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Several planters divided up sizable tracts of land and gave them to their former slaves, which angered poor whites. In , a field of natural gas was discovered near Caddo Lake and began to supply city needs. Lancaster , the Texas and Pacific Railway experienced its height during the first half of the 20th century, and Marshall's ceramics industry expanded to the point that the city was called by boosters the "Pottery Capital of the World".
In , what was then the largest oil field in the world was discovered at nearby Kilgore. The first student at Marshall High School to have a car was Lady Bird Johnson , a kind of progress that excited many students. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, children of both races were forced into accepting the law of racial segregation in the state.
Marshall resident George Dawson became a writer, later describing his childhood under segregation in his memoir Life Is So Good. He described how, in some instances, other African Americans and he refused the demands of Jim Crow. He rejected one employer who expected him to eat with her dogs.
As blacks were being excluded from politics and tensions rose, more lynchings of black men took place, a form of extrajudicial punishment and social control. Beginning in the late 19th century, a total of 14 African-American men were lynched in the county, the third-highest total in the state. Between October and August , at least 12 people were lynched in Marshall, all black men. In the early and midth century, Marshall's traditionally black colleges , Wiley and Bishop, were thriving intellectual and cultural centers.
The writer Melvin B. Countee, who studied at Bishop in the mids, went on to have a successful career as a teacher and artist in the NYC area, where he lived and also died. Inspired by the teachings of professors such as Tolson, students and former students of the colleges mobilized to challenge and dismantle Jim Crow in the s and s.
This suit overturned Jim Crow in the county with the Perry v. Cyphers ruling. Heman Sweatt , a Wiley graduate, tried to enroll in the University of Texas at Austin Law School , but was denied entry because of his race. He sued and the United States Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of postgraduate studies in public universities in Texas in its ruling in Sweatt v. Painter James L. Farmer Jr. The Civil Rights Movement reached into the s, s, and s. In the s, students organized the first sit-ins in Texas,  in the rotunda of the county courthouse on Whetstone Square, protesting continuing segregation of public schools.
This governmental practice had been declared unconstitutional in by the US Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. In , all Marshall public schools were finally integrated. Also in that year, Carolyn Abney became the first woman to be elected to the Marshall City Commission.
In April , nearly a decade after passage of the federal Voting Rights Act of , local businessman Sam Birmingham became the first African American to be elected to the city commission. In the s, he was elected as the city's first African-American mayor. Birmingham retired in for health concerns and was succeeded by his wife, Jean Birmingham. Marshall's railroad industry declined during the restructuring of the industry; most trains were converted to diesel fuel , and many lines merged. The Texas oil bust of the s devastated the local economy. The city's population declined by about 1, between and During the midth century, the city lost many of its historic landmarks to redevelopment or neglect.
For a time people, preferred "modern" structures; other buildings were demolished because tax laws favored new construction. By , Marshall's opera house, the Missouri Capitol, the Moses Montefiore Synagogue, the original Viaduct, the Capitol Hotel, and the campus of Bishop College including the Wyalucing plantation house had been demolished. In the s, the city began to study historic preservation efforts of nearby Jefferson , and has since emphasized preservation of historic assets throughout the remainder of the 20th century.
Due to newly completed construction projects, the city was one of 10 designated in as an All-America City by the National Civic League. Burns, signed legislation recognizing Marshall as a sister city to the much larger Taipei. During this period, Bill Moyers won an Emmy for his documentary, Marshall, Texas: Marshall, Texas , chronicling the history of race relations in the city.
In terms of the city's economy, the s through s were a period of social and economic decline, largely because of the oil industry and manufacturing changes. Longview surpassed it in population and economy. In the s and s, the city began to concentrate on diversifying its economy; tourism has been increasingly important. The Wonderland of Lights became the most popular and one of the largest light festivals in the United States.
By , the Wonderland of Lights had become such a part of the cityscape that the lighted dome of the Old Courthouse was the most recognizable symbol of the city; marked the 25th anniversary of the Wonderland of Lights festival.creditmasterslive.com/wp-includes
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The city expected more than , visitors during the event's day run, beginning with the official lighting ceremony on November 23, During the s, the downtown had moderate economic growth, which supported restoration of significant buildings. Restaurants, boutiques, and loft apartments were developed in downtown, adding to the variety of its daily life and pedestrians on the streets. Some projects adapted historic structures for reuse. Many historic homes outside of downtown continue to deteriorate. Some structures in moderate condition were approved for demolition for replacement by prefabricated or tin structures.
Whetstone Square has become quite busy again, with few empty buildings around it. Lack of funding and manpower has slowed movement on demolition and salvage of historic homes. The Sam B. Hall, Jr. Federal Courthouse has been the venue for several cases challenging state practices under provisions of the Voting Rights Act of For instance, the Democratic Party challenged the redistricting by the state legislature, arguing that it diluted minority rights.
Perry It upheld the state's actions, with the exception of Texas's 23rd congressional district ; redistricting was required that affected neighboring districts, as well. It had little effect on the new Republican majority of the Texas Congressional delegation after the elections. TiVo sued EchoStar over digital video recorder patent rights. The number of patent suits filed in was 32, and the number for has been estimated at Marshall was profiled on This American Life , as its juries' support of plaintiffs in patent suits has generated controversy.
This issue dominated city-county relations during the decade. On January 18, , Dr. John Tennison, a San Antonio physician and musicologist, publicized his research that found that boogie-woogie music was first developed in the Marshall area in the early s. According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of To the west of US 59, south of Pinecrest Drive, are older suburbs ; north of Pinecrest Drive, the oldest portion of the city stretches northward over seven hills. This portion of the city radiates out from downtown, which is centered on the Old Harrison County Courthouse in Peter Whetstone Square.
Immediately to the north of the square is the Ginocchio National Historic District , where the city's Amtrak station is located. This region of the city is bisected along an east-west by Grand Ave. US Spreading out from downtown is a belt of antebellum and Victorian homes centered on Rusk and Houston Streets. To the west of downtown are some of the oldest African-American neighborhoods in Texas, centered on Wiley College.
Marshall has a humid subtropical climate , characterized by hot summers and fairly mild winters. On average, Marshall receives The precipitation is relatively evenly spread throughout the year, with only July and August receiving less than 3.
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In the spring, severe weather is not uncommon, and tornadoes have hit the city in the past, including an F2 that struck the south side of town in , wiping out a Domino's Pizza on US Highway At the census  of , 23, people, 8, households, and 6, families resided in the city. The population density was The 9, housing units averaged The racial makeup of the city was Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8. Of the 8, households, About The average household size was 2. In the city, the population was distributed as The median age was 34 years.
For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The City of Marshall has a council-manager form of municipal government, with all governmental powers resting in a legislative body called a commission. The commission passes all city laws and ordinances, adopts budgets, determines city policy, and appoints city officials, including the city manager , who serves as the executive of the city government and is in charge of enforcing city laws and administering the city's various departments.
The city commission has seven members, each elected from a single-member district. So, every location in the city falls in two districts, one from each set. Each commissioner is elected to a two-year term. After each election, the city commission selects a commissioner to serve as chairman, generically called a mayor, until after the next year's election. If no one files to run against a commissioner, as happened with District 1 in , the commissioner is reinstated and an election for that district is not held that year.
The city commission meets twice a month on the second and fourth Thursdays, in addition to any special sessions that are called or regular meetings that are cancelled. The Commission provides a public forum before each regular session, providing citizens the opportunity to address the commission for two minutes without forward notice; with notice additional time may be scheduled.
The commission meetings are broadcast on radio and on the local government-access television public-access television cable TV station. Management of the city and coordination of city services are provided by: . At the federal level, the two U. Much of the nation's patent litigation is handled in or around Marshall, Texas. Marshall's economy is diversified and includes services such as insurance claims processing at Health Care Service Corporation , also known as BlueCross BlueShield of Texas, education at several institutes of higher learning, manufacturing such as wood kitchen cabinets at Republic Industries and pottery at several manufacturers.
Tourism is also an important industry, with about one million tourists visiting the city each year. Marshall has a local sales tax of 2. The Marshall Economic Development Corporation lobbies companies to locate in Marshall and offers incentives to businesses that do. The Greater Marshall Chamber of Commerce represents the interests of local businesses to local, state, and national leaders.
Marshall is served by two taxicab companies. The Harrison County Airport is located in Marshall. Highway 59 via Marshall. The sketchnote has a life after a conference, workshop, or event, unlike the vague scribbles we may all be familiar with that languish at the back of a little-used notebook in our desk drawer. Spending time on your notes means you are more likely to return to them for reference, simply to reflect, or to use them as a visual prompt to support discussion with others. With this new series of blog articles for Interactions, we will share many examples of sketchnotes from CHI and other related events and conferences, but also reflect on the practice of sketchnoting and share techniques of how to integrate sketchnoting as an everyday practice.
Miriam: During my M. Eager to try out this visual form or notetaking, I read up about sketchnotes , took two pens, and attempted the practice at the next research talk I attended. It was of varied success: The Sharpie I was using was too fat in the nib and the ink bled through the cheap cartridge paper I had dug up from my art box. The resulting images were chunky, and somehow in my haste I had chosen a brown color to contrast my line drawings. Nevertheless, I had two pages of passable notes and I still remember the talk by Emmanuel Tskleves.
For my second attempt, I used a sketchbook with thicker pages and a lighter-green color to contrast the imagery, but also tried to record every element of that talk by Chris Speed —the imagery was rushed, the words almost unreadable. I am happy to report, however, that I got steadily better, not least in part due to my acquaintance with, and constant encouragement from, Makayla Lewis, my now long-time collaborator. I share my sketchnotes on my Twitter account asmirry. Since , I have put pen to paper—well, to be specific, a UniPin 4. Low-fidelity sketches often help to express experiences and complex content.
They allow HCI researchers to better communicate and express their ideas, and share designs with colleagues, users, and stakeholders. Sketchnotes can enhance these sketches; the inclusion of simple connectors, containers, and separators with consideration of structure and style can better support the thinking process and communication of these thoughts to others.
Thus, I think awareness and competency in sketchnoting for HCI researchers could be beneficial. I enjoy sharing my sketchnotes and process on my Twitter maccymacx. Figure 4.
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Sketchnote of Brad A. Nicolai: I started using sketching during my M. Later, while studying for my Ph. I began creating visual notes of talks I went to, meetings I attended, and many other events I joined. Many of my sketchnotes are shared on my Twitter account nicmarquardt.
To help anyone who is interested in taking up sketchnoting, and perhaps broaden their horizons in drawn imagery in general, we have put together some advice so that you can avoid the pitfalls some of us encountered along the way. Instead, it is important to keep practicing creating visual notes; you will see progress and find a style that works for you. Choose your tools wisely. It may also help to find a stiff board or other material to lean on.
You can also work straight into your tablet or touchscreen laptop, but it might be best to start with simple pen and paper. About the use of colors. For now, why not start with black and one pastel or light color to emphasize important points and a grey marker for shading. Practice icons you think you will use regularly. For example, if you study smartwatches, a watch icon that you can draw quickly and in different orientations will be invaluable. Arrive early if you can. It will give you time to find a good seat, preferably near the front.
When at the front, you can draw a quick portrait sketch of the speaker s , read all the slides without squinting, and are less likely to be disturbed by people coming and going. While you wait for the talk to begin, check the talk title, prepare your page, and get all your pens in order. Instead, try to capture the salient points, interesting quotes, and other items that jump out. Fill in the gaps if you are unsure about something, ask the speaker a question , complete areas you may have missed, and color or shade your sketchnote.
You may not have time to come back to your notes for a while, so it is better to complete them during the session. Marquardt, Nicolai, and Saul Greenberg. The Sketchnote Handbook by Mike Rohde. The Sketchnote Workbook by Mike Rohde. Sketchnote Hangout by Makayla Lewis. Visual Notetaking for Educators by Sylvia Duckworth. In the article, we aimed to bring forth challenges experienced while conducting fieldwork and how our research is influenced by our own principles as well as the agenda of other stakeholders.
So what is the value of documenting such reflections? Upon the release of the article I received an email from a fellow Ph. That in itself gives value to articles such as this. Using mock ups with refugees in a settlement in Lebanon. At several instances when working in refugee settlements in Lebanon, I have found myself witnessing great injustices and hardships that have made me question my role and what my research can possibly do to support refugee communities. My co-authors and other researchers have discussed having the same concerns. We found ourselves reflecting on how, more and more, we find ourselves embracing our activist selves and aligning our research with the agenda of refugee communities.
However, immersing ourselves in our research so that we can even begin to understand refugee experiences and what the communities we work with expect from us may come at the cost of our own emotional well-being. Indeed, working within such contexts places you face-to-face with individuals and families that are recounting their overwhelming experiences.
Such encounters make you as an individual feel helpless and as a researcher feel miniscule, as you realize that there is not much one research project can do. Such feelings are further exacerbated when you are back in the comfort of your own home and you realize that you are living a completely different reality than the communities at the heart of your work. Such reflections take an emotional toll on researchers as they attempt to reconcile their experiences with refugee communities and their own lives.
As such, we encourage researchers in this field to seek out peers to share their experiences and to reflect on how it is influencing their health and well-being. As discussed in the article, such reflexive processes should be inherent to our work. What we find is that given the highly political nature of the refugee crisis, the reflexive process brings to the forefront our own political views and values.
However, we often found ourselves in meetings attempting to quiet the screams of frustration in our heads as we diplomatically smiled at stakeholders expressing political views we disagree with. I once had to sit through a meeting in which a gatekeeper talked negatively about refugees throughout and I had to diplomatically navigate the conversation so that I did not oppose him but at the same time not agree with him. I must say, it is very difficult to remain neutral on a topic that is so intimately tied with your beliefs and political views.
However, in cases such as this, neutrality is essential when considering the larger objective of my research, which is to support refugee communities through technological innovations. In the article we highlight the types of conversations we should be having as HCI researchers working in this field. Additionally, we provide guidelines based on our experiences that we hope would benefit other researchers in the field.
As a group we are very open to having these conversations and would be more than happy to have chats with others in the field, even if it is just part of their reflective process. I read with a lot of interest the latest cover story on data visualizations by Danielle Albers Szafir, particularly since I recently gave an introductory seminar on this topic to Ph. The cover story made some very good points that I'll refer to it in the next version of my seminar. However, I think that it would have been even stronger if it:.
Figure 2 in the recent review by O'Donoghue et al. Additionally, given that the article is about "graphical integrity," I was expecting it to refer to Edward Tufte , to whom this principle is attributed. I was also a bit surprised not to see a reference to Tamara Munzner's textbook for those who are new to the field but want to study interactive visualizations in more depth.
My own audience is early career life scientists so I based my seminar on the Points of View columns on data visualization in Nature Methods , which is a familiar and inspirational journal for them. Given that some of the examples in the cover story came from biology, citing this resource may have been useful too for that readership. In my role as a UX practitioner, I rely on particular methods to understand the needs of life scientists such as interviews and contextual observations , to capture these needs typically as user personas and task models and to formulate the question that we are trying to answer with a visualization for example, as a problem statement or a job to be done.
When I tell the story of how we designed a visualization or a whole web application for a particular service in EMBL-EBI , these methods stand center stage. At EMBL-EBI we bring together experts from industry and academia to address current challenges in data visualization faced by our industry partners in an attempt to bridge the gap between data visualisation researchers, the HCI community, UX practitioners, and domain experts especially from the pharmaceutical and agro-food industry. February and March saw the largest ever industrial action in the U.
While the cause of the strike was changes to the USS pension scheme, the picket lines were sites for conversations about many other issues within academia. Whether it was dissatisfaction with the corporatization of universities, the precarious working conditions of early career researchers, or over-work, there was a clear sense that the values held by those striking were in sharp contrast with the realities of university life. While many reported a loss of trust in the system and in their own institutions, fresh hope and renewed energy came from activities such as teach outs, open teaching and discussion sessions outside the campus.
Schwartz's values model. Adapted from Schwartz With just over respondents, the survey explored views about the values driving HCI research at a personal and institutional level. Although the survey was exploratory and the sample may not be representative of the whole HCI community, the numbers did show tensions within the community. However, almost a third reported that their values either did not match The survey also asked respondents to rank a list of options according to which were most highly valued in their work; this is where the values tensions became manifest. Positive societal impact, autonomy of thought, and meaningful relationships were thus the things that these computing professionals most valued about their work.
By contrast, financial recognition Power was the least valued. Personal and organizational values ranking. Respondents were then asked to rank a similar series of options according to what they thought their institution or organization most valued. The implications of this friction between personal and perceived institutional values cannot be ignored and deserve further attention.
For example, recent research and extensive media coverage worldwide suggest high levels of stress and mental health problems within academia. However, the emphasis of these studies is often on the temporal and mental burdens created by the demands of the workplace, and the need for raising awareness and promoting self-care i. We need to look into values tensions not only for the end-users and broader stakeholders, but for us—researchers, educators, designers, and developers. To this end, we argue that a better understanding of values is needed, especially when it comes to computing technologies.
From a research and practice perspective, this means to build on, but also go beyond, the substantial corpus of research in ethics and the well-established research field of value sensitive design VSD. Our question for the HCI and broader computing community is how to bring to the open the personal, institutional, and political values tensions manifesting in our workplaces i.
In other words, how can we support the next generation of computing professionals with the deliberative, technical, and critical skills necessary to tell the difference between what is worth pursuing from what is potentially harmful to self and society? And how can we create and support institutions where this civic purpose can flourish? Warm thanks go to our project partners and to the CHI ViC workshop participants , who have jointly shaped the vision and direction of this research.
A special mention also goes to the thousands of conversations had with colleagues and students within our school and across campus. She is also adjunct professor at the Indian institute of Technology, IIT, Hyderabad where she teaches courses at the intersections of society and technology. We knew field trips would lead those engaged with them on a necessary journey to look at the multiple, often contested, connections between culture and the process and product of designing technology for people. Sidestepping postcolonial pitfalls, we hoped the field trips track would facilitate the translation of local knowledge into valid and useful design insights, redefining and renegotiating boundaries and relations between product and user.
After all, engaging with indigenous awareness in the course of field trips should lead to interesting realizations for the ontological and epistemological assumptions of what constitutes useful, usable, and, importantly, meaningful design. These realizations from the field are also configured by the different worlds and traditions we have grown up in. It goes without saying a good chunk of our job as designers and researchers is to empathize and find new meanings and connections in existing things, objects, and practices to innovate and make life better in whichever material and experiential ways possible.
Field trips in India were a unique opportunity for these breakdowns to occur in the crossing of traditions spawned by the inter-meshing of the diverse external delegates and researchers with local communities. In the words of Professor R. More importantly, cultural spaces reflected upon and discovered were not only those of the other but also those of ourselves, emerging as a necessary consequence of mutual reflection and recognition.
This is why in this blog post we develop a brief reflection on this design-culture connection in the context of the agenda for HCI in the developing world. Culture continues to be a contested construct for humanists and social science scholars. Likewise, its value for design-driven academics and professionals regularly comes into question.
However, the concept of culture focuses us on the semiotics that allow us to reflect on our condition of being symbolic beings shaped by beliefs and emotions. This in turn enables us to see the need for technologies to be more human, and to be able to do something about it. The focus on making technologies for humans while taking into account diverse cultural and contextual positions should then be part of the default agenda HCI for development HCI4D as a research domain.
HCI4D researchers and practitioners have documented how decisions in technology design influence technology usage, adoption, and the resulting impacts on a multiplicity of use scenarios and users with social consequences. HCI4D as a domain and a community of researchers is engaged in the play of technology in quotidian and unusual domains such as diasporic space, conflict zones, low-literacy, reproductive health, and communities on the urban edge.
A focus on such topics leads to a discussion on technology for development and a focus on marginalized populations in both developing countries and industrialized nations. In short, HCI4D operates at the intersection of HCI and socioeconomic development with an evolving sensitivity to technology design and use in diverse geographic regions. Being inclusive, HCI4D presses into service engagements with seemingly disparate sciences and initiates a dialogue in the production of an inclusive design community—one that draws from collective and assorted technology experiences and shapes evidence-based research to impact and strengthen multiple interactive technology scenarios for hitherto invisible yet contemporaneous populations.
Dell and Kumar summarize the HCID research area drawing upon four seminal references that set the context, precursors, and current engagements for the domain. Chetty and Grinter , who coined the term HCI4D, argue that entrenched HCI techniques and pedagogy must stay tuned to the shifting technology landscapes of use if they are to function effectively as a domain of designing impactful computing products for an array of contexts, especially the Global South. Burrell and Toyama offer a set of definitional pointers to carve out methodological trajectories constituting good research methods and analysis for a multidisciplinary and inclusive field such as ICTD and HCI4D.
The field and learnings from field immersions for a context-driven HCI was proposed by Anokwa et al. These authors were instrumental in grounding methodological practices of HCI4D firmly in-context. HCI4D research for its part has maintained a focus on design for better access and usability qualified by low-resource settings.
Issues of constraints—infrastructural more than cultural—were a running theme, as well as concerns for social justice and a variety of eco-political agendas. The field trips we pioneered demonstrate these issues but with a positive twist, giving the HCI4D field the excitement of an emergent research ground—and we are becoming a part of it!
Read, Markku Turunen, Pekka Kallioniemi. The means of destruction have developed pari passu with the technology of production, while creative imagination has not kept pace with either. The creative imagination I am talking of works on two levels. The first is the level of social engineering, the second is the level of vision. In my view both have lagged behind technology, especially in the highly advanced Western countries, and both constitute dangers. The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented. It was man's ability to invent which has made human society what it is.
In his book Inventing the Future , Denis Gabor captured his impression of the impact of technology mostly based on his experience living in the 20th century. Technological changes were as radically productive as destructive, but generally lacked direction from the perspective of constructing more fair and just societies, or having a vision other than that related to the insatiable longing for wealth, status, or power of a few. Fast forward to and we are facing a similar situation with information and communication technologies ICTs.
We have had unprecedented production, with large amounts of information quickly available to most people in high-income countries, and increasingly throughout the world. ICT companies have focused primarily on growth, with little attention paid to the destructive uses of their technology, which now appear to have at least caught up with productive uses. Back in , together with Natasha Bullock-Rest, I presented a vision for technologies to reduce armed conflict around the world through a more just and fair world with the following goals: reducing social distance between enemies, exposing war and celebrating peace, de-incentivizing private motivation for conflict, preventing failures of the social contract, promoting democracy and education, and aiding operational prevention of conflicts.
It is difficult to think of any major ICT company that has taken any of the goals above seriously, at the same level at which they pay attention to growth and profit. Perhaps the most disappointing development is the negative effect ICTs have had on democracy, arguably providing the greatest challenge to democratic institutions in decades. These challenges have come in at least two related forms: increasing political radicalization, and diminished trust in facts and expertise.
A third challenge is the massive accumulation of personal data that could be used in very damaging ways by authoritarian governments. In addition, increased automation is making it less necessary to interact with people who may be from a different walk of life and could provide an alternative point of view. Factionalization has come hand-in-hand with diminished trust in facts and expertise. This is another threat to democracy as it leads to ignorance. The challenge of the massive collection of personal data becomes weaponized once democratic protections are lifted.
The rich data that companies like Facebook and Google have on billions of people, in combination with widespread cameras and face-recognition technology, would have been beyond the wildest imagination of most secret police bosses in 20th-century authoritarian regimes. The ability to go after political enemies would be unprecedented. However, our generation of ideas and projects that may impact political topics such as supporting democracy or preventing armed conflict have arguably not had an eager audience at the top levels of large ICT companies.
The challenge is significant and the stakes are high. My sense is that our challenge is in some ways similar to that of the food industry, where unhealthy food, environmentally unsustainable practices, and worker exploitation are beginning to be addressed, in part, through organic and fair trade certifications. The closest we have is free, libre, and open source software and services provided by groups such as the Mozilla Foundation and the Open Source Initiative.
What would it likely involve? Periodic assessments of societal outcomes, with a focus on user empowerment, individual and community well-being, and basic democratic principles.
In his book Designing Interactions , Bill Moggridge focuses on how to design interactions with digital technologies. That makes sense if you think about interaction design as the practice of designing interactions. However, interactions cannot be fully designed, determined, restrained to a particular form, or fully predicted in the same way that a service can never be fully designed. At best we can design enabling preconditions that might enable or ease a particular form of interaction.
In other words, we can design the material preconditions for a particular form of interaction—but we can never completely predict and design the interaction that unfolds. As we now move into the era of more physical forms of computing—including the development of the Internet of Things, smart objects, and embedded systems—it is quite easy to see how interaction design is increasingly about arranging material preconditions for interaction.
However, that is actually true for any interaction design project. As pointed out by Dourish , computing and information is always a material concern. No matter how abstract we think computing, information, and representations are, they all rely on material infrastructures, ranging from the server halls, to the fiber networks, to the electronics that enable computing in the first place.
From that perspective, interaction design becomes a design practice of imagining new forms of interactions, and then designing as good preconditions as possible to enable those particular forms of interactions to unfold. In my recent book The Materiality of Interaction , I discuss these imagined forms of interactions and how to manifest them across physical and digital material.
My answer to this question is a clear no. I then suggest that in order to manifest that imagined form of interaction in computational materials it is necessary to have a good understanding of what materials are available ranging from electronics, sensors, and analog materials, to hardware and software and to know about material properties and how different materials can be reimagined and reactivated in a computational moment. Further, I suggest that a design challenge is how to bring those different materials into composition so as to enable a particular form of interaction.
Accordingly, I suggest that a third component here is to have compositional skills to work across a whole range of materials in interaction design projects. As we now move forward with AI as our next design material , we also need to think about what should be a matter of interaction, and what interactive systems can do for us, autonomously or semi-autonomously. Foresee: Process dictates product.
To design for equity, we must design equitably. The practice of equitable design requires that we are mindful how we achieve equity. Inclusive design practices raise the voices of the marginalized, strengthen relationships across differences, shift positions, and recharge our democracy. The natural next question is how? How can the human-centered designer engage— now —with Afrofuturism? A proposed taxonomy Figure 1 , developed in collaboration with graphic and interaction designer Zane Sporrer, begins to frame this how.
This taxonomy, depicted with a specific focus on connecting Afrofuturism with the equityXdesign framework, situates Afrofuturism as a design lens in executing liberatory design frameworks, those similar framings e. Proposed taxonomy in engaging Afrofuturism within human-centered design. As detailed in my Interactions piece , this mode of engaging Afrofuturism in speculative design is reflected in my efforts around more inclusive connected fitness technologies devices.
Figure 2, conceptualized in collaboration with artist Marcel L. Walker, reflects an exemplary speculative design artifact. While it is not the intent that this concept be implemented as imagined, this artifact, as a speculative probe, fosters design conversations that enrich the plausible solution space. F igure 2. Global pulse speculative design artifact. From an interaction design perspective in particular, deeper discussions around ways that data and information offered by connected fitness devices can be better synthesized, situated, and visualized are spurred.
As the type and nature of insights traditionally offered by these devices are more quantitative in nature e. As is indicative of speculative design, immediate outcomes are not typically commercially viable or usable; further grounding is necessary. This ultimately seeds more inclusive and novel plausible solutions for further iteration and eventual refinement. And, to hopefully state the obvious, inclusion matters in technology design. Because if technology has the power to connect the world, as technologists so often proclaim, then it also has the power to make the world a more inclusive place, simply by building interfaces that reflect all its users.
Thus, the need for human-centered designers to both develop and engage with tools, methods, and practices that support this premise is paramount. Afrofuturism represents such a tool— a design lens —through which the requisite intentionality and actions can be both catalyzed and implemented.
I am both excited and encouraged by recent feedback from my Interactions article to continue this conversation. In particular, I invite the use of my thoughts concerning the engagement of Afrofuturism in HCD as a probe in advancing the continued evolution of the needed methodological rigor in increasing inclusivity and thus equity within the culture, processes, and outcomes of HCD. The consequences are great, especially as technology is becoming more deeply engaged in our daily lives and activities. For, as now being witnessed, design patterns, behaviors, and norms are being embedded and reinforced within HCD that, while unintentional, may lead to future technological solutions that do more harm than good.
Russell and Svetlana Yaros. In the following, I provide a broader view of the complex symbiosis of science fiction and HCI research. To begin with, the authors conflate science fiction literature, cinema, and interactive media throughout the article. While the amalgamation of the different artistic expressions of science fiction is an object of continuous debate, it warrants more precision if we are to derive heuristics and recommendations for the utility of science fiction in HCI. Though there are exceptions to the rule, it is safe to assume that science fiction visualizations, such as movies, shows, or product visions can mostly be traced back to a science fiction novel, short story, or simply a written idea.
Technovelgy , a science fiction web repository, lists more than ideas initially formulated in written visions. For example, the videophone is described in Jules Verne's novel In the Year as a phonotelephote :. The first thing that Mr. Smith does is to connect his phonotelephote, the wires of which communicate with his Paris mansion.
The telephote! Here is another of the great triumphs of science in our time. The transmission of speech is an old story; the transmission of images by means of sensitive mirrors connected by wires is a thing but of yesterday. Three decades later, in , the German science fiction dystopia Metropolis visualized a videophone Figure 1.
Screencaps from Metropolis showing the videophone. Media differences are very important. Accordingly, we must observe in each case the trade-offs between affordances and constraints amid the different media formats for HCI design, inspiration, and innovation. On one hand, science fiction cinema might limit or mislead the imagination of the viewer due to the constraints of the media format as well as the depicted technological and metaphysical assumptions within the movie narrative, or diegesis. On the other hand, the made-up, explicit visualizations of these elements can serve as powerful showcases of future devices, interactions, and information and communication technologies to not only the general public, but researchers as well.
David Kirby has written extensively on collaboration schemes between researchers and moviemakers. His diegetic prototypes can not only demonstrate design ideas as design fictions, but also demonstrate to a larger public audience the benevolence, need, or threat of a future technology. Specifically, I investigate science communication to find out when, how, and why scientists use science fiction in HCI research and computer science.
Last year, I conducted a three-hour interview at the Science and Entertainment Exchange in Los Angeles, a National Academy of Sciences—endorsed program to connect researchers with film-industry professionals. My co-authors and I proposed a science-fiction-inspired HCI research agenda , extending beyond diegetic prototypes and design fictions toward computer science education, human-robot interaction, and AI ethics. In that study, I identify five themes where science fiction and HCI research interact; in addition, I highlight a focus on seminal popular Western science fiction in CHI research.
In another forthcoming article, my co-authors and I review how 20 science fiction robots have been used and characterized in computer science literature. We found in this study that science fiction robots are inspirational for researchers in the field of human-robot interaction. For example, the robot Baymax from the movie Big Hero 6 has inspired scientists to create Puffy. At present, I am analyzing science fiction referrals in peer-reviewed computer science papers, among those an IEEE paper by Hereford page :. Practically speaking, literary artists could be employed as consultants and given the task of imagining as concretely as possible the lives of individual people in various social situations that are defined in terms of a given system design.
Ultimately, the test of whether the system is coherent will be whether one can feel the system to be working out for concrete individuals as imagined in the drama of their particular lives. The required level of quality of such scenarios will vary in accordance with clients' and engineers' tastes. A quality comparable to that found in most science fiction will satisfy most engineers and probably most others too. Would-be artists with sane literary training would probably be able to produce suitable scenarios.
Science fiction in HCI research encompasses more than pragmatic and speculative design research. As soon as we are mindful of our own cultural preconceptions, science fiction does not constrain inspiration, nor limit imagination; we simply cultivate a consciousness of the larger potentials of science fiction for core HCI research. I think that we have long underestimated the important, invisible relationship between science fiction and HCI and computer science research, industry, education, and, to some extent, ourselves. This blog started as a response to the column What Are You Reading?
While I have a number of books I wanted to discuss, the topic made me reflect on how I read. My reading mechanisms have evolved from working with blind people. I continue to read novels mostly with my eyes—but for research papers, I use my ears. For many years now I have mostly read thesis drafts. I know what you may be thinking, but, yes, I actually read and review them. Furthermore, as a paper reviewer, I read approximately six papers every year. Now, mind you, I am a slow reader, even when the text is clear. Most of the theses I read are drafts that typically require several rounds of careful reading and editing.
If the text is clear, I can read about words per minute. At that rate, it takes me about 70 hours to do one pass through my annual review material. My goal here is to share my experience in switching from reading with my eyes to reading with my ears, and from editing with my fingers to editing with my voice. This switch has meant not just a significant boost to my throughput, but also an improvement in my focus and comprehension, and has allowed me to work in many more contexts.
Paradoxically, perhaps the greatest benefit for me has been the ability to stay focused on the reading material while performing other physical activities, such as walking home from work. This blog outlines the methods that I have developed over the years and reflects on their pros and cons. I begin with a short story. A few years ago, I ran a stop sign at the Georgia Tech campus and a policeman stopped me and summoned me to court.
As a graduate student, I chose service. I signed up to volunteer at the Center for the Visually Impaired in Atlanta. During my week of service, I observed two blind teenagers in class not paying attention to their teacher. Rather, they were giggling at a mysterious device. It had a shoulder strap and it rested on the hip of the girl. She pressed combinations of six buttons and ran her index finger across a stripe at the bottom.
She giggled and shared the experience with her friend, who also giggled as he ran his fingers across the device. I was bedazzled. What was producing this strong emotional response? A typical portable braille writer and reader, the Freedom Scientific PACmate, which we used in our user studies. I discovered they were using a portable braille notetaker, which includes a six-key chorded keyboard and a refreshable braille display, the stripe they were reading with their fingertips.
After that encounter, my colleagues and I started researching how blind people enter and read text on mobile devices. We discovered that the device the teens were using was called BrailleNote. We also determined that smartphones were, ironically, a much cheaper alternative. Although smartphones do not have braille displays, they can use voice synthesis to read out screen content. The user places a finger on the screen and the reader voices the target, a very efficient method to read out information.
Unfortunately, inputting text is not as simple. While many users speak to their phones using speech-recognition technology, they cannot do so under many conditions, particularly in public environments where privacy concerns and ambient noise render the task impractical. In our research, we developed a two-hand method for entering text using braille code called BrailleTouch . A participant in our study using BrailleTouch. What we did not expect was the discovery of the extraordinary ability of people with experience using screen readers to listen to text at tremendous speeds. We observed participants using screen readers at speeds which we could not comprehend whatsoever.
Participants reassured us they understood and that it was a skill they acquired through simple practice—nothing superhuman about it. That realization sent me down the path of using my hearing for reading. I started slow, first learning to enable the accessibility apps on my iPhone. Then I learned to control the speed. I could understand at that rate, which happened to be my eye-reading rate.
Unfortunately it did not work as well as I expected. The reader did not flow on its own, stopping over links, paragraphs, and pages. I had to push it along by swiping. After a few months I was reading at wpm. The app also shows a visual marker of where you are on the text, so you can follow it with your eyes.
After about a year, I was reading at full speed, wpm with full comprehension. More importantly, I no longer had to follow with my eyes. I could, for example, walk during reading and see where I was going and remain fully focused on the text. Today there are myriad text-to-speech reading apps and I encourage you to explore them to find the one that is most fitting.
This newfound ability has meant a dramatic change in my reviewing practices. Yet it is not the whole picture. There are more practices I have explored and there are important limitations as well. I started dictating feedback on my phone. I stopped typing and started using Siri to provide comments and corrections. The upside is that I can continue to stay focused on both reading and writing while remaining physically active. What are these other important limitations?
First, the text-to-speech reader voices everything: page numbers, URLs, footnotes, image names, citations. Most of these landmarks are distracting and I now know to disregard them when reading with my eyes. Second, tables and graphs are a nightmare to read with my ears. I have to stop the reader and use my eyes when I reach text with a non-linear structure. Third, figures are only legible as far as their meta-description allows it, and even in that case it is better to use my eyes.
Fourth, and last, I have to use headphones. Despite these limitations, which are current research topics in eyes-free reading, I find myself fortunate enough to have recruited participants who had the generosity and sense of pride to share their expertise. I am a better research supervisor for that.
Yet, for all the boost in speed and comprehension I get from ear reading, I still enjoy reading novels with my eyes and listening to audiobooks read by human actors at normal speed. Perhaps in a few years voice synthesizers will become so human that they pass this version of the Turing test. ACM, If you do teach a course, it might be good to understand the meaning of the course name.
Mattias: I thought that I would ask you what associations come to mind when you hear the term interactive form. We have a course with that name for the students in graphic design and communication, but I have never really been comfortable with the course name. I have taught it for many years, but never appropriated the term. Stefan Holmlid was the one who decided that the course should have that name almost 10 years ago. So here it goes—this is my initial understanding of what interactive form is:. Interactive form is the totality of a design's interactive elements and the way they are united, without consideration of their meaning.
The non-interactive formal elements are things like color, dimension, lines, mass, shape, etc. We can contrast this definition of interactive form to the related concepts of interaction style and interaction design patterns. Interaction style is how people interact. This is a question of what steps and means they employ in the interaction quibus auxiliis , and with what attitude or manner they interact quo modo.
Design patterns are schematically described compositions of elements that are used in response to recurrent problems. So, Jeff, Jonas, and Stefan, what are your takes on the notion of interactive form? Jeff: I think the problem is partly that form has a lot of meanings in English, and when you put interactive in front of it, it becomes easy to misread form altogether. The deeper issue is that form in the traditional aesthetic sense typically characterizes features of an object—the formal elements of a poem, sculpture, or fugue and their composition.
You might not be able to rehabilitate that word from that usage. I wonder if formal qualities of interaction gets at what you want? Jonas: I agree that form in the context of design is tightly bound to the object and its features, and the construct you propose formal qualities of interaction might actually do the trick. It sets the right object which is interaction , yet still uses the word formal which pulls in the direction of appraisal. Aesthetic appraisal, that is, in a suitably wide sense; connoisseurship and criticism rather than user testing.
Formal qualities of interaction would relate more closely to the sensory fabrics of the interaction. Then we add an interpretative level to get to the meaning, i. Perhaps we should think of the formal qualities of interaction as how a designer conceives the designed elements and their composition to contribute to certain experiences and responses. This is basically what Jonas said: aesthetic appraisal, connoisseurship, and criticism. Jeff: You might just use the word poetics , which I understand to mean how formal qualities of aesthetic objects contribute to, cause, or shape human experiences e.
So, the question is where you want to situate this: in the elements and compositions of interactive objects or in interactions. It sounds like you have at least ruled out situating it in the phenomenal experience of the subject which makes sense to me, too.
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Mattias: Now we're getting somewhere. If we speak of the formal elements and compositions of interactions, then I would speak of the entry, the body, and the exit of joint action. That would allow us to take a closer look at the composition and elements of the entry, the body, and the exit. This could help the students to appraise the details of the interaction in different designs.
Stefan: I would say that interactive form is about the experiential, aesthetic qualities of or in interacting. It is then important to articulate, discuss, and critique how these phenomena are formed, and how a designer can approach an understanding of these phenomena. A jumble of questions that can be used as a reflexive sounding board:. To me, that last point goes beyond the ordinary understanding of the concept of repertoire. However, interaction gestalt is also a related term that we could use in this context.
Mattias: I think it relates well. It seems that when we speak of interactive form, it relates to the constituents and constellation of the designed artifact, i. Interaction is, however, about the relation between the artifact and the subjects interacting with it, and qualities of interaction can hence be said to be tertiary qualities. As you note, Stefan, the qualities of interaction do not take place in a vacuum, nor do the experiences they give rise to. This means that the topic of interactive form must be understood as inherently cultural, historical, and social, and not only subjective experience or objective materiality.
Interactive form can also give rise to an interaction gestalt, i. This will indeed prove to be an interesting course both for the students in graphic design and communication and for the teachers. It also highlights an important issue for the interaction design community: What do we actually mean when we speak of form in interaction design? Jeffrey Bardzell is a professor of informatics, especially design theory and emerging social computing practices, at Indiana University—Bloomington. After the revolution, Egypt faced a challenging socioeconomic transition.
In , the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology announced the Social Responsibility Strategy in ICT, with an inclusive vision for using technology to integrate different societal groups to achieve equality, prosperity, and social stability. Such goals demand that technology professionals be equipped with user-centered skills to design for groups with various socioeconomic backgrounds. As a response to these goals, in August we ran an eight-day HCI summer school for designing technologies to document intangible cultural heritage ICH in the northwest of Egypt.
The link aimed at advancing HCI education in Egypt by training 18 engineering students from Alexandria University to engage in technology design activities with members from the Bedouin community of Borg El-Arab. The Bedouins in Egypt are an important tribal nomadic community who migrated to Egypt from the Arab peninsula hundreds of years ago, inhabiting the north and western deserts and the Sinai Peninsula.
With increased urbanization in those areas, however, they have become mostly a settled community, at risk of losing social practices, oral traditions, customs, language, and identity, all associated with intangible cultural heritage ICH. Digital technology has often played a major role in supporting documentation of ICH at risk of loss with Web-based material, increasing its access and dissemination. Our proposal was that the sustainability of such an approach could be harnessed to its full potential by supporting the participation of community members.
This remains a challenge since ICH should be researched within each specific social, cultural, and technological setting. We therefore argued that a bottom-up approach to ICH could benefit from HCI participatory methods to engage communities with technologies. Some of them were familiar with scholars who had come to study some of their traditions. The participatory approach we intended to adopt was new to them. They shared the fact that they were participating with others; they were proud of their Bedouin heritage and recognized the risk of it fading away, as many of them currently attend modern schools and have moved to cities to study and work.
The curriculum used interactive material emphasizing hands-on practice and learning by doing. It is a four-stage model: Discover, Define, Develop, and Deliver, with every two phases forming a diamond shape. The first and third phases were exploratory, while the second and fourth were for narrowing the scope and defining focus. Every stage took roughly a couple of days in our curriculum. Lectures were used mostly in the first exploratory stage. In the first stage, Discover, we encouraged students to take a conceptual leap from being the engineering student—who receives a well-defined problem to solve—to becoming a design-thinker—who is co-responsible for framing the design and sociocultural challenges.
We introduced basic HCI concepts such as usability and user experience, and bottom-up approaches to ICH documentation. The participatory moment in this phase was a trip we asked community members to organize for the students to learn more about Bedouin culture. The Bedouin culture prohibits young women from interacting with unknown males. Thus, the women visitors met the Bedouin women inside the house, while the men were hosted in the tent.
The house itself was modern on the inside, with a flat-screen TV and WiFi connection. Everyone, including the oldest low-literate women, had mobile phones. The house had fig and pomegranate trees, from which they harvested fruit, as both crops that thrive in the desert climate. We were surprised by their modern lifestyle, which unearthed interesting discussions about fading traditions. The pigeons' house, or burj. The Bedouin tent in Nagae El-Sanakra. In the second stage, Define, the students were divided into teams.
Each team had to define the scope for their projects what traditions they would document, who would be their users, what the technical challenges would be. Some of the students had ideas based on the reports they collected during the field trip. We asked the teams to design a two-hour workshop with one or two Bedouin participants to gather the information that would help them define their focus. Every team prepared a semi-structured interview and designed a probe as a family gift for their participant.
For instance, students designed a family tree, where the participant was invited to color its leaves according to the knowledge and interest in documenting a Bedouin poem. Another probe was a tent that had a box inside containing colored cards colors varied according to gender and age. The participant was invited to ask members of his family house to write something about what makes them proud Bedouins. In the Develop phase, the students used personas to describe their target users as they defined them in the previous stage. They analyzed the data they gathered from the interviews to find insights, identify opportunity areas, and brainstorm to generate ideas about potential solutions.
Further, they conducted a second workshop to test their ideas, in which they handed over low-fidelity prototypes to one or two community members, who contributed to the design process. Design ideas and prototyping. In the Deliver stage, students designed four prototypes for mobile applications. Other applications included using games to educate children about old Bedouin traditions and e-marketing Bedouin crafts.
The prototypes were presented to community members, who gave feedback on the designs. The experience was very positive for students and community members, as we learned in the follow-up focus groups. The double diamond model was a good framework to teach a user-centered approach because it guided the students on when they should adopt divergent or convergent thinking. The ICH case study proved to be invaluable in teaching the students to drop their assumptions about a typical computer user, which was quite a challenge for students immersed in 21st-century technologies.
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Probe design and persona tasks helped them think deeply about their participants. Further, they had to be attentive to user interface details, as the Bedouin community is fastidious about their culture. Overall, students tended to struggle with the design tasks that required data abstraction and synthesis e. We thus had to check their responses every day, which was very demanding.