large-size corral breeding groups. Enteric disease results in approximately 2 million deaths annually, including , children under the age of 5. Repeated or unresolved enteric infections may damage the intestinal tract, resulting in a condition commonly referred to as environmental enteropathy EE or environmental enteric disease EED.
This condition of poor nutrient absorption is broadly defined by the observation of histologic abnormalities in the small intestine in which villus architecture changes from the normally long finger-like villi to shorter, blunted and fused villi with decreased surface area for efficient nutrient uptake. We hypothesized that these infants naturally develop a spectrum of symptoms, from inapparent environmental enteric disease to chronic enteric inflammation similar to human EED. A retrospective analysis of a large-scale cohort of infant rhesus confirmed an association between diarrhea and growth stunting in outdoor-housed animals at ONPRC, and retrospective analysis at both ONPRC and CNPRC demonstrated that outdoor-housed infants have histologic changes in the small intestine similar to human EED patients.
From this pilot data, we initiated a multicenter longitudinal cohort study, following 80 animals from 1 to 8 mo of age. The enteric pathogen burden differed between the 2 centers, subclinical intestinal inflammation was widely distributed, and growth stunting correlated with severity of inflammation and enteric pathogen burden. Socially housed rhesus macaque infants appear to closely model human EED. Screening therapeutic interventions may enhance human drug development and contribute to improved health of rhesus macaque breeding colonies.
Critical congenital valvular heart disease in newborn infants remains one of the most difficult and challenging problems to treat. Prosthetic valves are unavailable in small sizes, nor can they grow with the child. Where feasible, patients will require multiple operations over the course of their childhood as they grow. One area that may hold promise is the use of extracellular matrix scaffolds for the repair of congenital heart defects. Porcine extracellular matrix is a material currently available and is approved by the FDA for intracardiac and extracardiac use, which has shown to promote cardiovascular tissue deposition and remodeling.
Moreover, it may also support somatic growth. Different animal models have been used to perform mitral valve replacement, particularly ovine and porcine models. However, particularly for valves, these models do not mimic the human response. Pannus overgrowth and thrombus complications are common in ovine and porcine models, respectively.
On the other hand, the baboon model Papio hamadryas is anatomically and physiologically closer to human and may be ideal for scaffold valve implantation in the mitral position during cardiopulmonary bypass and subsequent evaluation. Surgical approaches involved a right thoracotomy, with aortic and bicaval cannulation, during arrest of the heart accomplished with a single dose of custodiolcardioplegia. Mitral valve access was via Sondergards groove and a left atriotomy. Initial hemodynamic of the valve showed outstanding results with no signs of stenosis or obstruction, and minimal, if any regurgitation.
While these early results are clearly encouraging, the valve was only tested in the short term. Further studies with long-term follow up will provide additional information on scaffold valve growth potential. In the state of Florida, WNV was first identified in , and human cases have been reported as of January This is likely due to the consistently warm, humid, and rainy Florida climate—ideal for mosquitoes Culex spp. We investigated the seroprevalence of 3 outdoor-housed nonhuman primate species at The Mannheimer Foundation, Inc.
A total of subjects, at least 4 y of age, were sampled between our 2 facilities, including rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques, and hamadryas baboons. The seroprevalence of antibodies against WNV detected in these nonhuman primate colonies highlights the importance of vector-borne disease transmission and surveillance in research animals housed in climates where these vectors thrive. A y-old, 10 kg female rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta used in cognitive neuroscience research sedated for routine suture removal was bright and alert, and without clinical signs of illness.
On physical examination, a large, firm, palpable mass was present in the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed a large soft tissue-opaque mass in the caudal abdomen, associated with the uterus. Endometriosis in rhesus macaques is commonly treated by once monthly IM methylprednisolone acetate injections. However, as this particular animal was no longer needed by the investigator for neuroscience research, she was eligible to be transferred to a sanctuary for retired research primates, so an alternative, long-lasting treatment option was explored.
In humans, endometriosis can be successfully treated with the use of progesterone analog contraceptives, including subcutaneous progestin implants. In this case, the female macaque was treated a MGA implant that was placed subcutaneously between the scapulae. These results, along with regression and involution of the cyst monitored by serial ultrasonography, suggest that the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is being maintained by the implant. This report demonstrates the utility of a subcutaneous MGA implant for the treatment of endometriosis in a laboratory rhesus macaque.
Colorectal carcinomas are common causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in humans in North America. Most begin as benign polypoid adenomas. Polyps are discrete masses of epithelial tissue that protrude into the large intestinal lumen. Although common in humans, pedunculated polyps have not been described in cynomolgus macaques Macaca fascicularis , and only 10 cases have been reported in rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta.