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HKD 3, List Price: HKD 2, HKD 2, Customer Service. Currencies: HKD. You have no items in your shopping cart. Order tracking. Search again here by Google! Compare Books. You have no items to compare. For the oldest sources, up to and including the Year Books and the Old Bailey records to the end of the seventeenth century, we tried to include or cite every relevant source that we uncovered.

As the records became more plentiful, we included representative samples of the various approaches that we found. In America, cases are scarce until the late nineteenth century, and often the early American cases we included are the only ones of that type that we found. But the early American cases follow the English cases of the period so closely that we believe the American cases we present accurately describe the law of the time.

To minimize footnotes, we did not use multiple citations to the same work if it is easy to find the referenced page from an earlier citation in the same paragraph. We owe debts to many. We would also like to thank Martin Tulic for indexing. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Prevalent assumptions of videotaped confessions suggest that they allow for a more complete and objective record of the police-suspect interaction, and they serve as a visual representation that can be interpreted more fluidly by fact finders the judge and the jurors during the trial proceedings.

Psychological research suggests that evaluations of videotaped confessions are altered by changes in the camera perspective used at initial recording. Extensive empirical data has been collected in this area, manipulating the camera perspective to a suspect-focus the front of the suspect from waist up and the back of the Detective 's head and shoulders , detective-focus the front of the detective and the back of the suspect , and equal-focus the profiles of both the detective and the suspect were equally visible perspective. Equal-focus videotapes produced voluntariness judgments that did not differ from those based on either audiotapes or transcripts.

The manner in which videotaping is implemented holds the potential for bias. This bias can be avoided by using an equal-focus perspective. This finding has been replicated numerous times, reflecting the growing uses of videotaped confessions in trial proceedings.

Confessions of Guilt

Camera perspective bias is a result of fundamental attribution error and, more specifically, illusory causation. Visual perspective is important in determining attributional differences between interactants. Visual perspective was varied by the differential seating of the observers. After the conversation ended, observers rated each interactant in terms of the amount of causal influence he or she exerted during the exchange.

Observers who sat where they could see both interactants very well viewed both subjects equally in terms of causality. Attributional complexity is the ability to efficiently deduce causality in necessary situations. Changes in camera perspective are accompanied by changes in the visual content available to the observer. Judges conduct an omnibus hearing with prosecutors and defense counsel to decide on the voluntariness and the admissibility of a confession when its legitimacy is disputed.

Research shows that a judge's requirement-of-proof instruction to a mock jury the defendant is presumed innocent, the burden of proof is on the prosecution , and guilt must be established beyond a reasonable doubt has more impact on jurors' verdicts when made prior to the presentation of evidence than when made after the presentation of evidence. Therefore, the timing of judicial instruction before or after the presentation of the confession can be a potential moderator of the camera perspective bias.

Judges play a crucial role in determining what confession evidence juries are allowed to consider. It is possible that their greater knowledge, experience, and understanding of the law can mitigate them against the camera bias effect.

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Accountability or blameworthiness does not alter camera perspective bias even though high accountability yield a more careful and thorough processing of information. Criticisms regarding psychological research concerning jury simulation claim that it lacks in ecological validity. According to these criticisms, moving closer to a high standard of ecological validity is required for psychological science to sway the skeptical legal community.

Research indicates that an equal focus perspective produces relatively unbiased assessments of videotaped interrogations. To aid criminal-justice practitioners and legal policy makers to achieve sound and fair policy, psychologists presented the following recommendations based on the body of research: [50] [68]. Police use persuasive manipulation techniques when conducting interrogations in hopes of obtaining a confession. These can include lying about evidence, making suspects believe they are there to help them, or pretending to be the suspect's friends.

After enough time and persuasion suspects are likely to conform to the investigators' demands for a confession, even if it was to a crime they did not commit. One of the most important findings in guilt manipulation research is that once guilt is induced in the subject, it can be directed into greater compliance with requests that are completely unrelated to the original source of guilt.

Confessions of Guilt - George C Thomas Iii - Bok () | Bokus

This has important implications for police interrogation, because guilt induction is recommended in manuals on police interrogation. They stated in their research that, "We were discouraged to find that police often receive only minimal, and sometimes no, formal training to interview cooperative witnesses, and, not surprisingly, their actual interview practices are quite poor. The easiest way to complete an investigation would be a confession.

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  • Fisher and Geiselman concur, saying, "It seems to be more on interrogating suspects to elicit confessions rather than on interviewing cooperative witnesses and victims". This study suggests that more training could prevent false confessions, and give police a new mindset while in the interview room. Psychological research has explored camera perspective bias with African American and Chinese American suspects.

    All interrogations were taped in an equal-focus perspective. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Crime of Cuenca. Main article: Stephen Downing case. Main article: Birmingham Six. Main article: Guildford Four and Maguire Seven. Main article: Murder of Lesley Molseed. Main article: Brown v.

    Main article: Norfolk Four. Main article: Laverne Pavlinac. Academic Press, Retrieved 3 May Current Directions in Psychological Science. Retrieved 8 January Connelly , 49 U. Voice of Bahrain. Archived from the original on 16 January Archived from the original on 23 September The New York Times. Retrieved 11 May State of Mississippi". Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 13 December The New Yorker.

    The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 May Crime Library. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 12 November Office of the Attorney General. State of California Department of Justice. Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 20 October Chicago Police Department".

    MacArthur Justice Center. Northwestern University Law School. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 12 December The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved 14 December California Law Review. Daniel; Lindberg, M. American Psychologist. Washington, DC: U. Department of Justice. Daniel; Geers, Andrew L. Journal of Applied Psychology. Psychological Science.

    The Impact of Miranda

    Daniel; Slaw, R. David; Briggs, Michael A. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Daniel; Ware, Lezlee J. Legal and Criminological Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Daniel; Schmidt, Heather C. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

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    Daniel; Lindberg, Matthew J. The Psychology of Interrogations and Confessions. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.