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Salvati, E. Sapori, P. Sgreccia Edd. La beatificazione di Paolo VI. IV Forum del Progetto Culturale. Legittima difesa. Coppie di fatto. Giornata della pace La fede esige pensiero. Come condividere? Pena di morte. Alle altezze del mistero. Fede e scienza. Il presuntuoso sapere. Papa in USA. Inaccettabile riduzione. Caso Englaro - Il problema siamo noi. Diritti umani - In nome della ragione. Bus atei — A corto di pensiero. Eluana e noi - Un transito culturale.
La lettera del papa. Liberi e riconciliati. Il primato della coscienza. Fine vita. Per arginare il disincanto. Bene inviolabile Regole doverose. Non per convenienza ma per coscienza. Patibolo vuoto. Apologia del suicidio. Cittadini, politici e coscienza. Omofobia in Europa. Il pensiero della Chiesa. In particular, we present the example of the stains embedded into one of the most studied archaeological objects in history, the Shroud of Turin.
Murra, B. Superficial and Shroud-like coloration of linen by short laser pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet more. We present a survey on five-years experiments of excimer laser irradiation of linen fabrics, seeking for a coloration mechanism able to reproduce the microscopic complexity of the body image embedded onto the Shroud of Turin. We achieved We achieved a superficial, Shroud-like coloration in a narrow range of irradiation parameters.
We also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial or natural aging of linen following laser irradiations that at first did not generate any visible effect. Most importantly, we have recognized photo-chemical processes that account for both coloration and latent coloration. Murra, E.
Nichelatti, A. Santoni, G. The ancient linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin is one of the most studied archaeological objects in history, mainly because of the unexplained nature of its image. We have recently irradiated linen fabrics by excimer laser pulses Our results suggest some actions aimed at a long-term conservation of the Shroud and of its image. Murra, A. Santoni, E. Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto: riassunto dei risultati ottenuti presso il Centro ENEA di Frascati negli anni more.
Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality more. Originating from a discussion among the members of the Shroud Science Group, this paper was At the fabric level, we show the importance of the geometry of the fabric. More Info: G.
Fanti, J. Botella, P. Heimburger, R. Schneider, N. View on ligklaedet. Sight and brain, an introduction to the visually misleading images more. The visual perception of the reality is a complex process involving eyes and brain. The result of this process is an individual response to the external stimulus which, in some cases, can differ person-to-person and, most important, can The result of this process is an individual response to the external stimulus which, in some cases, can differ person-to-person and, most important, can give a false representation of the reality.
In this paper we discuss some aspects of the visual perception, focusing our attention to shapes and colors recognition. We also present a brief introduction to the physiology of the vision and a discussion about the potentially misleading use of the modern techniques for elaborating images. The link between the visual perception and the acheiropoietos images is commented. Di Lazzaro Editor pp. View on acheiropoietos. Repice Edizioni Radicequadrata, pp.
The faint yellowed body image embedded into the linen cloth of the Turin Shroud has peculiar chemical and physical characteristics that at the moment cannot be replicated all together in laboratory. The authors present experimental The authors present experimental results of ArF excimer laser irradiation wavelength nm of a raw linen fabric, seeking for coloration similar to that of the Shroud image.
The authors achieved a permanent yellow coloration of linen as a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity and number of shots. Most important, the authors have achieved for the first time a submicrometer depth of coloration of the outermost part of the fibers, leaving a colorless fiber medulla. The authors also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial aging of linen following laser irradiation that at first did not generate any visible effect.
The authors have recognized different physical and chemical processes involved in both coloration and latent coloration. The comparison of the Turin Shroud image with the results of our ArF laser irradiation shows an interesting overlap of the main physical and chemical features. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, G. View on 30giorni. Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud more.
The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation wavelength of We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation wavelength of nm of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence of laser shots.
We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period one year after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.
Baldacchini, P. Murra, G. More Info: Webmaster: Daniele Murra. View on frascati. Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin more. The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science.
We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation wavelengths nm and nm of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation wavelengths nm and nm of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the. Plasma and Applications. We present a low-cost microexposure tool for projection lithography at It is a laboratory-scale system based on a Schwarzschild-type projection optics which uses It is a laboratory-scale system based on a Schwarzschild-type projection optics which uses a laser-plasma soft X-ray source, equipped with a patented debris mitigation system in order to preserve the collector optics.
As a preliminary result, we achieved a nm optical resolution patterning on commercial resist. A sharp improvement in resolution size is expected when operating this tool by a large-output energy excimer laser in order to obtain a single-shot patterning. Flora, L. Mezi, D. Murra and A. EUV nm lithography has come a long way in the last 25 years . The idea of EUVL as a possible extension of conventional optical lithography traces back in fact to  whereas the first experimental results, showing the possibility of resolving 0.
Indeed, nm immersion double patterning continues to be considered as the suitable lithographic technology for volume manufacturing in at the 32nm half-pitch node, whilst EUVL stands out as the only candidate for semiconductor manufacturing at the 22, 16 and 11nm half-pitch nodes. Its placing into manufacturing is expected in , with EUV extension being the technology of choice for Several, however, EUV technology challenges remain; in particular, source power, mask defects, exposure tool throughput, and cost of ownership are rated at the top of the list.
Discharge-produced plasma and laser-produced plasma LPP are the leading technologies for generating high-power EUV radiation.
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Xenon, tin and lithium are the fuel materials of choice for EUV sources. Yet, the ever increasing resolution demanded by the semiconductor industry prescribes that future lithography equipment operates at an even shorter wavelength 6. The radiation emitted by the plasma, possibly debris-cleaned by an appropriate debris-mitigating system DMS , is gathered by the collector optics and focused to the intermediate focus IF , from where it is relayed to the scanner optics and finally to the wafer.
It is at the IF that the source specifications are settled in accord with the high-volume manufacturing requirements, so that the appropriate exposure tool, and particularly its illuminator, does not depend on the EUV source features. LPP sources seem to offer the most promising technology to reach the power levels needed for high-volume manufacturing. Indeed, the requirements for source power have increased over time as it has become clear that high resist dose is needed to simultaneously meet resolution and linewidth-roughness targets.
Indeed, following the radiation path, we will highlight the characteristics of the source, the DMS, the collector, the mask illuminating mirrors, and the imaging optics. Emphasis will be put on the latter, the SO design, mounting and alignment being described in detail. Section 3 gives an account of the successful operation of the device, reported in,1 and of the SO transmission measurement, subsequently carried out in order to identify the cause of the unexpectedly poor performance as regards the overall reflectivity of the objective.
Concluding notes are given in Sect. Torre Publisher: D. Bleiner, J. Costello, F. Dortan, G. O'Sullivan, L. Pina, A. Michette Eds. RSC Publishing, pp. View on pubs. EUV lithography based on laser-plasma sources and debris mitigation: more. Location: Warsaw More Info: S. Conti, P, Di Lazzaro, F.
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Torre, C. Laser produced plasmas are widely used as extreme ultraviolet EUV and soft X-ray radiation sources in many different fields. Lithography is one of the most challenging applications of the EUV spectral region nm. The worldwide The worldwide importance of EUV lithography EUVL is basically due to its potential to extend optical projection lithography to higher resolution in integrated circuit manufacturing, thanks to the shorter wavelength and to the availability of high reflectivity normal incidence mirrors.
In addition to the huge technological and financial effort carried out by international consortia to raise EUVL at the industrial level, less expensive laboratory-scale facilities have been built up to perform component testing and metrology. Within a national project on nanotechnologies at the ENEA Research Centre in Frascati a micro exposure tool MET has been designed and developed for projection lithography, exploiting the facility EGERIA extreme ultraviolet radiation generation for experimental research and industrial applications. Discussion for plasma evolution on laser target more.
Starting from the experimental results of generation of ions from plasmas driven by the laser-facilityHercules at ENEA Frascati, we present some basic equations that account for the main physical phenomena occurring during the plasma Starting from the experimental results of generation of ions from plasmas driven by the laser-facilityHercules at ENEA Frascati, we present some basic equations that account for the main physical phenomena occurring during the plasma expansion from the laser target, including the cluster expansion dynamics.
View on Easy spectrally tunable highly efficient X-ray backlighting schemes based on spherically bent crystals more. New easy spectrally tunable backlighting schemes based on a spherically bent crystal are considered. Contrary to traditional backlighting scheme, in which the investigated objects should be placed between the backlighter and the crystal, Contrary to traditional backlighting scheme, in which the investigated objects should be placed between the backlighter and the crystal, for the considered schemes an object is placed downstream of the crystal, before the tangential or after the sagittal focus and an image of the object is recorded at the distance from the object corresponding to the needed magnification.
The magnification is defined by the ratio of the distances from the sagittal focus to the detector and from the object to the sagittal focus. First results of high-resolution patterning by the ENEA laboratory-scale extreme ultraviolet projection lithography system more. We report the high-resolution patterning achieved by the laboratory-scale micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography realized at the ENEA Frascati Research Center in the frame of a National Project.
Such a result Such a result obtained using a laser-produced-plasma source, a couple of twin ellipsoidal collectors and a low-cost Schwarzschild-type projection optics shows that it is possible to attain a nanometer-scale spatial resolution using relatively inexpensive projection optics. High-efficiency clean EUV plasma source at 10—30 nm, driven by a long-pulse-width excimer laser more.
We observed debris emission using a gated CCD camera, and measured the debris speed for different irradiation conditions. We found irradiation conditions such that the measured velocities were low enough that simple mechanical devices combined with krypton at low-pressure could efficiently stop both ionic debris and cluster debris. Our results show that a suitable combination of driving-laser characteristics, target material and thickness, environment gas and mechanical choppers can make clean and increase the power of EUV solid-target laser-plasma sources.
Bonfigli, E. Burattini, P. Grilli, T. Lisi, A. Marinai, D. Features of plasma produced by excimer laser at low intensities more. The comparison of The comparison of shapes and intensities of some observable spectral lines of H-, He and Li-like ions of Na, Mg and Al with results of model calculations has allowed to determine space distributions of laser plasma parameters up to distances of 0.
Vergunova, A. Magunov, V. Dyakin, A. Faenov, T. Pikuz, I. Skobelev, D. Batani, A. Belardiniello, F. Flora, P. Bollanti, N. Lisi, T. Letardi, A. Reale, L. Palladino, A. Scafati, A. Osterheld, W. View on iopscience. X-ray contact microscopy using an excimer plasma source with different target materials and laser pulse duration more. Soft X-ray contact microscopy SXCM , using a pulsed X-ray source, offers the possibility of imaging the ultrastructure of living biological systems at subnm resolution.
We have developed a table-top pulsed plasma X-ray source for Optimum plasma conditions for SXCM are discussed, including the effect of pulse duration, target material and resist development time on image resolution. Soft X-ray contact images of Chlamydomonas dysosmos unicellular alga and of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya are shown. LISI, A. View on swetswise. We have observed spectra from highly charged zinc ions in a variety of laser-produced plasmas. Identifications and analysis are made by comparison with highly accurate atomic structure calculations and steady state collisional-radiative models.
The diagnostic potential of these Rydberg satellite lines is demonstrated. More Info: K. Fournier, A. Pikuz, A. Magunov, I. Skobelev, F. Belyaev, V. Vinogradov, A. Kyrilov, A. Matafonov, M. Francucci, S. Martellucci, and G. Plasma Physics , Atomic processes - recombination of positive ions, electron detachment, atom-ion collisions - beams and plasma spectroscopy , Laser Plasma Interactions , Laser produced plasma , Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry , and 6 more Computational Plasma Physics , Laser driven ion acceleration, high-power laser plasma interactions , Plasma Physics, Laser Physics , Plasma and Laser , Numerical modelling of high-power laser-plasma interactions , and Study of Laser Produced Plasma Computational Plasma Physics , Laser driven ion acceleration, high-power laser plasma interactions , Plasma Physics, Laser Physics , Plasma and Laser , Numerical modelling of high-power laser-plasma interactions , and Study of Laser Produced Plasma.
The ENEA discharge produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source and its patterning applications more. The DPP is equipped with a debris mitigation system to protect particularly delicate components needed for patterning applications. Details down to nm have been replicated on such photoresists by our laboratory-scale apparatus for contact EUV lithography. Soft X-ray plasma source for atmospheric pressure microscopy, radiobiology and other applications more.
A large-volume non-conventional XeCl excimer laser Hercules emitting long pulses from 10 ns up to ns at a wavelength of nm has been used to drive a soft X-ray plasma source. The X-rays pulse duration and the energy conversion The X-rays pulse duration and the energy conversion efficiency in different spectral regions have been measured; X-rays emission lasting up to ns has been obtained in the 70 eV region.
The X-ray source can be operated both in vacuum and in helium at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results obtained for these two applications as well as for radiographic images of living insects are discussed. Albertano, M. Belli, P. Di Lazzaro, A. Faenov, F. Giordano, A. Grilli, F. Ianzini, S. Kukhlevsky, T. Nottola, L. Palladino, T. Reale, A. Scafati, M. Tabocchini, E. Turcu, K. Vigli-Papadaki and G. View on en. Mitigation of ion and particulate emission from laser-produced plasmas used for extreme ultraviolet lithography more.
While developing a laboratory-scale micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet EUV projection lithography which uses a laser-produced plasma emitting EUV pulsed radiation, we faced the problem of suppressing the various debris ions, While developing a laboratory-scale micro-exposure tool for extreme ultraviolet EUV projection lithography which uses a laser-produced plasma emitting EUV pulsed radiation, we faced the problem of suppressing the various debris ions, neutrals, particulate, clusters, droplets emitted by the plasma target. In this paper we present the experimental measurements of main debris characteristics velocity, size, charge, momentum, spectral energy, spatial distribution.
The excellent performance of our DMS was a breakthrough to achieve a nm patterning on commercial resists by our micro-exposure tool EUV projection lithography. Laser—plasma—source debris-related investigations: an aspect of the ENEA micro-exposure tool more. Debris mitigation is still a critical issue for the development of extreme ultraviolet projection lithography EUVL. The code stands out as a tool for further plasma debris-related analyses. Novel laser ion sources more. Preliminary investigations The preliminary experimental results and the most promising schemes will be discussed with respect to the scaling of the production of high numbers of highly charged ions.
Different lasers are compared in terms of current density at 1 m distance for each charge state. Fournier , H. Haseroth, H. Kugler , N. Lisi , R. Scrivens, F. Varela Rodriguez ,P. Di Lazzaro , F. Duesterer R. Sauerbrey, H. Schillinger, W. Theobald, L. Veisz, J. Tisch, R.
View on rsi. Progress report on a Clearly, this kind of source emits a lot of debris both atomic and particulate types and the 7-cm-far collector mirror must be protected against them. The paper is mostly devoted to the accurate and systematic study of these debris and to their reduction. The results of mitigation efficiency obtained with a DMS prototype are very encouraging and lead to the design and patenting of its improved version.
Catholic Italy and Post-Colonial Africa: the New Subjects of an Informal Commitment in the s
Inner shell satellite transitions in dense short pulse plasmas more. For plasmas created with short pulse duration lasers there are high density and low temperature regions near the target that give rise to three body recombination into Rydberg satellite levels leading to substantial intensity at the position of the resonance transition. Atomic data necessary for spectra simulations have been calculated with inclusion of configuration interaction and relativistic effects and these results are cross-checked with other calculational methods.
More Info: F. Rosmej, A. Pikuz, F. Palladino, D. Scafati, L. Ziegler, M. Fraenkel, R. View on deepdyve. Development and characterization of an XeCl excimer laser-generated soft X-ray plasma source and its applications more. A large-aperture, long-pulse XeCl excimer laser has been used to generate a soft-X-ray plasma source. Several laser optical configurations have been employed to optimise X-ray emission, including positive-branch unstable resonators and The characteristics of the plasma source for each different laser configuration and for different target materials are investigated.
The most suitable source conditions spectral energy distribution, time duration, etc. Bollanti, R. Cotton, P. Lisi, D. Conti, L. Reale, M. Belli, F. Ianzini, A. Tabocchini, A. Laser-Produced Plasmas for Bio-Photonics more. Laser-produced plasmas LPP are laboratory-scale, table-top and high-brightness sources of partially coherent radiation that can be tuned between the extreme ultraviolet and the hard X-rays.
A few LPP emission wavelengths find important A few LPP emission wavelengths find important applications in bio-photonics. A novel portable, high-luminosity monochromatically tunable X-ray microscope more. A novel experimental setup for transmission x-ray microscopy is presented. It is based on the use of a point isotrope X-ray source and a single spherical crystal.
The x-ray beam intensity is modulated by the object attenuation, then We demonstrate by ray tracing technique and experimental testing that this system allows microscopy studies with image resolution better than the dimensions of the source, high magnification ratios, and great field of view. Microscopes using this model can be easily built using different micro x-ray sources, like conventional x-ray tube generators, x-rays emitted by laser generated plasmas or synchrotron radiation.
Some possible applications and preliminary experimental verification of the feasibility of the setup are also presented. Kyrala, J. Gauthier, Proc. Conference Start Date: The measurements provide a means of identifying dielectronic satellite lines from Fe xvi and Fe xv in the vicinity of the strong 2p! The optically thick simulation best reproduced the recorded spectrum from the Hercules laser. However, some discrepancies between the modeling and the recorded spectra remain. The plasma is generated in low-pressure xenon gas and efficiently emits Accurately calibrated Zr-filtered PIN diodes are used to monitor the EUV pulses temporal behaviour and energy emission, while the calibration of a dosimetric film allows a quantitative imaging of the emitted radiation.
This comprehensive plasma diagnostics has allowed adjusting the source configuration for several applications, like, e.
Publication Date: Nov 25, View on journals. A note on the use of refitted photo-multipliers to measure laser plasma ion flow rates more. The measurement of ion flow rates is of basic importance when characterizing, e. In this paper we discuss the advantages and limits of refitted photomultipliers used to measure ion flow rates, and we show the In this paper we discuss the advantages and limits of refitted photomultipliers used to measure ion flow rates, and we show the specific experimental conditions that may require a suitable data calibration to guarantee reliable results.
The theoretical analysis is compared with the experimental results obtained using the Hercules laser-plasma facility at the ENEA Frascati Center. Di Lazzaro, C. Rydberg transitions in the spectra of near-neon-like Cu and Zn ions in different laser-produced plasmas: observations and modeling more. These spectral observations are used to classify the transitions in the 2p—nd and 2s —np Rydberg series of the Ne-like copper and zinc ions, and to derive their first and second ionization energies. The plasma X-ray emission is simulated with a steady-state collisional-radiative model that includes the effect of self-absorption on line intensities, and the effect of hot-electron populations on the ionization balance.
Reale, G. Tomassetti, A. Ritucci, I. Bellucci, S. Martellucci, G. Petrocelli, V. Na-like autoionization states of copper ions in plasma, heated by excimer laser more. Theoretical model calculations were used to Theoretical model calculations were used to identify a number of radiative transitions from autoionizing Na-like copper levels. These transitions were measured with an accuracy of 0. A comparison of these spectral measurements to spectra obtained from lower density Nd-glass laser-produced copper plsmas demonstrated the changing role of different excitation mechanisms for different plasma conditions.
Letardi, L. Reale, D. Mauri, A. Grilli, A. Pikuz, S. Atomic processes - recombination of positive ions, electron detachment, atom-ion collisions - beams and plasma spectroscopy , Atomic Spectroscopy , Laser Plasma Interactions , Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry , Computational Plasma Physics , and 4 more Laser matter and plasma interactions, and related subjects , Numerical modelling of high-power laser-plasma interactions , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , and Study of Laser Produced Plasma Laser matter and plasma interactions, and related subjects , Numerical modelling of high-power laser-plasma interactions , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , and Study of Laser Produced Plasma.
An efficient debris mitigation system has been developed An efficient debris mitigation system has been developed and tested on the DPP source, to protect delicate objects from plasma emitted debris bombardment. The DPP source has been successfully utilized for pattern generation by EUV irradiation of photonic materials like lithium fluoride crystals and various innovative photoresists.
A simple contact EUV lithography technique has been demonstrated to be effective for sub—micrometric resolution patterning on the above mentioned materials. Examples of obtained patterns are presented and discussed. Characteristics of plasma heating by short-wavelength excimer laser radiation more. Various x-ray spectroscopic methods were used to investigate a plasma generated by the interaction of short-wavelength excimer laser radiation pulses 12 ns, 0.
A comparison of the profiles and These parameters were compared with the predictions of a simple theoretical model of the absorption of short-wavelength radiation in a plasma. This showed that the absorption of such radiation with the intensities used in this investigation involved inverse bremsstrahlung in regions with an electron density much lower than the critical value. Faenov, A. Magunov, T.
Skobelev, S. Di Lazzaro, N. Lisi, F. Grilli, D. Goldstein Publication Name: Quantum Electronics 26, Laser generated plasma sources for EUV lithography and debris mitigation issue more. Mitigation of debris produced by laser plasma sources is an issue for the demonstration of feasibility of lithographic processing via extreme ultraviolet radiation.
In this connection, the characterization of debris in terms of nature In this connection, the characterization of debris in terms of nature ionic or cluster sizes and mechanism of formation are of crucial relevance. The experimental investigation and the theoretical estimates performed at ENEA for the development of a reliable Debris Mitigation System are presented. Modelling of the He-like magnesium spectral lines radiation from the plasma created by the XeCl and Nd-glass lasers more.
Resonant and intercombination spectral line formation of He-like magnesium is analyzed both experimentally and numerically.