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Executive Summary

  1. The world's most viewed site on global warming and climate change
  2. Regional Interpretation of Kansas Aeromagnetic Data
  3. Analogies, anomalies and research strategy - Persée

Elsewhere, an investigative reporter and a crusading U. Forbes, Steve. Southern Cross. Charleston: www. A Russian military squad makes a surprise visit at an American Antarctic base and each side has their own hidden agendas. A small group of the Americans makes a brave and unbelievable journey over a horrendous glacier to try to carry out their own mission. Gorecki, Andrzej. South of the 60 th Parallel. BookSurge Publishing U. Americans drilling in Antarctica hit an impenetrable layer deep under the ice.

An advanced race of human aliens has been living underneath Antarctica for ages and their peaceful existence is interrupted by the ensuing attempted invasion by the U. McDermott, Andy. The Covenant of Genesis. New York: Bantam Books, The secret society, Covenant of Genesis, will take any means at its disposal to stop these discoveries from becoming public knowledge. McNeil, Jean. The Ice Lovers. In the near-future , a writer travels to Antarctica to research the death of a female scientist three years ago.

Mundy, Robin. The Nature of Ice. The author has worked and overwintered in Antarctica. Ogle, W. Tsunami: Beast of Antarctica. Shelbyville U. A new luxury cruise ship on her maiden voyage is toppled by a giant tsunami caused by a breaking ice shelf. The few remaining people, too many for a single zodiac, must plan how to survive. The Ecstatic Cry. A short story in a collection of short fiction, Forgetting English , by Midge Raymond. A tourist cruise ship visits two penguin researchers at a solitary Antarctic Peninsula field camp.

One of them later encounters a mysterious stranger from the ship, wandering in the water off the beach. Rose-Innes, Louise. Antarctic Affair. A recently engaged, London-based high society female features writer is assigned to do a story on a rugged, individualistic adventure photographer. They travel to the Antarctic Peninsula on a research vessel for the story, she saves his life on an iceberg, becomes accustomed to the outdoors world and romance follows. Sampson, Jim.

The world's most viewed site on global warming and climate change

The Apocalypse Rising. Burleigh Australia : Zeus Publications, Worldwide global warming has caused havoc over Antarctica. Two groups of scientists are caught in the middle of new volcanic eruptions in the Ross Sea area. An American submarine and icebreaker race through storms to rescue them, while a team of American scientists and the military attempt to annihilate the volcanoes with atomic missiles. Wynn, Earl S. Pink Carbide: Carbon Aria. Sonora U. In the near-distant future, the super powered, bionic Cylea searches for her beginnings and goes to an old deserted Antarctic base for clues.

Barell, John. Surviving Erebus. A fictional account of the Antarctic voyage of James Clark Ross and the discovery of the Sea and ice shelf named after him. Clarke, Isabella. A short story included in a collection, Colours and Shades , written by Clarke. Dionne, Karen. Freezing Point. New York: Jove Books, Kalla, Daniel. Cold Plague. New York: Tor, A private commercial drilling project to bring up pure, therapeutic water from a subterranean Antarctic lake results in an escape of deadly prions, which causes deaths in Europe.

Levine, Richard S. A Floccinaucinihilipilificatious Life. This online and print magazine has a very short story about millibots discussing whether they are alive, as they rush to inspect a defective furnace heating duct somewhere in Antarctica. Marsh, Carole. The Mystery in Icy Antarctica. A mystery-writing grandmother takes her two grandchildren to Antarctica and they encounter their own mystery of missing meteorites and penguins.

Robinson, Kevin Maurice. The Imaginator — an Unexpected Discovery. Two children accompany their archeologist father to a dig in Antarctica where they uncover a stone, which was the refuge of a young alien girl.


She becomes their friend and teaches the children how to use their imagination, which comes in handy when they have to escape villains who want to capture the alien girl. Smith, K. Polar Love. New York: Vantage Press, Two American researchers on a scientific cruise at Deception Island fall in love but must return to their separate lives after the expedition is completed.

They manage to pick things up a few years later. Valente, Catherynne M. A very short story about Antarctic topographical maps, up for auction, and the related stories of the two rival South American mapmakers who drew them. Bartels, P. Desert Ice. A disgraced former supertanker captain and a glaciologist sign on for a project to haul an iceberg from Antarctica to Kuwait but in mid stream are interrupted by an Iraqi hit team. Beach, R. The Number of Things. While going through a divorce, a man has recurring dreams about an early 20 th century expedition to Antarctica, which is marooned on a subantarctic island.

The events of current reality and historical dream unexpectedly become merged through his spaced-out wife. Dabb, Andrew, Seeley, Tim, et al. Joe: Special Missions Antarctica. The comic strip character G. Joe was introduced in the s and has been continued in various series by different publishers.

The Special Missions series of 28 issues had various reservists in action roles around the world. In this one, the team is sent to Antarctica to stop their arch-enemy Cobra, who has started to produce oil from a huge below-ice oil reservoir. Fearnley, Laurence. Degrees of Separation. Auckland: Penguin Group, The stories of three isolated people working out of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: a composer, a scientist and a communications operator.

Gardner, Drew. The Sands of Erebus. A spiritual novella in which a philosophical Florida State University student reconnects with his potential lost soul mate from a university course three years later, when they each win a trip to Antarctica in a poetry writing competition sponsored by the University. Jermey, Ron. The Biggest Morgue in the World. An Australian policeman is sent to an Australian scientific base in Antarctica to investigate the murder of a scientist and an attack on another.

A slow investigation of a puzzling case turns into overtones of the Cold War. Wilson, Colin. The Tomb of the Old Ones. Hayward U. Although this novella was written in , it appears in print for the first time in an anthology of Antarctic horror stories, The Antarktos Cycle from Chaosium. Based on H. This is a voluminous Franco-Belgian comic book series started in about U. This particular adventure takes them to the Antarctic to battle criminals who have discovered a stash of buried Nazi gold in the Ice.

Milligan, Peter et al. New York: Marvel Comics, No. X-Men: Golgotha - Part Three. In a 5-part series, the super-powered X-Men have travelled to the South Pole mutant colony after a distress call. They arrive to find most of the colony wiped out and the remaining few have gone mad. The only clue is the word, Golgotha, written on a wall. Another X-man arrives, with the identity and location of Golgotha, which is an alien beast, with psychic powers, buried in Antarctica.

They return to their home base lab with it but other Golgothas appear and cause insanities in the minds of the X-Men. Plowright, Kerry. Vostok Station — Point of Impact. Lock, Norman. Three Short Metaphysical Fictions. This is a webzine for fantastic fiction. Macpherson, Helen. Colder Than Ice. Port Arthur U. Two headstrong women on an Antarctic archaeological team that is trying to locate traces of a lost expedition from a century ago find each other and fall in love.

Thomas, Rosie. Sun at Midnight. London: HarperCollins, Based at a small private Antarctic Peninsula research base, a young British researcher finds her independence and falls in love with a dour contract worker. She carries a heavy burden she has chosen to conceal, until disaster strikes the camp. Wagner, Matt.

New York: DC Comics, This compendium brings together the three superheroes for the first time in a story about a mad villain who wants to remake the world to his own liking. The stories were originally published as three single issues in Dickinson, Matt. Black Ice. New York: St. Before scientists can pursue a troubling discovery from deep in the ice cap, they must rescue two stranded explorers.

People and events turn sour and the rescuers must flee for their lives. Donehower, Bruce. Bloomington U. An archaeo-astronomer is sent to Antarctica to interpret hieroglyphs found under the ice, revealing an ancient world order. Reeder, David. An unofficial sequel to H. This short story has a team of special security agents from Miskatonic University looking for their lost associates who were exploring an underground cave in an Antarctic glacier.

The rescuers find more than they bargained for. Stross, Charles. A Colder War. Aberdeen U. Engan, Charles and Janyce, et al. Oakland: Chaosium Inc. Hammond, Rayford E. The Ice Breaker Incident. Rocky Mount U. A sharp but dissolute Navy JAG lawyer must defend him. Louisville: Chicago Spectrum Press, New York: Marvel Comics, Vol. The inaugural issue of a series in which a villain, Deadpool, is tested by a group of superhuman good characters for heroism. After sabotaging a nuclear facility in Antarctica that protects against gamma rays, Deadpool has a change of heart and prevents the deadly radiation from escaping and destroying the southern hemisphere.

He is then invited to join the super heroes. Gonzlez, Jorge et al. This is an updated version of the original story line from earlier comics in which the X-Men travel to Antarctica to investigate the TV broadcast sighting of a jungle man and his saber-tooth tiger, who rescue an Antarctic expeditioner. See also Lee, Stan et al. Lee, Stan et al. This is a facsimile of the Canam Publishers Sales Corp. The super-powered X-Men are sent to Antarctica after they view a TV broadcast from Antarctica of an unknown loin-cloth clad figure and a saber-tooth tiger returning to a base camp with a missing expedition member.

The X-Men locate a crevasse that leads to an undiscovered jungle, populated by prehistoric creatures and tribesmen. They run into trouble themselves, are rescued by the jungle man and his saber-tooth tiger and are finally sent back to the Antarctic surface to return home. Wayne, Matt et al. Shadow Cabinet: A Contract with Dog. Shadow Cabinet: Final Cut. Led by the all-knowing Dharma, the Shadow Cabinet is a group of characters with various super powers, sworn to protect humanity from itself.

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In a 5-issue series, it is sent to Antarctica to stop a gang of renegade scientists who want to collect solar energy and beam it to Antarctica to provide the earth with endless energy, but that would slowly melt the polar ice caps. They must be stopped, but the shadow Cabinet finds it has its own internal issues. Bainbridge, Beryl. The Birthday Boys.

Burns, Michael. Hot Planet. Tubac U. In , as global warming causes the rapid melting of icecaps in Antarctica and worldwide flooding, the Defenders of the Planet, an environmental group, wage war with the energy establishment. Clark, Kathy. Groom Unknown. Two young scientists carry on a flirty romance through a computer interaction service and agree to marry in Antarctica, sight unseen, when one of them is assigned to McMurdo Station as a naval captain. As fate would have it, they had previously been unfriendly co-workers in Colorado. Dislike turns to like as they get to know their real selves.

Gerrard, Kitt. Midnight Tales of Torment. A female American secret agent is called on a special mission to winter over at a base on the Antarctic Peninsula with just one scientist, a male. To maintain their professional relationship, they tell each other lurid, erotic stories. Events are not at all what they seem, in this campy tale of outright porn. Superman in Action Comics: Secret Weapon. In his Antarctic Fortress of Solitude, Superman is regenerating his powers through the Eradicator and overloads its circuits to get more energy. He finally breaks to the surface in his quest to defeat the evil Cyborg who is destroying earth.

Superboy is held captive by Cyborg Superman, who deceives the Justice League into searching for them on an asteroid belt. In the meantime, the real Superman is being regenerated under the ice of Antarctica. The Adventures of Superman: Line of Fire. The evil Cyborg Superman has convinced the authorities that a rogue Superman has destroyed Ocean City. Super Boy is called in to help and is attacked by the Cyborg. Meanwhile, in Antarctica, something is lurking and dives to the bottom of the polar sea.

Superman in Action Comics: Born Again. Beneath the ice of Antarctica, the deceased Superman is regenerated from electrical energy and returns to Metropolis to fight crime as a changed Superhero. Nicieza, Fabien et al. A new series with a cast of mutant superpowered heroes has them flying in to Antarctica to attack the base of another group of mutants who are terrorists. The Adventures of Superman: Home. While battling a tidal wave in Metropolis, Superman returns to Antarctica, where the Eradicator has been melting the ice and trying to destroy Earth.

He travels through a time portal to meet his natural parents on Krypton, undergoes his Kryptonian rite of passage and returns to Earth and wills the Eradicator to stop its destruction. The Adventures of Superman: Eradication. The continuation of previous issue , in which Superman buried a Kryptonian relic, the Eradicator, in Antarctica. The Adventures of Superman: Antarctic Solitude. Superman returns to Antarctica to ensure that the relic from Krypton, the Eradicator, which he buried in Antarctica, is still there.

At the same time, he encounters a giant underground alien creature that has destroyed an unmanned research station. Claremont, Chris et al. The Vostok 3 Russian research station in Antarctica is obliterated by a tower emerging from below the ice. Down below in the prehistoric tropical Savage Land, the X-Men are engaged in battle with evil super-powered rogues. Superman A team of scientists, flying over Antarctica, receive a signal and upon landing discover what looks like Supergirl, buried in a slushy thermal ice pocket at degrees. Scottsdale: Gladstone Publishing, Issue , March Uncle Scrooge buys what he thinks is the rarest element on earth, encased in a block of ice and goes to Antarctica to store it.

It turns out to be a perpetual ice cream maker. Scrooge loses it in the vast ice and manages to find it with help from a penguin. Stern, Roger et al. The Avengers: Pyrrhic Victory! The Avengers: Terminus! The Avengers: …Into the Savage Land! A giant alien mechanical monster, Terminus, has just destroyed a scientific base and they trail it to the Savage Land, a hidden primitive jungle in Antarctica, where they meet local hero Ka-Zar and his wife.

Meanwhile, Terminus destroys the remains of an ancient Atlantean civilization before he is finally destroyed by the Avengers. However, Terminus also destroyed the life support systems of the Savage Land, which freezes over. Luckily, the Avengers are rescued by the U. Chappell, Fred. Weird Tales. A short story about the degenerate literary cronies of American horror writer H. One of them discovers a portal to Antarctica in his apartment and disappears. Detective Comics Starring Batman: Antarctic nightmare.

Batman follows the villainous Penguin to Antarctica to stop him from selling state secrets at a Russian base. Paige, Laurie. South of the Sun. New York: Silhouette Publishers, A female researcher from Florida travels to an Antarctic field camp with the mercurial group leader.

Their attraction is immediate but he must be seen as the neutral camp leader. How long can they keep their hand off each other in this fluffy tale of romance? Carter, Nick David Hagberg. Operation: McMurdo Sound. New York: Ace Charter, One of a series of spy adventures published over , written under the pseudonym Nick Carter, the protagonist. In this cold war story, Nick is sent by the U. The cover of the book shows Nick on a snowmobile, backed by a grove of rare Antarctic trees, presumably in the McMurdo Sound area. The group of super mutants is sent to Antarctica for reconnaissance of Magneto, their evil mutant arch enemy, who had a massive installation under an Antarctic volcano.

They barely escaped from him in a previous adventure and nothing has been heard since. The is the first issue of a comic series based on Ka-Zar, a jungle man transplanted from modern life, and his saber-tooth tiger, Zabu, who live in the Savage land, a prehistoric jungle beneath the icy surface of the Antarctic Peninsula. Originally created by an alien as an artificial environment, the Savage Land was later inhabited by the people of Atlantis as Pangea. Most of Pangea was eventually destroyed in a cataclysm but the Savage Land was spared.

This story introduces Lamura, a city of civilized people descended from Atlanteans. The Antarctic Convergence. London: Robert Hale Ltd. A ripping adventure yarn of a British special agent, who investigates a series of mass murders at numerous scientific bases in Antarctica,. Levitz, Paul. In the thirtieth century, up in space, the Legionnaires prepare to prevent a war between galaxies. On Antarctica, the Resource Raiders are planning to steal a shipment of rare earth metals from a stockpile and Sun Boy, Brainiac Five and Element Lad attempt to thwart the heist. Graves, Robert. Old Papa Johnson.

London: Penguin Books, New York: Magazine Management Co. An Antarctic base is attacked by a monster and a survivor tells the tale on TV interview programs. Peter Parker alias Spiderman , a photographer, is sent to Antarctica with his girlfriend to investigate. Through the icy surface, they enter the prehistoric jungle world of the Savage Land where his girlfriend is kidnapped. They get help from Ka-Zar, the jungle man and his saber-tooth tiger, Zabu, to fight arch villain Kraven the Hunter and the alien monster.

Conway, Gerry et al. Metal Men. The five metal men are near McMurdo Sound in Antarctica, looking for a stolen vault, when their creator, Doc Magnus is carried off by their enemy, Plutonium Man. The metal men, with the help of American soldiers, must recue them. Clarke, Arthur C. At the Mountains of Murkiness. London: Ferret Fantasy, This is a short spoof of H. The super-powered X-Men are sent to Antarctica after they view a TV broadcast from Antarctica of an unknown loin-cloth clad figure and his saber-tooth tiger returning to a base camp with a missing expedition member.

They run into trouble themselves, are rescued by Ka-Zar, the jungle man and his saber-tooth tiger, and are finally sent back to the Antarctic surface to return home. Uncredited author. Superman: The Last Days of Superman. Superman is supposedly infected by a virus from Krypton and has a month to live. To help him carry out his remaining vital deeds, a team of superhero friends builds an ice sculpture in Antarctica to heat the globe when he is gone.

Jarvis, E. A Home Among the Stars. New York: Fantastic, Vol. A very short story of an Antarctic meteorologist whose destiny is to be purposely stranded at a base and to be rescued by aliens. This story was also published by www. Attack of the Yetis. Navikov, Hugo. Russo, Mark. Antarctica - Volume 1. Webb, Benjamin Robert. Temporal Zoetrope, Cotter, Allan V. Seeds A William Horner Conflict. Sedgwick, Helen.

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The Comet Seekers. Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers, Suriano, James. The Antarcticans. Thacker, Nick. Towner, Gary. Kraken Rising. Extinction O — Negative Book 1. Jeffreys, Greg. The Day the Tide Kept Rising. Arrow Books. Pete B. The Reluctant Warrior. Keirle-Smith, Gordon. The Paradise Garden Press, King, Dan L. LaBarthe, L. Less Than Three Press. Lean, Frank. Ticket to Antarctica — Part One. Vernon Press. Moore, Jonathan S. Close Reach. Power, Brian. Song of Atlantis. Reynolds, A.

Past Perfect. Archway Publishing. Trudel, John D. Blackadder, Jesse. Chasing the Light. Cabana, Ted. Manner of the Sundog. Cook, Alan L. Dangerous Wind. A Carol Golden Novel. Eketoft, Linda. Stories from Antarctica. Rawley, Jody. Shackleton Crater. Botsford, Diana Dru. Stargate SG The Drift. Surbiton U. Show Me pallet highlights all kinds of graphs you can build using selected data. We will choose a Symbol map. You can see in the bottom right corner of the scheme that there are 13 values with unknown geographical location. This is due to the fact that our base covers the period since We need to add all unknown locations to the already existing ones.

Choose Map-Edit locations on the Toolbar. Now you have all 13 unknown countries on the top of the list. Change Unrecognized field to one of the existing countries. We will do so for every country except the Soviet Union. For this country we will enter new Location it is optional, we chose 60 and You can change the size of the circles, their color, border and thickness using Size and Color tab.

Also, we can add more information to this map and personalize it. Now we can change the color grade for the quantity of the gold medals in all countries and add to Detail field all information you want to see when the country is selected. Add a filter to a Filter field by dropping the Countries in it. Now you can choose only one country or a number of countries from the entire list to be shown. Rename your sheet and add a new Dashboard, like it is shown on the image.

Drag and drop your Sheets to the central field. You can change Legend on the left side of your Dashboard. It is easy to change the size of this Dashboard, choosing its size from the drop-down menu. The laptop size is very useful to see the whole information without scrolling the page. Also, you can add Title or change the format of the Dashboard in the Dashboard menu on the Toolbar. Now, you should set the name of the Book, log in to your account, and your Workbook will be available online. You can download the file on your computer, only after saving it in Tableau Public online.

The risk of chromosomal anomalies is low. Karyotyping is not indicated because the risk of chromosomal abnormalities is low. The ultrasound should also focus on the exclusion of structural heart or kidney abnormalities. Delivery should take place in a tertiary center. So far, only 9 cases have survived through this procedure [ 29 ]. Fetal hydrothorax FHT represents the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, between the parietal and the visceral pleura.

It can be unilateral or bilateral. It can be isolated or in the context of a generalized hydrops, or associated with other fetal abnormalities.

Regional Interpretation of Kansas Aeromagnetic Data

The incidence is not specified given the variability of the causes, but in the antenatal period, the secondary causes of hydrothorax are more common [ 31 ]. The causes that can lead to the occurrence of fetal hydrothorax are multiple: congenital infection parvovirus, TORCH , isoimmunization, congestive heart failure, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome. Primary FHT is called chylothorax. Secondary FHT usually appears secondary to chromosomal, cardiac, gastrointestinal and infectious abnormalities.

Analogies, anomalies and research strategy - Persée

FHT generally precedes the installation of fetal hydrops. The appearance of primary FHT is due to a structural defect in the lymphatic system: the obstruction of bronchomediastinal trunks to the venous system, congenital absence of the thoracic duct, congenital hypoplasia of the pulmonary lymphatic vessel [ 31 , 32 ]. It is a diagnostic of exclusion. In general, primary FHT occurs as a result of the obstruction of secondary lymphatic drainage to a heterogeneous group of developmental defects of the lymphatic system.

Unilateral FHT may happen due to a unilateral pathological process such as: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatoid malformation, pulmonary hypoplasia. The diagnosis of fetal hydrothorax is established on the axial image of the four chambers of the heart, as an anechoic area around the pulmonary tissue which limits the mediastinum.

Effusions can be unilateral or bilateral Figure The hydrothorax aspect is that of a peripheral anechoic space in the thorax, compressing the lung tissue. In the case of large bilateral effusions, the aspect is that of the lungs balloting in the rib cage. At the same time, mediastinal shift and the eversion of the diaphragm occur with the displacement of the heart to the contralateral side and they can cause the disruption of the hemodynamic function and the installation of nonimmune hydrops.

If the pleural effusion is part of the nonimmune hydrops, then it is also possible to see the edema of the thoracic subcutaneous tissue. The differential diagnosis is important because it should be determined whether FHT is primary or secondary. Primary hydrothorax is usually a chylothorax and it is unilateral and is a diagnostic of exclusion. However, the fetus with trisomy 21, Noonan syndrome, and Turner syndrome, may present either unilaterally or bilaterally hydrothorax [ 31 ].

In the case of the fetuses with hydrops, the presence of fetal anemia should be excluded. The most important element of prognosis is whether fetal hydrothorax is associated with non-immune fetal hydrops, because in this situation the fetal mortality is increased. Other negative prognostic factors are FHT associated with cardiac abnormalities or with central nervous system anomalies. The only positive prognostic factor is the presence of FHT without another associated anomaly or other fluid effusion with another location.

Isolated small FHT at the fetus without any other abnormalities, without hydrops or abnormal karyotype, has a favorable prognosis, because the fetus usually tolerates well small effusions [ 31 , 32 ]. Delivery by vaginal route is an option although there is an increase incidence of the rate of cesarean section [ 33 ]. It is mandatory to determine the karyotype in FHT due to the increased risk of association with chromosomal anomalies. Even if the fetus tolerates small isolated effusions, a serial echographic surveillance is required because small hydrothorax can progress rapidly to large effusions that may have negative hemodynamic consequences.

Birth in a tertiary center is recommended. The initial step is the thoracocentesis and diagnosis for cell count, culture, or the viral culture. In general, thoracocentesis other than for diagnosis is ineffective because after it is done a re-accumulation of the pleural fluid occurs. The rapidity with which the effusion accumulates after the initial puncture is an indicator of the pleural effusion severity.

For this reason, pleural cavity decompression is done through thoracoamniotic shunt. Large FHT is drained through thoracoamniotic shunt especially if hydrops is present. Shunt complications are: blockage, migration, fetal death. Fetal mediastinal cysts are represented by: pericardial cyst, thymic cyst, esophageal duplication cyst, neurenteric cyst.

The incidence of these masses is not known because they are rare pathological entities and only case reports are reported. The pericardial cyst is located at the costophrenic right angle level. The pericardial cyst is covered by mesothelium and has fluid content, and is usually asymptomatic.

If the size of the cyst is important, then it can be associated with fetal hydrops, or with the change in heart function at birth [ 17 ]. If the pericardial cyst size is reduced in size, it can also regress. Thymic cysts are asymptomatic, but the prenatal diagnosis is possible. The esophageal duplication cyst exhibits ectopic gastric mucosa, communicating with the gastrointestinal lumen.

Sometimes they may not communicate with the gastrointestinal lumen [ 17 , 36 ]. The communication with the gastrointestinal lumen is located either above the diaphragm or below the diaphragm. The neurenteric cyst has a connection with the meninges and the spinal cord and it is usually associated with congenital scoliosis or spina bifida. The prenatal diagnosis of esophageal duplication cysts is based on the spherical aspect of the cyst, rarely on the tubular aspect, but with a thick, hyperechogenic wall determined by the presence of the gastric mucosa.

Usually, the cyst is connected to the esophagus. If the dimensions of the esophageal duplication cyst are large due to the compression effect on the esophagus, the appearance of polyhidramnios may occur [ 37 , 38 ]. The thymic cyst is formed from remnants of the thymopharangeal duct; they are usually very small and localized to the anterior mediastinum [ 38 ]. The ultrasound aspect is of a transonic mass surrounded by the thymic tissue and located in the previous mediastinum. Pericardial cyst, originating from the pericardium, appears at ultrasound examination as a thin walled, unilocular, fluid-filled transonic mass in the left or the right of the cardiophrenic angle.

The cyst wall may communicate with the pericardial space. Neurenteric cysts are very rare; only eight cases have been diagnosed in the prenatal stage by the ultrasound [ 37 , 38 , 39 ]. If the size of the cyst is large, it can exert cardiac compression with the subsequent appearance of the hydrops. It can also exert compressive phenomena on the bronchi, which causes neonatal respiratory distress.

Association with anomalies of the membrane can be encountered [ 40 ]. The differential diagnosis among the described mediastinal masses is sometimes difficult. Several elements should be considered: pericardial cyst is located in the cardiophrenic angle of the right hemothorax, thymic cysts are located in the anterior mediastinum and are surrounded by thymic tissue, and the enteric duplication cyst is in close contact with the esophagus [ 41 , 42 ]. For differential diagnosis, we can also use fetal MRI. The origin of the mass can be established sometimes only after perinatal autopsy [ 43 ].

The prognostic thymic cyst is favorable without affecting the condition of the fetus. The pericardial cyst can determine hydrops due to the compression on the heart. However, sometimes even in the case of reduced size, the pericardial cyst can be resorbed. The neurenteric cyst can cause cardiac compression and the appearance of hydrops as secondary effect. The esophageal duplication cyst determines polyhidramnios due to compression on the esophagus. The risk of chromosomal anomalies is absent, so karyotyping is not recommended. The indication of in utero treatment is represented by the presence of hydrops and the presence of compression of the tracheobronchial tree [ 44 ].

Puncture with cyst aspiration or the EXIT techniques are the treatment options in such cases. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Stefania Tudorache. Edited by Jing Zheng. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals.

Downloaded: Abstract The antenatal and postnatal prognosis for fetuses with chest noncardiac anomalies varies widely, depending of the type of lesion present. Introduction The thoracic anomalies represent a group of abnormalities that can be found either in the lung parenchyma or mediastinum. Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung CCAM 2. Definition and incidence Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung CCAM is a lesion that is characterized by the presence of a mass of multicystic pulmonary tissue and is accompanied by bronchial proliferation.

Ultrasound diagnosis CCAM ultrasound diagnosis is used for pointing out a cystic or solid lung tumor growth with the absence of systemic Doppler vasculature Figure 1. Table 1. Prognostic CCAM is not associated with syndromes, the risk of chromosomal anomalies being extremely low.

Prenatal management It is important to emphasize that the mass has an important potential growth between 20 and week gestation, then there is a plateau, and afterwards the mass tends to regress. Bronchopulmonary sequestration 3. Definition and incidence Bronchopulmonary sequestration BPS represents a cystic mass of nonfunctioning pulmonary tissue with the blood supply from the systemic vessels and not from the pulmonary arteries. Ultrasound diagnosis The prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of bronchopulmonary sequestration is based on the following elements: hyperechoic mass a mass with triangular shape, with a paraspinal localization, usually in the base of the left fetal chest.

Prognosis The prognosis of BPS is favorable in the absence of other associated abnormalities. Prenatal management In isolated BPS karyotyping is not mandatory, but it is recommended if any other abnormality is associated. Pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary agenesis 4.