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  1. Full text of "Annali d'italianistica"
  3. April 16, 2018

In the mission was completely funded by Mr Catrambone and his wife Regina. We have shown that operations like this can be done and can be done with a certain level of success. Although wary of commenting further as he did not want to scare potential donors away Mr Catrambone said one possibility being explored would be partnering up with other major humanitarian entities. In fact Mr Catrambone said he had aspirations for the mission to branch out and see more newer boats carrying out wider operations.

We need to give people dignity when they reach our backyard. The Migrant Offshore Aid Station operated for the first time last summer using a 40metre ship equipped with two camcopters and a professional crew including rescuers seafarers paramedics and humanitarians. Our focus is on saving lives and on giving survivors the dignity they deserve. We provide even the most basic forms of aid like blankets and baby formulas to the survivors of these terrible wrecks Christopher Catrambone said.

One boy an elevenyearold was sent to face the journey alone because his parents could only pay a oneperson passage. Among several difficult rescue operations Catrambone said on one occasion there had been people — crew excluded — on board the Phoenix. She called for a successful holistic approach to migration where any approach must start with saving lives. Inaction risks further tragedies in our seas. EU States cannot shirk their responsibility just because they are not geographically in the Mediterranean she said.

Zammit Dimech recently appointed spokesperson on migration reiterated the call for a European solution: Too many people have lost their lives crossing the Mediterranean. This is a European issue that requires a European solution. As a privatelyrun mission MOAS needs to raise funds to continue its operation. Although it is currently not in operation the team is working hard to raise funds. Our focus is on raising funds and finding the necessary partners to be able to ensure sustainable operation this year.

Men had residence documents issued by Italian authorities and availed themselves of their right to free movement A police raid early this morning at 6: 30am led to the arrest of eight irregular migrants who were living out in the open in Hal Far using the huge asbestos pipes that have been for years out in the nearby fields as their shelter. Police said that the men had official documents issued by the Italian authorities and had travelled to Malta via catamaran from Sicily. Because they were living close to the Hal Far open centre it is understood that the migrants living at the centre may have also provided them with food.

Five men were of Ghanian nationality and two others were Togo nationals. Another man was a Spanish national. Their documents were verified by the police. They are currently in police custody. The recent announcement that this year the Maltese government will be launching a national policy on the integration of migrants is very welcome. The commemoration aims at increasing awareness of the phenomenon of migration as contemporary movements represent the largest movement of individuals if not of peoples in history.

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Indeed in our time one person in seven is an international million or internal migrant million. Not all of them escape lifethreatening conditions but many of them do. Having faced ever new and challenging situations during its millennial history the Church knows that migration poses fresh challenges not only on account of its magnitude but also for the various social economic political cultural and religious problems it gives rise to.

This role includes the duty to make efforts to ensure that the dignity and the centrality of the human person is protected to actively promote more creative and concrete forms of solidarity acceptance and protection and to encourage effective dialogue between peoples.

With this in mind the Church continues to strive to understand the causes of migration to work towards overcoming its negative effects and to maximise its positive influence on the communities of origin transit and destination. As the surge in the number of recent conflicts has produced new waves of asylum seekers and displaced people there is an increasingly urgent need to intensify the efforts to promote a gradual reduction in the root causes of migration that cause entire peoples to abandon their homelands.

States and their people cannot risk becoming indifferent to human tragedy Forced migration due to persecution conflicts terrorism and other tragedies takes the form of fleeing for salvation often involving dangerous or lifethreatening journeys which may nonetheless offer the only option for reaching a country where protection and the possibility of a dignified life can be found. The Church is therefore appealing to States to respond effectively to the recognition of the need for protection to restore human dignity to those who need it and to treat the causes of forced mobility by cooperating in a spirit of international solidarity.

In the social doctrine of the Church the theme of human dignity derives from the recognition that all human beings are created in the image and likeness of God. Religious ethnic social or cultural variables citizenship or lack of it do not change this fact that gives any individual an inherent and immeasurable worth and dignity to the point that each human life is considered sacred. Emigration when it is a response to the need of survival from extreme poverty and hunger from threats to life from generalised violence and similar conditions cannot be prevented.

States and their people therefore cannot risk becoming used to or indifferent to such human tragedy. The principle of human dignity implies that the vital needs of the person have to be assured. Pope Francis said that migrants and refugees are not pawns on the chessboard of humanity.

They are children women and men who leave or who are forced to leave their homes for various reasons who share a legitimate desire for knowing and having but above all for being more. In this context the recent announcement that this year the Maltese government will be launching a national policy on the integration of migrants is very welcome. Such a policy should prove to be another important step in the solidarity response our small nation has endeavoured to design build and sustain over the past years to provide international protection to those who need it and reach our shores.

Another 20 reported dead and thrown at sea during crossing. The migrant was among a group of eight who were transferred to Mater Dei Hospital. Three of the migrants were in critical condition. A spokesperson for the health ministry has also confirmed that ebola tests carried on three migrants at Mater Dei Hospital came back negative. The third result was confirmed late in the evening. A dinghy carrying 87 subSaharan migrants arrived at Haywharf this morning at around 10am after it was intercepted by the Armed Forces of Malta off the coast of Malta.

The migrants who are claiming to be from Burkina Faso Mali the Ivory Coast and Guinea are all male and are believed to have departed from Libya before being intercepted off the east coast of Malta. According to information relayed by the migrants the dinghy had originally been carrying around people on board but 20 are feared dead. In a tweet Prime Minister Joseph Muscat said that the dead are said to have been thrown at sea during the crossing. Addressing a press briefing this afternoon at Mater Dei Hospital Charles Mallia Azzopardi who heads the Ebola Response Unit explained that even though the risk of Ebola is extremely low all precautionary measures were taken.

Azzopardi explained that 84 migrants have been quarantined at Hal Far detention centre to be treated for Ebola. An additional three migrants have been hospitalised where they were certified to be suffering in critical condition due to severe dehydration. They were also tested for Ebola. Mallia Azzopardi explained that Ebola screening was carried out after one of the migrants declared that he is from Guinea. In addition he explained that authorities could ignore claims by the migrants that 20 others had perished.

The migrants who arrived this morning at around 10am after spending an unspecified amount of days crossing the Mediterranean Sea appeared weak as they disembarked off the AFM vessel. Despite arriving at Haywharf at around 10am safety precuatons meant that the disembarkation had to wait until 30pm. For the first time since the deadly Ebola outbreak across West and Central Africa the migrants were screened by health authorities. AFM personnel wore full Ebola protective suits while a decontamination tent was also set up. A spokeswoman for the home affairs ministry underlined that these were only precautionary measures and that there was no cause for alarm.

Members of the media are also being kept away from the ordinary safety distance as a precaution. Migrants were provided with blankets and water while on board the AFM vessel. An AFM vessel has towed the migrants' dinghy to shore while additional vessels have been deployed in search for any bodies in the area. AFM personnel remained in constant contact with the Italian military and the health authorities on safe distance procedure.

The AFM had been monitoring the situation for the past hours and after ongoing communication with their Italian counterparts it was decided that due to their safety the migrants should be brought to Malta. A migrant has died at Mater Dei Hospital hours after being rescued this morning. The man was in a group of 87 migrants picked up from a drifting dinghy some miles off Mellieha.

Three were found to be in critical condition having swallowed sea water after suffering dehydration. They were rushed to hospital where one of them passed away. Another five migrants were also taken to hospital for urgent medical care. The migrants all men said their group had originally consisted of people but 20 perished during the voyage. No bodies were found on the boat or at sea. They said they started their trip from Libya and had been at sea for days.

After rescue by a patrol boat the migrants were taken to Haywharf the AFM maritime base where they were received by AFM personnel in biohazard suits because of the risk of Ebola. Disembarkation started about three hours after the patrol boat arrived with officials having awaited the arrival from Mater Dei Hospital of a decontamination tent which was set up purely as a precaution. A Health Ministry spokeswoman insisted that there was no cause for alarm.

The migrants have now been moved to Safi Detention Centre where they are being held in quarantine monitored by the AFM and public health authorities. Those in hospital were immediately tested for Ebola. The tests were negative. Ebola has a threeweek incubation period and the risk that the migrants carry the disease is low especially considering that the migrants spent time in Libya before heading over to Malta the spokeswoman said. The rescue was the first in several months and came at a time when the number of migrants in detention had slipped to a low of just At one time there were over Concern on petrol prices increases by 10 points Despite a lull in migrant arrivals before last Thursday concern on immigration has risen by four points since November.

Despite decreasing numbers immigration has overtaken traffic which was the top concern in the November survey. Respondents were asked to mention the two main problems facing the country. The biggest percentage point increase over November was registered by respondents mentioning petrol prices as a major concern.

Concern on petrol prices is just two points lower than that on the cost of living. Despite the absence of any boat arrivals in the past months concern on migration has gone up by eight points since March The survey shows that concern on traffic has gone down from the record levels registered in November but remains substantially higher than in March.

This suggests that most Maltese do not consider unemployment much of a problem reflecting statistics showing an increase in employment figures. Concern on the environment mostly on development issues has remained stable at five points slightly higher than in November but three points lower than in March Labour voters are more likely to be concerned about traffic and immigration but are less likely as PN voters to be concerned with petrol prices. Immigration tops the concern list of both PN and PL voters. Concern on traffic is also six points higher among PL voters. One reason for this could be that PL voters are less likely to mention problems which can be blamed on the government of the day.

Problems like roads traffic and to a certain extent migration are not directly attributable to the present government. But the percentage rises to 18 points among PN voters. This suggests that PN voters are more susceptible to PN propaganda on this issue. Respondents with a post secondary level of education those who continued studies after secondary level but did not go to university are the most likely to be concerned by rising petrol prices. Disgruntlement among this category may be bad news for the government.

For it was within this category that a major shift towards the PL occurred before the general election. Methodology respondents were contacted by telephone between Wednesday 7 and Tuesday 13 January. The survey was stopped when a quota sample was reached. Respondents were told that MaltaToday was conducting the survey. Its results were weighted to reflect the age and gender balance of the population. Respondents were asked how they voted in the and elections.

The minister referred to the recent terrorist attack on the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli and said that instability in the Mediterranean led to a threat to European security. The ministers also discussed migration flows particularly in view of the challenges posed by the emerging trend of smugglers using larger vessels to transport migrants. Mr Abela emphasised Malta's role on the issue of irregular migration starting from search and rescue and stressed the need for EU states to work together including in the return of irregular migrants.

He also underlined the need for relocation of beneficiaries of protection. The ministers agreed to intensify the implementation of already agreed measures while also identifying additional measures that would contribute to the fight against terrorism. The training is aimed at facilitating social inclusion and employability and it will focus on teaching residents how to use the internet prepare a CV and look for jobs.

Education projects within the Open Centre had started over four years ago and they included courses in Cultural Orientation English Language First Aid and Food Handling and Hygiene which aimed to provide migrants with the necessary skills to enter the workforce. Dr Ahmed Bugri Managing Director of FSM said: The Marsa Open Centre is a transitory place for asylum seekers and refugees needing temporary assistance until they are able to move in the community and access mainstream services.

Bugri said that the centre which has a bed capacity of residents is focusing on offering residents with the necessary support including educational courses and health and psychological support to be able to integrate with society. The FSM believes that education is an important tool for the personal development empowerment and social inclusion of migrants into Maltese society and in Europe at large he added. Parliamentary Secretary for Competitiveness and Economic Growth Jose Herrera said that integration for good quality of life is "essential".

He added that it is a two way struggle with society and the government being obliged to do their best to integrate migrants into society and migrants needing to try their best to follow courses to enter society. We need to look into the respective niches of our society and address these on a case by case basis in order to address their individual requirements. Our immigrants are but one niche which we are targeting. Italy's Mare Nostrum operation which ended some weeks ago had served as a deterrent to terrorists wanting to enter Europe by posing as irregular migrants Italy's under secretary responsible for intelligence Marco Minniti told a parliamentary committee yesterday.

Mare Nostrum had been blamed by critics in Italy for encouraging the flows of migrants from North Africa and increasing the risk of Islamist terrorist being among them. Ansa however also quotes a report appearing in unidentified Libyan media saying ISIS is focusing on Libya as a means to get to Europe among irregular immigrants. ISIS is reported to have said If we can take advantage of this channel the situation in these countries will turn into a living hell.

The report has yet to be verified as authentic. Executive Director Kenneth Roth urged governments to recognize that human rights offer an effective moral guide in turbulent times and that violating rights can spark or aggravate serious security challenges. The shortterm gains of undermining core values of freedom and nondiscrimination are rarely worth the longterm price Roth said. The horrific attacks of January 7 to 9 in Paris on the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo police officers and people in a Kosher supermarket that left 17 people dead heightened concerns about terrorist attacks in Europe as well as new counterterrorism measures that restrict freedom of movement association and expression.

The antiSemitic nature of the supermarket attack a subsequent wave of Islamophobic violence in France and rampedup rhetoric from rightwing parties in a number of EU countries underscored rising intolerance in Europe and its manifestation in violence and discrimination against Muslims Jews and other minorities Human Rights Watch said.

A May gun attack at a Jewish museum in Brussels that killed four people was part of a disturbing pattern of antiSemitic violence and hate speech in the EU in Other EU member states criticized Italy for rescuing tens of thousands of boat migrants in the Mediterranean. Its massive naval operation was replaced by a much more limited operation by the EU external borders agency Frontex at the end of the year. This raises concerns that the death toll in will surpass the estimated people who perished in the Mediterranean in HRW said.

While the EU is a key humanitarian donor to the Syrian crisis with the exception of Germany it showed little willingness to resettle significant numbers of refugees from Syria. Asylum seekers generally faced significant gaps in protection including substandard reception conditions in Italy Greece France and Bulgaria and routine detention of migrants and asylum seekers including children in some cases. There were reports throughout the year of summary returns and excessive use of force by border guards in Bulgaria Greece and Spain.

Computer literacy courses are being offered to migrants living at the Marsa Open Centre in a bid to help them enter the local job market. The courses are being coordinated by the Malta Communications Authority in collaboration with the Foundation for Shelter and Support of Migrants which runs the Marsa centre. Ahmed Bugri who heads the foundation said some students were currently participating in ICT courses which ranged from a basic introduction to IT skills to advanced ecommerce. Computer literacy Dr Bugri said was an essential tool for helping migrants enter the Maltese work force and improve their quality of life.

This he added would ultimately benefit Maltese society at large. Educational programmes at the Marsa centre started four years ago and include courses in cultural orientation food handling which is aimed at helping migrants enter the tourism sector and English language. We all have the responsibility to help migrants form part of our society.

This needs to be reinforced if the situation is to improve he said. Dr Herrera was making a call for renewed efforts to educate migrants on what it means to be Maltese in an attempt to bridge the gap between Maltese society and the migrant population. I am sure that if we teach migrants about Maltese culture — what it means to be Maltese who our forefathers were what a festa is how our political system works and so on — we will bridge the gap that is stopping many migrants from integrating he said.

Dr Herrera was speaking during a press conference unveiling new computer literacy courses being offered to migrants at the Marsa Open Centre. Home Affairs Minister calls for integrated approach to counter terrorism. Abela emphasized the need for more information exchange between member states and the better use of existing tools to rapidly trace firearms. He also referred to the recent terrorist attack that occurred at the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli Libya highlighting the need for an integrated approach to counter terrorism.

Instability in the Mediterranean leads to a threat for European security he said. Abela said Malta was open to discuss necessary actions on the Schengen Code but no rushed decision should be taken. Over lunch ministers discussed migration flows particularly in view of the challenges posed by the emerging trend of smugglers using larger vessels such as ships to transport migrants.

The recent terrorist attack on the Corinthia hotel in Libya reminds us of the fragile situation in this neighbouring country. The Maltese ownership of the hotel marks an additional level of proximity Agius said. Above all he pointed out how this would undoubtedly have an adverse effect on Malta.

El Senussi also pointed out that Malta is a sincere friend to the Libyan cause and can promote solutions thanks to its credibility Agius said. The issue of terrorism within and outside of our borders has also been tackled by the Maltese MEPs. PN MEP Robert Metsola suggested that a new passenger name record system would help increase citizen safety since this would lead to a higher degree of harmonisation and sharing of information between Member States. During the January debates of the European Parliament plenary session Dalli said that whilst the EU has at times focused a lot of energy on its Eastern borders such focus came at the detriment of relations with its Southern neighbours.

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She said that it was is time to reverse these trends to promote a better wellbeing for the Libyan citizens. Some people are believed to have been displaced as a result of the ongoing conflict. With particular reference to Libya MEPs commended the UNchaired Geneva conferences as a positive first step that would hopefully lead to the reconciliation between the different factions present in Libya. Whilst political debates are of outmost importance the peacekeeping initiative led by the United Nations is also highly significant with Italy agreeing to spearhead such an initiative under the guidance of the United Nations.

The Maltese EP office said that improved conditions in Libya would also impact Malta Italy and other Mediterranean countries due to the relevance that this crisis has on immigration. A strong government and legal enforcement force is necessary to nip the rising of a new phenomenon that of ghost ships. With ghost ships hundreds of migrants are being forced on boats which are no longer seaworthy and are allowed to drift in the Mediterranean without any crew present to guide these boats towards a safe port.

Lebanon reinforces restrictions with new visa rules Today marks the day where new restrictions come into force for Syrian refugees. The unprecedented move by the Lebanese government means that Syrian refugees will have to fulfil certain criteria in order to be given a visa and enter the country.

Before this move Syrians were automatically allowed to stay in Lebanon for up to six monthsThis step is aimed to curb the influx of refugees into the country with the registered refugee population standing at a whopping 1. There are a further unregistered refugees who will be greatly effected by these measures. It is in fact unclear exactly what these new restrictions will mean for Syrians already in the country and for unregistered refugees.

The United Nations High Commissioner for refugees has expressed concern at the lack of clarity of these new rules. Groups supporting and opposing the antiIslam group have held rival rallies across Germany The Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West" or Pegida have held protests throughout the country since back in October and their rallies have gained both popularity and supporters over time. The group has been condemned by senior German politicians and it has also garnered counter demonstrators who favour a message of peace and tolerance.

The Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel has condemned the group however the group seems to be gaining in popularity as time goes by. A poll of just over people carried out by German magazine Stern revealed that a shocking one in eight Germans would join an antiIslam march if Pegida organized one near their homes. The organiser for Pegida Kathrin Oertel has said that the country has once again been plunged into an era of political repression: "Or how would you see it when we are insulted or called racists or Nazis openly by all the political mainstream parties and media for our justified criticism of Germany's asylum seeker policies and the nonexistent immigration policy?

Photo: Reuters Chancellor Angela Merkel said yesterday she had a duty to protect the right to demonstrate in Germany regardless of the issue and offered federal security support after an antiIslam march was cancelled because of a terrorist threat. Police in the eastern city of Dresden banned all outdoor public gatherings yesterday including one by the Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West Pegida a group that attracted people to its rally last week. The weekly Pegida demonstrations began last October as a local protest against the building of new shelters for refugees and have been growing in size.

However countermarches have taken place across Germany with far larger numbers and Merkel has condemned the group in unusually strong language as racists with hatred in their hearts. But at a press conference yesterday she defended the right to protest: Such a precious principle has to be protected. That is why everything will be done German Chancellor makes statement after antiIslam march was cancelled following threat She offered federal help if requested to the regional state authorities who are responsible for policing.

Pegida leaders said yesterday they would not allow themselves to be muzzled and would plan a rally for next week in conjunction with security officials. Security authorities said last Friday they had specific warnings of a risk of militant attacks on central railway stations in Berlin and Dresden. The leader of a German organisation against the perceived "Islamisation" of Europe stepped down after online posts surfaced in which he used derogatory language to refer to refugees and posed looking like Adolf Hitler.

It followed German media publishing the comments where he called refugees "cattle" and "filthy" and a photo showing him with a Hitler moustache and hair combed over like the Nazi Fuehrer. Mr Bachmann did not comment directly on the picture but apologised for the antirefugee comments which he made online in September a month before the group staged its first protest. The group has staged weekly demonstrations in the eastern city of Dresden that reached their peak last week drawing people.

This week's planned rally was cancelled after police said authorities had monitored a Tweet calling for one of the organisers to be killed. PEGIDA's spokeswoman Kathrin Oertel said the Hitler picture had been satire but Mr Bachmann's comments about refugees and others he made about German politicians had not "contributed to the trustworthiness" of the group. Bild newspaper quoted Mr Bachmann as saying he had posted the Hitler picture on his Facebook page apparently some time ago as a joke.

If it was a joke nobody was laughing. A protest staged by a separate group in the eastern city of Leipzig met violent counterdemonstrations yesterday. Police said some among the counterprotesters tried to break through barriers protecting the route where about supporters of the group calling itself LEGIDA were marching. Sulla nave ci sono circa persone. A bordo ha riferito la voce ci sono circa persone tra cui bambini e donne incinta. Anche stavolta gli inquirenti dovranno verificare se gli scafisti di turno siano realmente fuggiti o se come avvenuto sul cargo sbarcato a Gallipoli si siano solo nascosti tra i profughi sperando di farla franca.

Hanno cercato di confondersi tra centinaia di disperati. Ma gli investigatori del pool antiimmigrazione clandestina della provincia di Lecce sono riusciti ugualmente a identificarli: il comandante e tre membri dell'equipaggio della Blu Sky M nave moldava che il 30 dicembre stava andando a schiantarsi contro le scogliere del Capo di Leuca con il suo carico di migranti. In un inutile tentativo degli scafisti di confondersi con gli altri.

Affermazione a cui gli investigatori non hanno evidentemente creduto riuscendo infine a scovare gli scafisti compreso il comandante e ad arrestarli con le accuse di favoreggiamento e sfruttamento dell'immigrazione clandestina. Tutti e quattro sono stati trasferiti nel carcere di Lecce mentre la Blu Sky M si trova tuttora sotto sequestro nel porto di Gallipoli. A bordo sono state trovate molte derrate alimentari ed elementi considerati utili all'indagine coordinata dal sostituto procuratore Antonio Negro ma non armi.

Resta da chiarire il motivo per cui gli scafisti abbiano improvvisamente invertito la rotta del cargo che fino alla tarda mattinata del 30 navigava vicino le coste greche anche se dai registri navali la destinazione ufficiale risultava la Croazia. La virata verso la Puglia meridionale insieme alla manomissione dei comandi ha messo in atto un piano suicida che nell'arco di poche ore avrebbe potuto trasformarsi in un'altra strage del mare.

Oggi i migranti sono stati in gran parte trasferiti nei centri di accoglienza salentini delle province di Bari Foggia Taranto Bat e in Lombardia Veneto Piemonte e Toscana regioni individuate dal piano di riparto del ministero dell'Interno. Sono pronti a chiedere i danni. Ci sono ovviamente i familiari di coloro che hanno perso la vita come i due camionisti napoletani Giovanni Liccardo e Michele Liccardo.

Le famiglie sono molto provate e aspettano di poter riportare a casa le salme dei propri congiunti spiega Davide Bellomo. Gli accertamenti medicolegali sulle nove salme delle vittime della Norman Atlantic potrebbero cominciare in mattinata. Stando alla Guardia costiera le persone salvate dal relitto in fiamme sono Questo significa rispetto ai complessivi stimati dai magistrati baresi che ci sarebbero ancora 11 dispersi. Le operazioni di recupero affidate a due rimorchiatori grazie anche a un miglioramento delle condizioni meteo stanno per concludersi. Quello che vedevamo noi era orribile racconta Luca Zizzi il comandante del rimorchiatore Tenax che ha scortato il Norman Atlantic in arrivo a Brindisi.

Il fumo la gente ammassata le fiamme. Era orribile una lotta contro il tempo per salvare delle vite. Come lui lo sono stati anche i membri dell'equipaggio. Noi ascoltavamo le conversazioni via radio. Continuava a infondere calma a tutti. E intanto Antonio Brizzi segretario generale del sindacato dei vigili del fuoco Conapo solleva il caso degli otto vigili del fuoco partiti domenica mattina da Brindisi a bordo dei rimorchiatori. Le nostre istanze di recupero dei colleghi evidenzia Brizzi hanno trovato immediata risposta al Viminale con una riunione permanente nonostante i particolari giorni di festa.

I trafficanti trovano nuove rotte per l'Europa e impiegano nuovi metodi per sfruttare i disperati. Andremo avanti con impegno e determinazione. Gli scafisti stanno trovando nuove rotte verso l'Europa e stanno impiegando nuovi metodi per sfruttare persone disperate che cercano di sfuggire a un conflitto o alla guerra.

Pertanto abbiamo bisogno di agire contro queste spietate organizzazioni criminali. Non dobbiamo permettere ai contrabbandieri di mettere a rischio la vita delle persone in vecchie navi abbandonate. Questi ultimi 8 sono stati temporaneamente affidati alle cure di una casa famiglia di Corigliano in attesa di decidere dove trasferirli FOTO.

Le condizioni dei migranti sono complessivamente buone e non sono stati necessari ricoveri in ospedale. Una volta a terra i migranti sono stati nutriti e visitati dai medici del Dalle prime indicazioni e dallo stato complessivo delle persone che erano a bordole forze dell'ordine ritengono che la nave abbia viaggiato per pochi giorni prima di essere intercettata al largo della Calabria.

Dopo lo sbarco i migranti sono stati trasferiti in centri di accoglienza di varie regioni. Le operazioni sono state coordinate dalla Prefettura di Cosenza. Nessuno dei migranti presenta problemi di carattere sanitario. Questi ultimi 8 sono stati temporaneamente affidati alle cure di una casa famiglia di Corigliano in attesa di decidere dove trasferirli. Un vero business milionario quello dei migranti in rotta verso l'Europa: secondo l'Organizzazione internazionale per l'immigrazione che ha sede a Ginevra gli immigrati sono costretti a pagare tra 1.

Due navi da carico sono state intercettate nei giorni scorsi dalla Marina Militare Italiana cariche di immigrati soprattutto siriani. L'Italia si trova ad affrontare da diversi anni un afflusso crescente di immigrati clandestini che cercano di raggiungere l'Europa dal Mediterraneo a rischio della loro vita. Dobbiamo agire contro i trafficanti scrive in una nota Avramopoulos. Non possiamo permettere loro di porre a rischio vite su navi abbandonate in condizioni meteo pericolose. I business mimetizzati nel sociale.

Colangelo parla anche di Terra dei fuochi. E ovviamente guarda a Napoli al degrado delle sue periferie. Dalla capitale del sud dal cuore nero di un distretto giudiziario che spesso ha anticipato emergenze nazionali dal business dei rifiuti alla corruzione negli appalti stiamo focalizzando la massima attenzione anche su altri fronti che non sono nati ieri.

Dove restano comunque calde le emergenze su cui costruire avanzate azioni di contrasto: il crimine predatorio il sistema delle cosche le collusioni tra boss imprenditori e Palazzi. Procuratore Colangelo tra boss in carcere e padrini pentiti i clan sembravano diventati una minaccia meno eclatante. Bisognerebbe piuttosto approfondire come mai gli psicoanalisti, da intellighenzia sovversiva e liberale, si siano trasformati in un gruppo conservatore e conformista.

La frase di Heinz Hartmann, citata prima, risalate al , cinque anni dopo la grande emigrazione. Journal , la situazione non era molto diversa. Li ho incontrato alcuni colleghi che ritenevano si dovessero comprendere meglio i fenomeni attuali. Ma anche in questo articolo, che giungeva a conclusioni convincenti, non veniva citata nemmeno una volta la guerra del Vietnam, e neppure se ne faceva cenno nella esaustiva lista di testi psicoanalitici citata da Wangh fino al momento della pubblicazione del suo articolo Un divieto del genere presenta sempre qualche falla.


Full text of "Annali d'italianistica"

In una seduta del Comitato programmatico per il successivo congresso di Roma del , A. Era solo passato in mano ad altri. Scienziati, artisti, scrittori, giornalisti, un intero mondo di intellettuali lottava contro la repressione e l'orrore con le conoscenze trasmesse loro dalla psicoanalisi. Mentre gli analisti tacevano, parzialmente ciechi davanti al sociale, il dottor Benjamin Spock organizzava la campagna di obiezione al servizio militare per le reclute del Vietnam Midford, Norman Mailer ha inteso il suo libro Why are we in Vietnam? Da allora sono passati solo dieci anni.

Per quanto riguarda gli ultimi dieci anni, bisogna riformulare diversamente la domanda circa la reazione della psicoanalisi alle questioni scottanti del tempo. Ricominceranno a perseguire obiettivi da tempo abbandonati, sono in grado di recuperare la loro funzione emancipatoria? Intanto la nostra etnia si trova in una situazione difficile.

Per non parlare dei vecchi nemici dell'analisi, i manipolatori e i terapeuti operazionali psicochirurghi, terapeuti del comportamento , che avevano bollato la psicoanalisi nel suo complesso come trastullo equivoco di intellettuali di sinistra svitati. Qui sono in ogni caso citati coi loro lavori originali o nella parte bibliografica.

Negli altri paesi, gruppetti sparuti e singoli ricercatori lottano per restare psicoanalisti e al tempo stesso porsi le questioni del tempo. Entro il loro gruppo possono essere definiti rinnovatori, riformatori, rivoluzionari o anche eversivi. Dal punto di vista sociologico sono figure marginali, marginal men. Sono giunto alla fine della mia argomentazione e mi rimetto a osservare il problema dal punto di vista dei miei colleghi, gli psicoanalisti. It was that he began to have doubts about PTSD: the condition was real enough, but as a diagnosis he saw it being wildly, even dangerously, overextended.

Stevens led the medics tending an armored brigade of soldiers, and his team patched together GIs and Iraqi citizens almost every day. He saw horrific things. He worries that many of these men and women are being pulled into a treatment and disability regime that will mire them in a self-fulfilling vision of a brain rewired, a psyche permanently haunted. It is now splitting the practice of trauma psychology and roiling military culture. Critiques originally raised by military historians and a few psychologists are now advanced by a broad array of experts— indeed, giants of psychology, psychiatry and epidemiology.

Spitzer and Michael B.


McNally, a leading authority in the dynamics of memory and trauma and perhaps the most forceful of the critics. The diagnostic criteria for PTSD, they assert, represent a faulty, outdated construct that has been badly overstretched so that it routinely mistakes depression, anxiety or even normal adjustment for a unique and especially stubborn ailment. This quest to scale back the definition of PTSD and its application stands to affect the expenditure of billions of dollars, the diagnostic framework of psychiatry, the effectiveness of a huge treatment and disability infrastructure, and, most important, the mental health and future lives of hundreds of thousands of U.

Standing in the way of reform is conventional wisdom, deep cultural resistance and foundational concepts of trauma psychology. That 31 percent has been the standard estimate of PTSD incidence among veterans ever since. In , however, Columbia epidemiologist Bruce P. Dohrenwend, hoping to resolve nagging questions about the study, reworked the numbers.

When he had culled the poorly documented diagnoses, he found that the rate was 9 percent and the lifetime rate 18 percent. It was not one in three veterans who eventually developed PTSD, but one in nine—and only one in 18 had it at any given time. Yet the two trends are consistent. The poor and erratic response to current soldiers and recent vets, with some being pulled quickly into PTSD treatments and others discouraged or denied, may be the panicked stumbling of an overloaded system.

But the would-be reformers face fierce opposition. Colleagues accuse him of dishonoring veterans, dismissing suffering, discounting the costs of war. Dean G. A Problematic Diagnosis The DSM-IV, the most recent edition published in , defines PTSD as the presence of three symptom clusters—reexperiencing via nightmares or flashbacks; avoidance by numbing or withdrawal; and hyperarousal, evident in irritability, insomnia, aggression or poor concentration— that arise in response to a life- threatening event [see box above].

The construction of this definition is suspect. To start with, the link to a traumatic event, which makes PTSD almost unique among complex psychiatric diagnoses in being defined by an external cause, also makes it uniquely problematic, for the tie is really to the memory of an event. But as research since then has repeatedly shown, memory is spectacularly unreliable and malleable. We routinely add or subtract people, details, settings and actions to and from our memories.

We conflate, invent and edit. In one study by Washington University memory researcher Elizabeth F. Loftus, one out of four adults who were told they were lost in a shopping mall as children came to believe it. Some insisted the event happened even after the ruse was exposed. Loftus; Scientific American, September ]. Soldiers enjoy no immunity from this tendency. A s study at the New Haven, Conn.

The researchers asked about 19 specific types of potentially traumatic events, such as witnessing deaths, losing friends and seeing people disfigured. Two years out, 70 percent of the veterans reported at least one traumatic event they had not mentioned a month after returning, and 24 percent reported at least three such events for the first time.

Some studies of stress hormones in groups of PTSD patients show differences from normal subjects, but the overlap between the normal and the PTSD groups is huge, making individual profiles useless for diagnostics. Brain imaging has similar limitations, with the abnormal dynamics in PTSD heavily overlapping those of depression and anxiety. With memory unreliable and biological markers elusive, diagnosis depends on clinical symptoms. But as a study in starkly showed, the symptom profile for PTSD is as slippery as the would-be biomarkers.

First he and a colleague used a standardized screening interview to assess symptoms. Then two other PTSD diagnosticians, ignorant of the symptom reports, used another standard interview to see which patients had ever experienced trauma fitting DSM-IV criteria. It was not so. Things got worse when Bodkin compared the diagnoses one on one. But the PTSD-symptomatic patients were equally distributed among the trauma-positive and the trauma-negative groups.

The PTSD rate had zero relation to the trauma rate. One more overlapping symptom set. But what does a veteran gain with a PTSD diagnosis? One would hope, of course, that it grants access to effective treatment and support. This is not happening. In civilian populations, two thirds of PTSD patients respond to treatment. The first benefit is health care. That link may explain why most veterans getting PTSD treatment from the VA report worsening symptoms until they are designated percent disabled—at which point their use of VA mental health services drops by 82 percent.

Perhaps most disastrously, these payments continue only if you are sick. For unlike a vet who has lost a leg, a vet with PTSD loses disability benefits as soon as he recovers or starts working. The entire system seems designed to encourage chronic disability. But the problem is not the veterans. Sometimes I think they should just blow it up and start over. Richard A.

Finally—a crucial feature—he retains all these benefits for two years once he goes back to work. After that, incapacity payments taper to zero over five years. But noneconomic payments— a kind of financial Purple Heart—continue forever. And like all Australians, the soldier gets free lifetime health care. Australian vets come home to an utterly different support system from ours: theirs is a scaffold they can climb. Two Ways to Carry a Rifle When a soldier comes home, he must try to reconcile his war experience with the person he was beforehand and the society and family he returns to.

It is what we all do, on various scales, when we suffer breakups, job losses or the deaths of loved ones. Initially the event seems an impossible aberration. Then slowly we accept the trauma as part of the complex context that is life. Major Matt Stevens recognizes that this adjustment can take time. Even after two years at home, the war still occupies his dreams.

When we saw a bird, she would lift her binoculars, and I would lift my rifle and watch the bird through the scope. No thought of shooting it. Just how I looked at the birds. Yet it can also be seen as demonstrating his success in recontextualizing his experience: reconciling the man who once used a gun with the man who no longer does. Saving PTSD from itself, Spitzer, McNally, Frueh and other critics say, will require a similar shift—seeing most postcombat distress not as a disorder but as part of normal, if painful, healing.

This turnaround will involve, for starters, revising the rubric for diagnosing PTSD— currently under review for the new DSM-V due to be published in —so it accounts for the unreliability of memory and better distinguishes depression, anxiety and phobia from true PTSD. Mental health evaluations need similar revisions so they can detect genuine cases without leading patients to impose trauma narratives on other mental health problems.

These changes will be hard to sell in a culture that resists any suggestion that PTSD is not a common, even inevitable, consequence of combat. Mistaking its horror for its prevalence, most people assume PTSD is epidemic, ignoring all evidence to the contrary. The biggest longitudinal study of soldiers returning from Iraq, led by VA researcher Charles Milliken and published in , seemed to confirm that we should expect a high incidence of PTSD.

But of those reporting symptoms in the first survey, half had improved by the second survey, and many who first claimed few or no symptoms later reported serious symptoms. How many of the later symptoms were the imposition of a trauma narrative onto other problems? Stevens, for one, is certain these screens are mistaking many going through normal adjustment as dangerously at risk of PTSD.

Even he, though functioning fine at work and home and in society, scored positive in both surveys; he is, in other words, one of the 20 percent at risk. Yet this study received prominent media coverage emphasizing that PTSD rates were probably being badly undercounted. A few months later another study—the first to track large numbers of soldiers through the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan—provided a clearer and more consistent picture. Led by U. Navy researcher Tyler Smith and published in the British Medical Journal, the study monitored mental health and combat exposure in 50, U.

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  • The researchers took particular care to tie symptoms to types of combat exposure. Among some 12, troops who went to Iraq or Afghanistan, 4. The rate ran about 8 percent in those with combat exposure and 2 percent in those not exposed. These numbers are about a quarter of the rates Milliken found. Yet the media, the VA and the trauma psychology community almost completely ignored the study. PTSD exists. Where it exists we must treat it.

    April 16, 2018

    But our cultural obsession with PTSD has magnified and finally perhaps become the thing itself— a prolonged failure to contextualize and accept our own collective aggression. It may be our own postwar neurosis. Non che Stevens ne soffrisse. Vide cose orribili.

    Negli ultimi 5 anni circa ha incominciato a infiammarsi un dibattito accademico che da lungo covava sotto la cenere, e che ora sta dividendo la clinica psicologica del trauma e mettendo in subbuglio la cultura militare. Tra questi troviamo due membri della Columbia University, Robert L. Spitzer e Michael B. A questa riforma si oppongono la saggezza delle convenzioni, una profonda resistenza culturale e i fondamenti della psicologia del trauma.

    McNally condivide l'ammirazione generale per lo scrupoloso lavoro di Dohrenwend. Tuttavia le due tendenze sono coerenti. Rivedere sia la diagnosi sia il sistema terapeutico della VA, dicono i critici, assicurerebbe una migliore assistenza tanto ai pazienti che realmente soffrono di DPTS, quanto a quelli che hanno avuto una diagnosi sbagliata.

    I futuri riformatori, tuttavia, si trovano di fronte una feroce opposizione. I veterani gli hanno mandato e-mail di minaccia. I colleghi lo accusano di disonorare i veterani, ignorare la sofferenza, sottovalutare i costi della guerra. Aggiungiamo e sottraiamo continuamente persone, dettagli, ambientazioni e azioni dai nostri ricordi. Li combiniamo, inventiamo e perfezioniamo. In uno studio della ricercatrice sulla memoria Elizabeth F. I soldati non sono immuni da questa tendenza a rielaborare il passato.

    I ricercatori fecero domande su circa 19 tipi specifici di eventi potenzialmente traumatici, come assistere a uccisioni, perdere amici e vedere persone sfigurate. Ma i risultati non confermarono questa ipotesi. Le cose andarono peggio quando Bodkin mise a confronto le due diagnosi. Se il DPTS richiede un trauma, allora i 54 pazienti esposti a un evento traumatico dovrebbero render conto della maggior parte dei 70 casi positivi alla diagnosi di DPTS. Tuttavia i pazienti con sintomi di DPTS erano ugualmente distribuiti tra il gruppo di quelli positivi al trauma e il gruppo di quelli negativi.

    A complicare le cose, studi recenti mostrano che lesioni cerebrali traumatiche causate dallo scoppio di una bomba, comuni tra i soldati in Iraq, producono sintomi quasi indistinguibili da quelli del DPTS. Ma che cosa ci guadagna un veterano da una diagnosi di DPTS? Ma il problema non sono i veterani. Talvolta penso che dovrebbero farlo saltare in aria e ricostruirlo da capo. Bryant, ricercatore australiano di DPTS, propone un sistema assistenziale modellato su quello del suo paese. Infine, aspetto fondamentale, conserva tutti questi benefici per due anni dopo che ha ripreso il lavoro.

    E, come tutti gli australiani, il soldato gode di un'assistenza sanitaria gratuita. E' quello che facciamo tutti a vari livelli, quando viviamo una crisi, perdiamo il lavoro o muore una persona cara. All'inizio l'evento ci sembra inconcepibile, impossibile da accettare. Poi gradualmente accogliamo il trauma come parte della complessa trama della vita. Persino dopo due anni dal rientro in patria, la guerra continua ad occupare i suoi sogni. Sarebbe facile interpretare il sogno di Stevens come un sintomo di DPTS, che esprime paura, ipervigilanza ed evitamento. Salvare il DPTS da se stesso, dicono Spitzer, McNally, Frueh e altri critici, richiederebbe un simile cambio di prospettiva: considerare la maggior parte dello stress postbellico non come un disturbo, ma come parte del normale processo di guarigione, per quanto doloroso.

    Andrebbero rivisti anche gli strumenti di valutazione di questa patologia mentale, in modo che siano in grado di identificare i casi reali, evitando di portare i pazienti a sovrapporre racconti di traumi ad altri problemi psichici. E quanti dei sintomi tardivi erano la sovrapposizione della narrazione di un trauma a problemi diversi? I ricercatori posero particolare cura nel collegare i sintomi al tipo di esposizione ai combattimenti. Queste percentuali sono circa un quarto di quelle rilevate da Milliken. Le discrepanze rispetto alla ricerca di Milliken e la concordanza coi tassi inglesi e i calcoli di McNally sui dati del NVVRS avrebbero dovuto far parlare dello studio di Smith.

    Il DPTS esiste. George A. Bonanno Teachers College, Columbia University Many people are exposed to loss or potentially traumatic events at some point in their lives, and yet they continue to have positive emotional experiences and show only minor and transient disruptions in their ability to function. The author challenges these assumptions by reviewing evidence that resilience represents a distinct trajectory from the process of recovery, that resilience in the face of loss or potential trauma is more common than is often believed, and that there are multiple and sometimes unexpected pathways to resilience.

    As people progress through the life cycle, they are also increasingly confronted with the deaths of close friends and relatives. Not everyone copes with these potentially disturbing events in the same way. Some people experience acute distress from which they are unable to recover. Others suffer less intensely and for a much shorter period of time. Some people seem to recover quickly but then begin to experience unexpected health problems or difficulties concentrating or enjoying life the way they used to.

    However, large numbers of people manage to endure the temporary upheaval of loss or potentially traumatic events remarkably well, with no apparent disruption in their ability to function at work or in close relationships, and seem to move on to new challenges with apparent ease. This article is devoted to the latter group and to the question of resilience in the face of loss or potentially traumatic events. Moreover, developmental psychologists have shown that resilience is common among children growing up in disadvantaged conditions e.

    Unfortunately, because most of the psychological knowledge base regarding the ways adults cope with loss or potential trauma has been derived from individuals who have experienced significant psychological problems or sought treatment, theorists working in this area have often underestimated and misunderstood resilience, viewing it either as a pathological state or as something seen only in rare and exceptionally healthy individuals. In this article, I challenge this view by reviewing evidence that resilience in the face of loss or potential trauma represents a distinct trajectory from that of recovery, that resilience is more common than often believed, and that there are multiple and sometimes unexpected pathways to resilience.

    Point 1: Resilience Is Different From Recovery A key feature of the concept of adult resilience to loss and trauma, to be discussed in the next two sections, is its distinction from the process of recovery. The term recovery connotes a trajectory in which normal functioning temporarily gives way to threshold or subthreshold psychopathology e. Full recovery may be relatively rapid or may take as long as one or two years. By contrast, resilience reflects the ability to maintain a stable equilibrium.

    In the developmental literature, resilience is typically discussed in terms of protective factors that foster the development of positive outcomes and healthy personality characteristics among children exposed to unfavorable or aversive life circumstances e. Resilience to loss and trauma, as conceived in this article, pertains to the ability of adults in otherwise normal circumstances who are exposed to an isolated and potentially highly disruptive event, such as the death of a close relation or a violent or life-threatening situation, to maintain relatively stable, healthy levels of psychological and physical functioning.

    A further distinction is that resilience is more than the simple absence of psychopathology. Recovering individuals often experience subthreshold symptom levels. Resilient individuals, by contrast, may experience transient perturbations in normal functioning e. The prototypical resilience and recovery trajectories, as well as chronic and delayed disruptions in functioning, are illustrated in Figure 1.

    In the loss and trauma literatures, researchers have tended to assume a unidimensional response with little variability in possible outcome trajectory among adults exposed to potentially traumatic events. Bereavement theorists have tended to assume that coping with the death of a close friend or relative is necessarily an active process that can and in most cases should be facilitated by clinical intervention.

    Trauma theorists have focused their attentions primarily on interventions for PTSD. Nonetheless, trauma theorists and practitioners have at times assumed that virtually all individuals exposed to violent or life-threatening events could benefit from active coping and professional intervention. In this section, I discuss how the failure of the loss and trauma literatures to adequately distinguish resilience from recovery relates to current controversies about when and for whom clinical intervention might be most appropriate.

    This failure also helps explain why in some cases clinical interventions with exposed individuals are sometimes ineffective or even harmful. The idea that grief work may characterize only the more highly distressed bereaved individuals i. Grief-focused interventions typically target both acute or prolonged grief reactions as well as the absence of a grief reaction e.

    There is now considerable support for the usefulness of interventions with individuals meeting PTSD criteria. Cognitive—behavioral treatments that aim to help traumatized individuals understand and manage the anxiety and fear associated with trauma-related stimuli have proved the most effective Resick, Although outcome studies generally show few differences between treatments, there is some evidence for superior results with prolonged exposure therapy e.

    Ironically, the effectiveness of reliving traumatic experiences for individuals with PTSD may have helped blur the distinction between recovery and resilience. Researchers have made remarkably few attempts to distinguish subgroups within the broad category of individuals not showing PTSD. Resilient and recovering individuals are often lumped into a single category e. As with bereavement, however, when researchers do not address this distinction, they risk making the faulty assumption that resilient people must engage in the same coping processes as do exposed individuals who struggle with but eventually recover from more intense trauma symptoms.

    Non me ne frega un cazzo della loro opinione. Fare la Rivoluzione?? Rovesciare il Potere?? Risposte semplici per interrogativi difficili. Un cazzo di posto dove stare che non sia sotto i ponti…[…]. Benvenuti nello Zuid-Limburg. Numerose sono le occasioni di restare sorpresi dalla cultura e dalle straordinarie bellezze naturali. Qui Olanda, Belgio e Germania si incontrano strettamente. Il marmo si trova in numerose cave dello Zuid-Limburg.

    Assolutamente da non perdere!!! Ogni regione ha le proprie, particolari caratteristiche. Nel cuore di un paesaggio composto da foreste e di acqua, resterete affascinati dalla natura allo stato selvaggio. La parte sud del parco tocca il confine belga. Solamente lo scarabeo ha 1. Nel Parco si trovano praterie di nardo rado, a crescita corta, e povero di sostanze nutritive, di avena dorata o di graminacee di altezza notevole, praterie inondate o umide con giunchi e arbusti in fiore narciso giallo, giunchiglia varia, ranuncolo, che fioriscono a primavera.

    I grandi laghi di ritenuta costituiscono un caso a parte, dal momento che si tratta di acque correnti che, una volta trattenute da una barriera, diventano acque stagnanti artificiali. Le fonti rappresentano un ecosistema importante. Fa parte di una catena di dighe situate lungo il corso della Ruhr, di cui il Lago Superiore Obersee e la diga della Ruhr Schwammenauel fanno parte.

    Ha la funzione di proteggere le acque alte, di fornire acqua alle industrie situate lungo il corso della Ruhr e di produrre energia. Essa rappresenta un importante ecosistema per gli animali. Qui covano differenti specie di uccelli. I laghi artificiali, formatisi grazie alla diga, costituiscono una fonte alimentare ideale per i rapaci ed i pipistrelli, dal momento che le rive forniscono un rifugio per le prede.

    It was their wish to found a religious community somewhere since they had become dissatisfied with the lack of discipline in the collegiate church at Tournai in present-day Belgium from where they came. In , they started to build a stone crypt and laid the foundations to the future monastic church. The crypt was finished in After a difference of opinion with Embrico, Ailbertus departed in He died in Sechtem , near Bonn in In , the bones, thought to be those of Ailbertus, were transferred to Rolduc and interred in the crypt built by himself and Embrico. The first abbot of the monastic community was Abbot Richer who came from Rottenburch in Bavaria.

    The community was made up of canons regular Augustinians who initially lived according to extremely strict principles. Community life, prayers, lack of possessions, fasting and manual work were all part and parcel of the daily cycle. After guardianship of the abbey fell into the hands of the Duchy of Limburg in , Kloosterrade was considered to be their family church. His tombstone can be found in the main aisle of the church. From the midth century to the end of the 13th century the abbey flourished.

    In the abbey owned more than 3, hectares of land and the number of regulars grew steadily. The library developed into one of the most important of its age and the Abbey provided pastoral and spiritual care to many parishes throughout the Netherlands. Five communities in Friesland were placed under the authority of the Abbot of Kloosterrade, the most important of these being the Abbey of Ludingakerke.

    During the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries times were harder for Kloosterrade in both spiritual and material terms. The buildings and fabric paid a heavy price during the Eighty Years War. After ca. Materialistically, the abbey began to prosper once again and revenue was generated from the exploitation of the coal mines. In around , Kloosterrade employed mineworkers. The abbey was dissolved by the French occupiers in and the canons regular were forced to leave the community. After Belgian independence , this seminary moved to St. Truiden in Belgium and Rolduc became a boarding grammar school for boys from well-to-do Dutch families.

    From to , the buildings were used to accommodate a seminary, but now under the auspices of the Diocese of Roermond. The boarding school closed in The crypt and the choir and chancel above have a cloverleaf pattern. The western-most part of the crypt the stem of the cloverleaf was built later.

    When the crypt was consecrated in , it was smaller than it is today. Remarkable is the fact that the columns in the crypt all have a different design. The chancel above the crypt was completed in and eight years later the northern and southern transepts were constructed. The crossing had not yet then been raised, so that it was flanked by two wings on the same level.

    This transversal gallery consisted of three sections, the roofs of each comprising a vaulted ceiling supported by columns. In , the church was extended westwards with a further three sections. In the original design, two smaller sections in the side aisles were planned to the south of these three sections. This plan was changed during construction. In the second and later in a fourth section, the aisles on either side were raised to the same height as the nave to form so-called pseudo transepts, so that on the outside of the church they look like transepts, whereas in fact they do not extend beyond the foundation plan of the church.

    These pseudo-transepts were not initially intended to be aesthetic, but designed to give better support to the vaults and to allow more light into the church. The same construction method was also used in the older Mariakerk now demolished in Utrecht and later used in the Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk in Maastricht. When the three sections of the nave were completed in , a solid enclosing wall was built at the end of the third section. This third section was not yet then vaulted and in , the thatched roof was replaced by tiles. Later in the twelfth century, the exact date is not known, a fourth section was built and the church extended further westwards.

    Originally, this would have consisted of a middle section on which the tower now stands and two lower side aisles. The tower extended no further upwards than the ledge that can be seen on the outside under the gothic windows. The westwork would originally have been much lower and compacter than now. The church was completed and consecrated in Prior to , the crypt was extended westwards, the stem of the cloverleaf, as it were, being made longer.

    The choir above it was consequently raised along the same length. This raised section, in the crossing, likewise cut the transepts in two. In the sixteenth century, in line with the fashions of the time, the Romanesque trimmings were removed from the crypt and the choir and replaced with Gothic designs. The two side recesses of the crypt and choir were demolished and the circular windows replaced with perpendicular ones.

    In the mid-eighteenth century, the crypt was plastered in rococo style. The choir stalls were installed on the crossing in the choir in the seventeenth century. Their carvings are simple but powerful in design. A tower was constructed on the westwork in and in , its stone steeple was replaced by one made in timber with slates. In , the young architect, P. Cuypers, was commissioned to restore the crypt and to reinstate as much as possible the original Romanesque fabric. The first restoration projects were also carried out on the church at the same time.

    Restoration of the church was resumed in , including the reconstruction of the side recesses in the cloverleaf layout. As faithful as possible a reconstruction of the old chancel was carried out on the basis of the old foundation plans that had been found. The frescoes were painted between and by the Aachen-based priest, Goebbels.

    The tombstones of the abbots in the side aisles were removed and placed vertically outside the church and against the walls in the transept. From both inside and outside, they give an impression of grandeur, reflecting to some extent the status of the abbots, who had been rewarded with the right to wear the mitre ever since the time of van der Steghe.