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- Reading Ladder ~ Fairy Tales
- 50 Must-Read Fairytale Books For Kids: Middle Grade and Picture Books
Neil and Catherine explore mindfulness - what it is and what benefits it offers. Are you an emoji person? We explore how simple smiley faces have become powerful communication tools. What do you eat for lunch? Sandwiches are the most popular lunchtime meal in the UK, but why? Catherine and Neil discuss why the police and the legal system are concerned about eyewitness testimony. Catherine and Neil discuss how the pressures of modern living are making us hostile to each other.
Why are so many people obsessed with learning about their family history? Neil and Catherine talk about genealogy. The increased study of extremophile microbes has revealed a lot about what is and is not needed to sustain life on Earth. Why are we so fascinated with the superheroes that populate our cinema screens and comic books? Alice and Neil discuss whether we would miss driving as driverless cars are tested in cities around the world. Alice and Neil talk about their preferences. Alice and Neil discuss circadian rhythms — the so-called body clock that influences an organism's daily cycle of changes.
Why do we fear animals that pose no threat to us? Sophie and Neil discuss the reason why fear of spiders is so common. Neil and Alice talk about the defiant women who fought for their right to choose their representatives. Call them what you want — trainers, sneakers, tennis shoes — but why does everybody love them so much? Sophie and Neil discuss social networks and why we often use different identities for different social media. Free, digital news is threatening traditional newspapers.
Sophie and Neil discuss the pros and cons of news in print. Why are we attracted to some people and not to others? Sophie and Neil discuss love at first sight. What is loneliness and why do we feel it? Sophie and Neil discuss how feeling lonely can help us to survive. How do you see yourself and how do others see you? Alice and Neil discuss identity and how appearances can be deceptive.
Why is punctuation important? Neil and Alice discuss rhetoric, commas and full stops. Alice and Neil discuss penicillin, the so-called wonder drug discovered in by Alexander Fleming. What might the world look like if temperatures keep rising? Neil and Alice discuss the need to adapt to the changes ahead. Did you ever own a Walkman or a record player? Alice and Neil discuss old tech and why the US Pentagon still uses floppy disks. Neil and Alice discuss the differences between slang, jargon, and swearing, while teaching you some Cockney Rhyming Slang.
Do women clean the house more often than men? Alice and Neil discuss the topic and teach you a tidy amount of vocabulary. Is food labelling clear enough to help us make healthy choices? Alice and Neil discuss chocolate chip muffins along with some other tasty vocabulary.
Who were the Muses and how did they help the creative process? Neil and Alice discuss how to be more creative. Will we still be speaking in an English we recognise in a thousand years' time? Alice and Neil make some educated guesses! Why do some weeks just fly by but sometimes minutes can seem like hours? Neil and Alice discuss our perception of time. What will the cities of the future look like, and will we enjoy living in them?
Alice and Neil discuss Neil's attempt at town planning. Why is the disease diabetes on the rise? Alice and Neil talk about the role that diet has to play in this global health problem. Why do we procrastinate? Rob and Alice discuss why it can be difficult to get on with tasks. Why do we like to impersonate people? Neil tries out his best impression of Elvis while teaching you some related vocabulary. Alice and Rob consider which study techniques are good and which aren't. Does sleeping with a book under your pillow help?
Young entrepreneurs are appearing everywhere. Alice and Rob discuss whether grey hair is best. Why do people often say one thing and do another? Alice and Rob ask how far hypocrisy is actually part of who we are. Do you have what it takes to go to space? Alice and Rob discuss the challenges of a job thousands of people are keen on. Do you believe men walked on the Moon? Alice and Rob discuss why some people are suspicious about everything. You've decluttered and tidied but could you live life free of stuff?
Alice and Rob discuss why we give objects emotional value. Are you a teetotaler or a drinker? Rob and Alice discuss what risk to your health regular drinking may have. What does it take to impress the ladies in the 21st century? Neil and Alice discuss knights in shining armour. Is retirement the end of everything or just a door for new opportunities?
Alice and Rob talk about aging.
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Do you always agree with what most people in your group say? Neil and Sophie discuss staff meetings. Neil and Sophie discuss the health benefits of being able to speak two languages fluently. And Neil How often do you check your phone? Neil and Sophie discuss how social media is changing the way we interact. Sophie and Neil discover that soil has some surprising qualities and discuss how growing food can be therapeutic too. Sophie and Neil talk about traditional fairy tales for the adult market and teach you some magical vocabulary.
Neil and Sophie discuss the growing industry of team building — from zombie bootcamps to horse training for executives. Neil and Sophie talk about gene editing, designer babies and how many errors Neil might have in his genetic code. How generous are you? Neil and Sophie discuss Mark Zuckerberg and what it takes to be a modern-day philanthropist. Are the days of paying by cash for a latte or a newspaper nearly gone? Alice and Neil discuss Neil's fondness for loose change Tea comes in different forms — milky, sweet or spicy. Alice and Neil discuss how this Asian leaf conquered the world.
Train, car, bicycle Hundreds of millions of us make the same journey day in day out. Take a hike with Alice and Neil and learn new vocabulary. Are food allergies on the increase and if so, why? Neil and Alice talk about the growing fear of food and teach new words. Are artificial lights and late night TV ruining our sleep? Neil and Alice discuss the issue and teach you related vocabulary. What does it take to be a good interviewer?
Neil and Alice discuss TV chat show hosts and teach you some related vocabulary. How much does appearance really matter? Neil and Alice discuss fitness and New Year's resolutions. Neil and Alice discuss how some charities are helping those in need. Alice and Finn talk about the passion some people have for danger and the unseen threats we face every day.
Alice and Neil discuss the psychological pressures of going to university.
They also teach some related vocabulary. Neil and Alice discuss the long-lasting appeal of this man with a bow and how he has changed over the centuries. Do you know how much your partner earns? Is he or she in debt? Would this make you love them less? The BBC broadcasts a season of programmes discussing women's issues around the world. Should we all pay for supermarket plastic bags? Neil and Alice take a look at the environmental impact of plastic and teach you some related words. The bicycle is the most popular form of two-wheeled transport in the world, but could we all soon be using hoverboards?
Listen to Neil and Finn's conversation and learn some new words. If you are sitting at a desk or answering the phone, stop for a moment and ask: could a robot or machine do this job better? Neil and Finn discuss the future of our jobs. Neil and Alice discuss what kind of book people like to be seen reading. Do you like to impress people with a classic book in your hands? Do you dress formally or casually? Do you choose trendy items or old comfortable ones?
Rob and Will talk about the meaning of clothes. It's been described as the world's largest and most democratic classical music festival. What an awful sound - cracking your knuckles! Listen in to Rob and Neil to find out if it's a useful skill or just an annoying habit. Was Charles Darwin the only man with ideas about evolution? Rob and Neil talk about someone else who discovered it first. What are the modern day dilemmas in using a lift?
Rob and Neil discuss the awkwardness and irritation of being in one.forum2.quizizz.com/la-historia-de-anan-primer-libro.php
Reading Ladder ~ Fairy Tales | Smore Newsletters
Should young people be made to vote in elections or should we choose? We discuss the ideas behind compulsory voting. What do we need our chins for? Rob and Neil discuss how we got them and what our chins say about us. Why do gibbons sing duets and what has this got to do with the evolution of the human language? It's amazing! What part of our body have scientists discovered can heal and help us? Do you chew gum and what do you do with it when you've finished?
Listen to Rob and Finn discussing the history and chemical properties of gum and why it's messing up our streets whilst explaining some related vocabulary. Food banks provide food to people in the UK who can't afford to buy their own. Rob and Finn discuss this how they work and how they help many of the country's poorest. Listen to Neil and Rob discussing mood swings, risk taking, and why people make fun of teenagers, while they also explore some related vocabulary.
How can remote parts of the world get access to the internet? Neil and Catherine discuss a new idea for spreading knowledge. What makes us angry and why is aggression useful? Neil and Catherine discuss human behaviour. Big bushy beards have become so fashionable that there's now an art exhibition dedicated to them.
A London apartment block has front and back entrances for private and social housing - or so-called rich and poor doors. Does it make sense to you? Listen to a discussion whilst learning some housing-related vocabulary. Fifty years ago, on 18 March , Soviet astronaut Alexei Leonov took the first space walk. Listen to Rob and Neil describing the struggles of that ground-breaking space mission whilst explaining some related vocabulary. Furniture with built-in wireless charging technology - like a coffee table is now being sold.
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So you just pop your phone on the table, and technology does the rest! Many animals face extinction. But people are realising that they must act now to stop further losses. A scheme to save the Asian elephant in China could provide an answer. How does music make you feel? Research shows that it actually influences us more than we realise - whether we're at the movies, the supermarket, or down the pub. Coffee is now the most popular drink in the world. But what about the economics and politics of coffee production? It's as complicated as getting the right flavour in your cup.
Rob and Neil put on their sunglasses to find out more about this special star and teach some related vocabulary. The UK has become the first country to approve legislation allowing the creation of babies with genetic material from three people. What are some art galleries banning to protect their paintings? Find out with Neil and Harry. An electronic device under your skin?! Workers in Sweden take part in experiment which allows them to get in and out of their office without a key, ID or password. He is known throughout the world for his role in defeating Nazi Germany but he also made mistakes.
We live in a richer world. But the gap between rich and poor is still very wide in individual countries. How to change this? The price of vaccines has escalated and some poor countries are struggling to prevent children from catching certain life-threatening diseases, says Medecins Sans Frontieres.
Will thinking computers be the end of humans? About 37, tourists are expected to visit Antarctica this season. But should they be going to a region with such a sensitive environment? At a time when more people compete for fewer jobs, are you sure you present your skills and abilities well to a potential employer?
Listen to Rob and Neil's conversation and learn some related vocabulary. Going to a party where you don't know anyone? Listen to Rob and Neil's advice and learn some related vocabulary. We use computers for everything nowadays. Are we forgetting our own abilities - and losing our talent? Listen to Rob and Neil's discussion, and learn some related vocabulary. Smoking in cars with children might be banned in England. Listen to Neil and Rob's chat and learn some related vocabulary.
Is bullying just an attempt to give a bad name to what is part of human nature? What would you put in your time capsule? When enemy soldiers sang together in WW1. Are your pictures, documents and videos safe online? Listen to Rob and Finn's chat and learn new vocabulary. How can science fiction help the world? Rob and Finn discuss a project which aims to inspire through stories of a bright future. Rob and Finn discuss the World Health Organisation's recommendations on e-cigarettes. Is it right to sleep at work?
You can hear the right answer at the end of the programme. Vocabulary remake a film that has been made again genre style or category of a film, novel etc dark scary or frightening toned down made less forceful moral message about what's right and wrong inception beginning gobble up eat something very quickly Transcript Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript Sophie Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. Neil Hmm. What's wrong with childish?
Sophie It's right up your street, isn't it Neil? Neil Too right. Sophie Hmm. I prefer the kiss version. Neil I said Cate Blanchett. Neil Now, can we hear those words again? Their dedication and evident passion for their respective work has truly been a great inspiration for me. Even though fairy tales have never been merely tales to me, I was delighted to gain more insight and explore the multifarious depths of this genre in their seminars Self, Identity and Alterity in Modern and Contemporary Literature Dr.
I would also like to express my thanks to Dr. Parker for his generous assistance and advice during the final semester, or, if this was a fairy tale: during the final stage. My interest and appreciation for literature studies have never been greater and I would like to hold these two proficient university lecturers accountable for it. Thank you. On a personal note, I would like to express my gratitude to my mother for her devoted support and guidance on rainy days, as well as to the rest of my family for being my rock whenever I set sail to foreign lands.
Last but not least, I would also like to acknowledge my best friend, flatmate and fellow student of five years, Manuela Wiegmann — together we made it. Now I read those tales of wonder to my nieces myself, only to discover the same excitement in their eyes that I, too, once felt. And still feel, for fairy tales never cease to amaze. Today I might not be sitting on my bed, waiting for someone to read or recite a classic tale or an old myth to me, but I am nevertheless eager to witness new forms and ways for my old tales to be told, in different countries, under different roofs.
As I am finding myself in a process of constant changing and adapting, I am once again accompanied by an old friend, the tale. In a Darwinian sense, the term adaptation manifests first and foremost survival through evolution, a theory I find very applicable to literary studies, and more specifically, to the concept of continuity with regard to classic fairy tales. I therefore argue in my paper that contemporary adaptations of fairy tales positively affect the continuance of the tradition of storytelling.
In order to further explore my thesis, I chose and analysed various adaptations of two classic fairy tales and compared them to the source fairy tale, its origins and its influence in modern times. Before I will specifically concentrate on the tales of Rapunzel and Little Red Riding Hood , I will start my paper by giving an introduction to the fairy tale genre in general, as well as to the art and techniques of adaptation.
Over the past decades, a lot of scientific works have been published concerning the most popular fairy tales, e. Snow White , Sleeping Beauty or Cinderella. In fact, this was done in such a great quantity that I did not feel very compelled to write about any of the afore-mentioned fairy tales. Instead, I noticed that within a time frame of mere four months, new film adaptations of the classic tales Rapunzel , Beauty and the Beast and Little Red Riding Hood were to be released in theatres, which gave me a first idea.
The movies Tangled Disney, and Red Riding Hood Hardwicke, eventually turned out to take up most of my examination, as their genre-conform approaches impressively differ from one another and their respective source material. Nevertheless, I will also draw on other fairy tales and their adapted forms as illustrative examples. Adapting and adjusting start where mere copying ends. It takes the product, or in this case story, beyond its original parameters, shaping it anew but preserving the core at the same time.
It may be stripped bare until only the most distinctive features remain, translated into different times or even circumstances. Especially fairy tales were designed for exactly this: to be most fitting in any situation, anywhere and anytime, profession irrelevant. The short prose of fairy tales or even the slightly longer ones known as fairy tale novellas allow audience and adapters to fill the gaps, to extend the story or simply provide a new livery — in this regard the possibilities seem to be endless.
As time passed, classic tales have grown in all kinds of directions, from the hearth to the stage, onto paper and screen. If we take a closer look at some tales, especially those by the brothers Grimm, we soon realise that the motif of conveying certain morals is just a superficial layer that has mostly been added once the group of listeners and readers became increasingly younger. In the old times during monocracy, slavery or serfdom and amidst oral tradition, fairy tales were told to and by adults. They processed everyday experiences, expressed among hopes and fears, a need for equity and justice and included wishes that could only come true with the help of magic.
They remain as the main target group up until today, even though many fairy tales motifs and themes can be found in the entertainment world of adults as well. And are adaptations not a hybrid form […]? Stam 3. On the other hand, he does not fail to outline the threat that adaptations pose to their literary sources for they can also be.
Notwithstanding the manifold disapproving statements that have presumably existed ever since the very first fairy tale adaptation, Jack Zipes underlines my thesis by claiming that. The curious thing about a fairy tale definition is that there is no consistent definition, only guidelines which include representative characters or archetypes , themes and motifs and that are ever open for dispute.
One of the difficulties is that the term fairy tale itself is too broad on the one hand, yet also too constrictive on the other. It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvelous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses. As a sub-genre, the fairy tale belongs to the genre of general folktales, which also includes legends, fables and myths. However, the lines between those sub-genres are often indistinct and can blur easily, making it impossible to be properly distinguished from one other.
Fairy tales are furthermore understood as orally passed down narrations from generation to generation, with varying characters, order of events and endings. This does not necessarily exclude the former, though historical, artistic or cultural influences as well as personal accounts regarding the perception of tales are not considered a priority in this theory. Again, in the sense of Herder, the concept has developed that fairy tales have become part of the ethnic soul with a transpersonal and time-transcending nature cf.
Liptay 40 f. The reason why origins of fairy tales are indeed explicitly difficult to trace, despite their longevity, is because of the little literary evidence there is, including cave art. The idea of collecting those stories told within a community became fashionable in the sixteenth and seventeenth century in the Western world and was further encouraged by the invention of the printing press in Sleeping Beauty and Straparola e. Puss in Boots , along with other folktales from the French oral culture and adjusted them to the likings of the current society.
Iron John , Basile e. Rapunzel or Perrault e. Little Red Riding Hood. In fact, all five authors hold a position somewhere between publishers of orally told folk tales and writers of literary fairy tales. They did not invent the whole story, but changed them enough e.
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Whereas possessing books was a sign of luxury in former centuries, certain writings soon became affordable to the common people. They are therefore called or declared folk tales due to the unidentifiable inventor or rather inventor s of such story. There are, however, exceptions to this. It is even preceded by the Indian Panchatantra from the third century BC as well as The Tale of the Two Brothers which is considered to be one of the oldest known fairy tales as it dates back to ancient Egypt in BC.
Yet, how precisely those tales relate to popular narrations of their respective period of time and its people, remains unknown. They do, however, prove that the beginnings of collecting fairy tales started during antiquity and not, as opposed to popular belief, in the fourteenth century with the oriental collection of One Thousand and One Nights cf. Fairy tales had not been classified as a distinctive literature genre for a long time. Among them, of course, was Charles Perrault. Most popular volumes of collected fairy tales have remained mainly unchanged in their overall concept until today.
In her book WunderWelten , Fabienne Liptay refers to this as literary fixation cf. Liptay Over the centuries, fairy tales changed whenever society changed, mirroring the difficulties of everyday life albeit the magical elements. As the adjustments to the folk tales came to a stop, the process of actualising or updating the tales also halted and as a result, the conditions of life in the fairy tale no longer match the evolving reality of today.
Reading Ladder ~ Fairy Tales
Authors of literary fairy tales, such as Oscar Wilde, use the traditional form and structure, but invent their own fairy tales. The Happy Prince , e. Fairy tale novellas or novella fairy tales i. Hoffmann, author of The Golden Pot — A modern Fairy Tale added a more sinister or eerie taste to the fairy tale in his novellas. The possibly best known inventor of literary fairy tales, H. Andersen, created a unique style of his own that has become recognised and inspired many an adaptation worldwide.
It conveys no hope whatsoever to the reader, but reveals the harshness of reality in every line instead. Everyone is on his own in his life, which never ends happily, but always deathly. There is no distinction between reality and the supernatural; both worlds are inseparably entwined in fairy tales. Laws of nature are naturally overruled, meaning that everything is possible in the fairy tale which may include actions like communicating with animals or meeting magical figures like sorcerers or witches.
Furthermore it does not come as a surprise that many protagonists of various tales do not possess common names. Beauty, Dwarf , their everyday or supernatural profession e. Tailor, Witch , their status e. Prince , the degree of kinship e. Stepsister and so forth. Whether these distinctive features are preserved in an adaptation as well differs from author to artist, who re-interpret and appropriate fairy tales to their own imagination.
Depending on the objectives, adaptations may incorporate the typical characteristics of fairy tales, may invent new contexts or may be presented as a combination of both. The almost non-existent introduction to the story is another characteristic feature of the fairy tale. Unlike in novels, there is not much space needed to create a whole new world, which, again, is supported by the concept of the collective memory.
The fairy tale cuts right to the point of conflict, which is usually a state of injustice or improper behaviour. Many popular tales follow that pattern so that certain features have become an easily recognisable identifier of fairy tales. Problems and difficulties, although kept relatively short compared to other genres, are soon established in order to build up the arch of suspense and because the alternative would be too small a challenge for the protagonist to be worthy of a personal happy ending.
50 Must-Read Fairytale Books For Kids: Middle Grade and Picture Books
Fairy tales do not have to include the obligatory fairy in order to be called fairy tale. Before and after the time of etymological development, tales have been told with or without fairies, talking animals, sorcerers, witches and the like. No matter whether the supernatural element finds its way into the tale or not, they still mirror the wishes and longings of a seemingly unified audience.
Ever since the oral tradition has turned into a written one, the conventions of a former reality have been left untouched. Many tales are full of surprises, hope and humour. Instead of witty dialogues, humour in fairy tales is generally conveyed through the actions of the characters. The witch in Petrosinella , for instance, tries to catch the thief by lying underneath the earth, with just one ear above it. Thus, the thief thinks the large ear to be a special, yet beautiful mushroom and tries to pick it up.
Many people like to add a happy ending to the general set of fairy tales rules. Nevertheless, it is certainly not true for all fairy tales, even though such idea might have arisen because of various factors. First of all, many popular tales like Snow White or Beauty and the Beast end indeed very happily. Secondly, it is conceivable that a later version, which provides a happy ending at last, may come to fame. Little Red Riding Hood turns out to be a decent example: Whereas Charles Perrault lets the heroine die at the end of the tale in order to emphasise his message of warning, the brothers Grimm decided to have mercy on her and created a different, a happy ending, making it the favoured version of this tale.
Yet numerous tales by different authors are not providing the reader with a classic happy ending, at least not at the first glance. Even though fairy tales are not always fated to end with a happy ending, many of them still provide the reader with optimistic impressions. This means that even though the hero or the heroine has to go through hard times or accomplish nearly impossible tasks during his or her quest, they innately know that they will be rewarded in the end.
At the peak of utter bleakness of prospects a rescuing, often supernatural force helps the protagonists to overcome their misfortune and guide them towards their wish fulfilment, underscoring the presumption that fairy tales first and foremost, consciously or unconsciously, mediate the concept of hope to its reader or audience. It is, according to Winfried Freund, the last significant collection of folk tales that offers a tale from varying cultural circles every day cf. Coming across one of those international collections of tales, it seems like a tale of wonder itself that a great amount of similar fairy tales exist in yet so many different countries.
Themes and motifs repeat themselves even though the countries, in which they were originally told, lie far away from each other and did not have direct contact with one another. Due to the longevity of fairy tales, large migrations display a supplementary possibility. Scholars refer to this as the concept of monogenesis: the singular development of fairy tales.
The Indian Panchatantra e. However, this theory does not explain why peoples that evidently never came into contact with each other call similar fairy tales their own. In this case the theory of polygenesis, represented especially by the Jungians, provides a look at the unique phenomenon of humanity that connects every human being, body and soul combined, and eventually produces the so-called archetype.
International exchange further has the effect that the boundaries of similarly structured and thematised fairy tales blur in the collective memory due to the great number of variants of one tale. In there were recorded versions of the Cinderella tale, followed by presumably thousands of similar editions and adaptations in various medial sectors around the world.
As opposed to other forms of art, the fairy tale genre evolved as a closely intertwined entity with traditional motifs which are frequently revisited, cited, varied, continued or advanced cf. Adapting literature is, to put it briefly, transferring a story from one medium to another while keeping the essence of the original work cf. Syd Field, author of a number of books subject to screenwriting, further adds that adapting a medium is the ability to make something inherently consistent by means of modification and adjustment cf. Conventions of the respective media have to be recognised and overcome in order to create something new without being held as a mere copy of something already existent.
Stam further sums up the unbalanced relationship between literature and, as will be discussed thoroughly in the next chapters, its cinematic adaptations with regards to reoccurring, though contradictive arguments by critics:.