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Gottfried Keller composed a poem. The original episode was recorded in the sixteenth-century family chronicle known as the Zimmern Chronicle — The Fool of Count von Zimmern. The cup is known as a ciborium. For the source, see Zimmerische Chronik , ed. Karl August Barack, 4 vols. The Holy Jester Francis. The Italian for jongleur is giullare , for jonglery is giullarata. Gail Ashton and Daniel T. Brewer, , 68— The framework he assumes derives from Antonio Gramsci and Mikhail Bakhtin, among others, and it posits subaltern masses of lower classes, which are oppressed by hegemonic elites.
Truth is stranger than fiction. Mark Twain, Following the Equator , chap. The City of God. De civitate Dei. On Superstition. De superstitione. The parallel to De civitate Dei 6. In the retelling of the Old French by the latter, the jongleur dies at the end of performing and supplicating. A similar impulse may explain another historical anecdote. In , a mime play is interrupted when the alarm is sounded of an approaching enemy. The crowd first rushes to arms and later returns to the performance, where the spectators find that in their absence the mime has continued dancing to the accompaniment of a flute player.
See Sextus Pompeius Festus, De verborum significatione , ed. Lindsay, in Glossaria latina , 5 vols. The odds are good that if we wished to track down instances from other traditions, they could be found readily. Brill, , — Dancers are the athletes of God. This saying is often identified, without any source, as a quotation from Albert Einstein.
His feast day is May His life story was written by his fellow Franciscan and superior, Father Juan Ximenez. The abbreviated Latin translation of the original Spanish vita by Father Ximenez can be found in Acta Sanctorum May 4, : 48—; the episode to follow is at p.
Oswald Staniforth London: R. This aspect is symbolized by the ostensory and the chalice. King of the Graveyard. On the conventional iconography, see Maria Chiara Celletti, in Bibliotheca sanctorum , — The episode is recounted in Ximenez, Chronica. In the province of Bulacan, on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. Our Lady of Salambao. Our Lady of Salambao is an image of the Virgin now in the church of San Paschal that was reportedly found by two brothers inside their fishing net salambao in Herbert J.
Thurston and Donald Attwater, 4 vols.immunocal.pl/media/gear/sony-handycam-hdr-cx405.php
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Westminster, MD: Christian Classics, , 2: Saint John Bosco. In Italian, Giovanni Melchiorre Bosco. Daniel Lyons, with notes and commentary by Eugenio Ceria et al. An Italian biography by Eugenio Pilla is entitled Il piccolo giocoliere , 4th ed. The lay brothers are known as coadjutors. Ruth St. The intensities of my spiritual life had found a focus of action in exactly the same way that another earnest young person would enter the church.
What Is She? The dancer was introduced. The introduction came after an organ prelude and Gospel readings. She is the being of creative love. Madonnas were the passion of her last years. Shelton, Divine Dancer , One Sunday in February 25, Manhattan church. The church was Central Presbyterian, which had been constructed in Gothic revival style between and at the corner of 64th Street and Park Avenue, on the Upper East Side.
Rachel K. On the puritanical reaction to the dance, see Shelton, Divine Dancer , Eventually she danced in the corps de ballet, and ultimately she became the first dancer. The pose in question was an arabesque, in which the dancer balances on one leg with the other unbent at the knee and extended back. Her narrative of the time is replete with pronouncements of devotion to both God and dance. Hans Neumann, 2 vols.
Frank Tobin, Classics of Western Spirituality, vol. I will dance for you, Lord. Order of the Visitation. It was founded in God was the lord of the dance. Dance is also a school of tolerance, since its language is universal and can be understood by everyone, whatever their creed or origins. A recent book by her is a meditation upon the Gospels entitled Dance with Jesus. I dance for God. Her convictions regarding dance are summarized simply but nicely in a French weekly for children, Fripounet 52, December 28, —January 4, , 28— Nick Weber.
I Dance with God. Worker-Sisters of the Holy House of Nazareth. If it is not true, it is well conceived. He who labors as he prays. Vox clamantis in deserto. These words are drawn from the Vulgate Latin translation of the Gospel of Mark —3 and of the Gospel of John —23 in reference to John the Baptist, which in turn quotes Isaiah Clothing and horses were frequent tokens of largesse from wealthy patrons. Poets mention them often as coveted perquisites. The attackers included clerics such as Gerald of Wales and Walter Map. The founder was Abbot Robert of the Benedictine abbey of Molesmes in Burgundy, who was persuaded to undertake this innovation by two fellow monks, Alberic and Stephen Harding.
The Latin place name Cistercium is related to the noun cistellum.
Kinder, Cistercian Europe , 81— There were obvious exceptions: we will encounter more than once a monk named Helinand of Froidmont. Bernard loved the valleys. Gilchrist Lavigne, Cistercian Studies Series, vol. Annping Chin New York: Penguin, , book 6. Exordium parvum , 3, in Chrysogonus Waddell, ed. Basil Pennington, Cistercian Studies Series, vol. Two strands of scholarship have credited the long twelfth century with an unprecedented appreciation of individuality. One has emphasized the quality as it appears in literature, the other as it comes to the fore in religious sensibilities.
The poem about the tumbler straddles both categories: in this literary work, he creates a paradoxically solo community within a monastery. It bears recalling that his individuality has nothing to do with personality in a modern sense, of which he puts on display none. The term abbot. The word has reached us by way of first Greek and then Latin. Jesus and Paul. The three instances are in Mark , Romans , and Galatians The Latin terms are monachus conversus and monachus laicus or illitteratus , respectively.
See Constance H. Ad conversionem. Lectio divina. Dimier, Stones Laid before the Lord , Exordium magnum Cisterciense, sive, Narratio de initio Cisterciensis Ordinis , ed. Huper and douleia , respectively. Jahrhundert , ed. Claudia Opitz et al. Thomas Buffer San Francisco: Ignatius, , — Cistercian writers. Ambrosius Schneider et al. Cologne, Germany: Wienand, , — Divine Comedy. Paradiso , To Bernard, Dante also assigns the culminating prayer to the Virgin in the final canto of the same concluding canticle, Paradiso Bernard, among others. Humility, chastity, and silence.
For an anthology of texts relating to Mary in English translation, see E. Rozanne Elder, ed. Peter Abelard. Letter 10, in Letters of Peter Abelard, beyond the Personal , trans. Jan M. Ziolkowski Washington, D. Meredith Parsons Lillich, Cistercian Studies, vol. Hail, Holy Queen. Albi nimirum monachi dicuntur, non modo quod albedine vestium fulgeant, sed quod candoris virginei ministri spirituales existant.
Saint Alberic. Feast day, January Acta sanctorum. Marian Doctor. Latin Doctor Marianus or Doctor Marialis. Ottilien, Germany: EOS, — , 1: —50, at Reinhardt, , — The angel Gabriel was sent. Luke , in Latin, Missus est angelus Gabriel. On the Praises of the Virgin Mother. Latin De laudibus virginis matris. Hilda C. Westminster, MD: Christian Classics, , 1: — Hail, Star of the Sea. Latin Ave, maris stella. It is actually the work of the eighth-century Ambrosius Autpertus. Mother of the Word, do not spurn my words; but hear and hearken to me favorably.
Greetings, Bernard. Salve, Bernarde. Mary in this guise can be designated in Latinate terminology as the Madonna or Virgo Lactans , in Greek as panagia galaktotrophousa. This is not the place to examine the broadest implications of the motif, which has strong relevance to female spirituality. In this connection, the milk could be tied to the blood of Christ in the Eucharist as well as to the motif of the gore that comes forth when his side is lanced during the crucifixion. The event was celebrated annually on January Actes des Rencontres de Dijon, 7—8 juin , ed.
The imperative monstra te esse matrum show yourself to be a mother quotes verbatim a verse in Ave maris stella , the aforementioned hymn to Mary that is from the ninth century or earlier. For the text and translation, see Peter G. Saint Bernard alone. The most important early record of the story, in which the woman is Pero and her father Cimon, appears in Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium. Barnay, Le ciel sur la terre , Mary in the manifestation of nursing mother is often styled in Latin as mater lactans.
Vercell: Opera quae supersunt , ed. Martin Jenni, Cistercian Fathers Series, vol. Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother , — Our Lady of Mercy. Alternatively, Our Lady of Pity. Fontemoing, Bissera V. The first telling of it as an exemplum is in Dialogus miraculorum 7. Johannes Maior, ed. Une touaille blance. The corresponding term in Latin was mappa. It was an ancient lexical import from Punic, a language that went extinct in late antiquity.
Tovaglia and tovagliolo. Mary had an up-close-and-personal connection. Barnay, Le ciel sur la terre , —5. The French phrase is couvre chef or cuerchief. Stewart Gordon New York: Palgrave, , 59— Norman H. Baynes, Byzantine Studies and Other Essays , ed. Humphreys and A. Similar to a dickey, it covered the lower neck and upper chest, when worn over a bodice that would otherwise have left those areas exposed. Chartres, France: R. Selleret, — , 1: —8.
For instance, it is pictured in the background of a famous painting on wood behind an altar: see Margaret B. No one can serve two masters. Matthew , Luke Latin fratres laici. Line On the specific nature of the facial hair, see France, Separate but Equal , 76— In Latin, fratres barbati. On their illiteracy, see France, Separate but Equal , 57— Usus conversorum , ed. Bretel, Les ermites et les moines , 32— Bretel, Les ermites et les moines , 54— Del tumbeor Nostre Dame , lines 54, 65, For an illustration of a lay brother kneeling before Mary in an early thirteenth-century manuscript, see France, Cistercians in Medieval Art , , fig.
The representation of the death ritual in the medieval poem matches approximately what is documented for Benedictine monks: see Frederic S. Exordium magnum Cisterciense , ed. One anecdote. Griesser, —57 4. Our Father. Pater noster. Credo in Deum I believe in God , etc. Psalm Usus conversorum , chap. See line Hail, Mary. Ave Maria. Recorded in Luke Lines 57— Caesarius of Heisterbach recounts this celebrated anecdote twice.
Dialogue on Miracles. Dialogus miraculorum. The text known previously as Liber visionum et miraculorum Book of visions and miracles was assembled at Clairvaux between and see Olivier Legendre, ed. Its title has now been emended: see idem, ed. There are eighty-three chapters in all. Strange, 2: 1—80; idem, Dialogue on Miracles , trans. Scott and Bland, 1: — Caesarius, Dialogus miraculorum , Distinctio 7, Capitula 12—13, ed. Strange, 2: 15, trans. The first to point out this phenomenon and to cite examples was Faral, Les jongleurs , n2.
Lives of the Fathers. Vitae Patrum , in PL , Silvestre rejects the foundation for the legend, while paying attention in passing to the credence given it in the Middle Ages and later. The Monk of Montaudon. On him and his poems, see Michael J. Routledge, ed. As prize for his poetry, the monk is awarded a sparrow hawk. Rather, the name corresponds to the Latin Marius, a male saint. Folquet of Marseille. On his conversion, see Nicole M. Berlioz, Guiot de Provins. Despite his conventional name, Guiot may have been from the relatively small region then known as France, which occupied only a north-central portion of what is now the country by the same name.
Bible Guiot. Helinand of Froidmont. Jenny Lind Porter, ed. This possibility rests on a disputed interpretation of the final two lines: see Jean Renart, Le Roman de la Rose, ou, de Guillaume de Dole , ed. Jean Dufournet, Champion Classiques. Adam of Lexington. Joseph Stevenson London, , repr. William D. Evelyn B. On monastic silence, see Paul F. Lines 73— On silence, see Rule of Saint Benedict , chaps. Venarde, 42—43, —35, —45, —61, and — Latin signa loquendi. The silence of lay brothers is presented as virtuous by Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogus miraculorum , ed.
Strange 2: 95, trans. Scott and Bland, 2: 18—19 Distinctio 8, Capitulum The urgency of controlling signing is apparent not only in Cistercian customaries and other such texts, but also in their exempla collections. For instance, Caesarius of Heisterbach relates a tale of a monk who as punishment for overindulging in signs and speech suffered the horrors of hell, only to be revitalized so that he could admonish his brethren Caesarius of Heisterbach, Libri VIII Miraculorum 2.
Hanstein, — , 3: — See Venarde, Rule of Saint Benedict , chap. First conveyed in English by the now obsolete word accidie. Doran Company, , 47— Megan Cassidy et al. This article was revised and incorporated in Cassidy-Welch, Monastic Spaces , A third exemplum. Via negativa or via negationis. The French words used are cotele in line diminutive of the source of English coat , chemise in line from which English chemise.
De nugis curialium. James, rev. Brooke and R. The most comprehensive treatment of the clothing worn by lay brothers is France, Separate but Equal , 84— Lay brothers wore a very basic outfit of a robe with capuce, belt, socks, and footwear. Brothers who had special duties as smiths or herdsmen were authorized additional extra garments. Nothing is said about underclothing. John Willard R. Trask, Bollingen Series, vol.
Sherry C. Lindquist Farnham, UK: Ashgate, , 85— and ix list of illustrations. A very useful overview of terminology and metaphors remains D. Robertson, Jr. Latin terms. Goswin of Bossut. Martha G. A key passage is Goswin of Bossut, Vita Arnulfi , book 1, chaps. Martinus Cawley, Medieval Women, vol. Denis Meehan, Scriptores Latini Hiberniae, vol. Gospel of John. John —7. It joins together vera and icon. The contemporary was Ananias, also known as Hannan. The Latin is toella , cognate with French touaille. See Nicolotti, From the Mandylion , — Stefano Zuffi, trans.
Rosanna M. Giammanco Frongia Los Angeles: J. Matthew M. Mesley and Louise E. Wilson, Medium Aevum Monographs, vol. David A. In Latin, the three classes are, respectively, laboratores , bellatores , and oratores. In the boundless literature on medieval Marianism, a very accessible treatment that has deservedly won the status of a classic is Warner, Alone of All Her Sex. Among more recent general studies, another book that has been paid widespread attention is Rubin, Mother of God. See John D. James L. Paul, MN: North Central, , 1. For dual-language versions of medieval English miracles with facing modern English translations, see Adrienne Williams Boyarin, ed.
For a late but important version in English, see Peter Whiteford, ed. For an overview of what survives in Middle English, see Thomas D. Albert E. Hartung, 11 vols. See R. The successors in the vernaculars came first in France and later in Spain, where substantial collections took shape. The Assumption and the Purification. Swanson, Studies in Church History, vol. Most voluminous is Brian Cummings and James Simpson, eds.
More recent is Ronald Hutton, ed. An old classic that well repays reading is Wallace K. The damage experienced by English cathedrals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the evolution in their constitution and financing as institutions are examined in two magisterial books by Stanford E.
Sonnet Catholics and Protestants. Ten Commandments. Exodus London: St.
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Waterton is particularly good on destroyed Madonnas. The Latin epithet used was dos Mariae. Powicke and C. Cheney, eds. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary , 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, , Madonna 2. Some of these lost Madonnas have been studied individually. Ronald C. The most recent general overview is Walsingham: Pilgrimage and History. National Shrine, The fullest premodern account is in a ballad op. Named Richeldis of Faverches. Holy House. Hail Mary. In Latin, Ave Maria. Sixty-nine holy places throughout Europe claimed to possess such relics, with samples of this precious liquid or of stones impregnated with it.
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The Harmsworth universal atlas and gazetteer. Publication Info: London :Amalgamated Press,n. Herbariones upsalienses Everhard Rumphius Herbarium Blackwellianum emendatum et auctum, id est, Elisabethae Blackwell collectio stirpium :quae in pharmacopoliis ad medicum usum asseruantur, quarum descriptio et vires ex Anglico idiomate in Latinum conversae sistuntur figurae maximam partem ad naturale exemplar emendantur floris fructusque partium repraesentatione augentur et probatis botanicorum nominibus illustrentur.
Cum praefatione Tit. Christophori Iacobi Trew ; excudit figuras pinxit atque in aes incidit Nicolaus Fridericus Eisenbergerus Publication Info: Norimbergae : Typis Io. Iosephi Fleischmanni, The herbarium of Ferdinand Lindheimer. Publication Info: The herbarium of Josiah Gregg. Publication Info: Herbarivm Oth. Publication Info: Argent :apud Ioannem Schottum, Publication Info: Norimbergae :Apud Io. Endteri p. Publication Info: Paris :O. Publication Info: Paris :Librairie Hachette, Publication Info: Londres ; Paris :P.
Didot jeune, Nicolas Monard Et nouvellement traduicte en francois par Anthoine Colin Publication Info: Paris :Imprimerie Nationale, Renauld et J. Publication Info: Paris :L'auteur, Publication Info: Paris :Brunet,, [i. Fitch, illustrating the characters of the tribes. Publication Info: London : Macmillan, Historia fisica, politica y natural de la isla de Cuba. Publication Info: Paris : A. Bertrand, Publication Info: Madrid :Impr. Historia naturalis Brasiliae Publication Info: Lugdun.
Elzevirium, Publication Info: Lipsiae: T. Parry ; delivered in Davenport, Iowa, January 21st, Publication Info: Davenport, Ia. The history of succulent plants Publication Info: London :Printed for the author, A history of the aggregates, or cluster-headed plants:comprehending the entire genera Their descriptions, characters, virtues, and uses; their place of growth, time of flowering, stature, duration, colours, and other peculiarities, and a figure of every plant, drawn and engraved from nature. With observations on a natural method, so far as it regards the connection of classes; on the production and propagation of mulish or intermediate plants and on certain plants which are common to England and America,by John Hill.
Publication Info: London[pub. Publication Info: Cincinnati, O. Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany. Horae physicae Berolinenses :collectae ex symbolis virorum doctorum H. Nees ab Esenbeck. Publication Info: Bonnae :Adolphi Marcus, Publication Info: Amstelodami :apud P. Edman [etc. Link] Publication Info: Berolini :F. Hortus Botanicus Batumensis :delectus seminum. Publication Info: Panormi :Ex officina typograhica F. Lao;ex officina cromolographica C.
Hortus botanicus vindobonensis, seu, Plantarum rariorum, quae in Horto botanico vindobonensi Hortus Cliffortianus :plantas exhibens quas in hortis tam vivis quam siccis, Hartecampi in Hollandia, coluit Georgius Clifford Publication Info: Amstelaedami [Amsterdam]:[s. Hortus Eystettensis, sive, Diligens et accurata omnium plantarum, florum, stirpium :ex variis orbis terrae partibus, singulari studio collectarum, quae in celeberrimis viridariis arcem episcopalem ibidem cingentibus, olim conspiciebantur delineatio et ad vivum repraesentatio et advivum repraesentatio opera. By George Sinclair.
Publication Info: London :Printed by B. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus :continens regni Malabarici apud Indos cereberrimi onmis generis plantas rariores, Latinas, Malabaricis, Arabicis, Brachmanum charactareibus hominibusque expressas Publication Info: London :[s. Howell's Pacific coast plants. Iacobi Grevini Claromontani Bellovaci Parisiensis medici De venenis libri duo. One might equally emend to ces set arts — Presumably not counting grammar, the two already described would be dialectic and music ; only the remaining four are described in what follows — 1 30 Qe fet : MS De fere, or if the first letter is a Q, its tail is very faint — Taking into account the average length of the descriptions of the other liberal arts, it seems possible that a couplet or so may be missing before these lines which might have thrown light on their meaning.
As it is, it is difficult to understand par ley ovryr, and the dictionaries are of no assisstance. Ovryr could well be for ovrer ; ley may mean 'law', rhetoric being not untypically associated with preparation for the law see, for example, Li Livres dou Tresor of. Carmody, Berkeley-Los Angeles. Theology has replaced geometry in the standard list of the liberal arts, though, according to the definition in , some of the traditional functions of geometry are reallocated to arithmetic. There is another work in which theology is included among the seven liberal arts, namely the anonymous version of the Mariage des set ars, ed.
Such departures from the norm are a clear sign of the popular and edifying nature of these two works ; they contrast with genuinely vulgarizing works born of the university tradition, such as the Tresor see preceding note or the Lumere as Lais see note to line — Nos : MS Nous. The word had a wide range of variant forms in Old French — Cele might be read as Oele. Art is of course commonly feminine in Old French, which would account for the form, though it may be due to the gender of arithmetica, suggesting the more normal aritmetike in the exemplar.
The phrase may be a corruption, perhaps of some expression with part, e. Mes la reyne lui survi[v]oit ; A lour delour le double fessoit. Sa delour approchait la mort. Le grant doel veyt de sa mere. Et de nous touz, qe par folie Le assaut de mort ne te oscye Et nous demanouns orphanyns. D'autre part tu fes grant mal Qe mettre te fes peryngal A Dieu, qe tout ad en baillye.
Mettre is known to the dictionaries in the sense 'appoint' etc. En dolour fere n'ad conquest, En plusours vertuz vous defet ; De meynt vivant avez blame. Puis esteyt si tresdouz et franks. En vie ne aveit son per. Pur lui prier est bien fere. One might emend MS le sovent to me savent though this would seem to require the insertion of [sa] before the nouns — ses : MS ees.
No suitable expression with hure is known to the dictionaries ; cf. The spelling of huvre without v appears three times in the MS cf. Pope, op. The suggested version involves the least interference with the text, but one might equally emend to nul n' ert or nul n jesteit for the syllable count — est : MS de ; the couplet is out of place, since Katherine is not yet a Christian. Mes durra bien plus largement Q'a lour deserte ne apent ; Et qe il sache toutes les leys,. Puis, qe il soit de la nature Qe ja mort [ne] lui veigne sure, Ne de lui [n']eyt seignurie,.
Joie et vye qe ne prent fin De mon espous itant devyn, Qe pur sa mort dolour ne eye,. Qe joie ne perde par dolour Pur la chose ou n'ad retour ". A ceo respount lors la reygne :. Is the author striving for a deliberate parallelism, or could the chescun be due to eye-slip from the following line? The line seems to mean 'you have spent so long in school', and is possibly ironic. Reaume et plus, c'est la somme, E tu. Reaume ne poet meyntener. E a bataille poynt n'apent Coup de femme, ne vengement [3ra] De ceux qe tey averount fet tort. It is possible that three lines would have been needed for this, and that a further couplet is missing in addition to the obvious gap of one line — The MS reads gy de h.
Morawski, op. The scribe may have had in mind nent autrement qe par consail de tes amys. Face is presumably used as an imperative — tes parent : MS toy parent — Le men could stand for mon consail, though the expression mettre delsuen exists as a set phrase meaning 'make one's contribution, try to influence matters', e. The compound past is rare in this text, except for its use in the first person for the narrator's voice ; this example seems to be an extension of that use.
Pur Dieu servir. Cele prodome [3rb] Ne sout ou Allissaundre esteyt. This version does not share the motif, found in lines and of the A-N text, of time marvellously standing still while the characters make a long journey — Cele : perhaps an error for E cell — En nulfej would restore the metre ; nul is generally negative in this text, making [ne] la ami seit a less satisfactory emendation — meynt : the placing of the tilde makes it possible to read this as uineyt ; perhaps the original had viveyt, but cf.
AND has the sense 'distant' for the adjective estrange ; this seems to be the corresponding adverb — loyns : MS de loyns ; loyns de [la] gent would restore the syllable count. The forms. The reference to the sea is not standard in this section of the legend. There is a parallel in Capgrave's version ed.
The rarer regiere fits both the spelling and the rhyme better, and AND suggests that it was used with a wider range of senses in Anglo-Norman than the continental French dictionaries attest. The line seems to mean that there is no task to be undertaken in which one may not become weary, i. Neither word is noted by the dictionaries in collocation with 'idleness', though one could read servir fodj udivesee, or perhaps User udivesee. Ascun of may well be for a ascun, and entendre probably means 'pay attention to, busy oneself with', giving the sense that, even though he was taking a break from praying "he did not wish to be idle, but rather be mentally?
Ov vout de femme lui aparust Tresbele, mes ne la conust. De lui esteyt la estature. Qe unqes vist, saunz el dire. Car sa vewe ne pout soffire [3va] De aviser sa face a dreit. The words seem to have rhymed for the poet, cf.
Pout seems to be intended as subjunctive in these lines, as again at — Nothing seems to be missing here, and it is possible that was always an orphan line, but one could easily invent a cheville ending in -ment — dyt : MS deyt with e erased. Dist la dame, " beaux douz amys ". Ja n'as conissaunce de moy,. Jhesu saveor de vye, Et moy nometz sovent Marie. Jeo su mere, il est mon fitz,.
Lui hermite chet a terre De soun trespas mercy quere Qe sa dame ne out conuwe,. Obeyer et a parfere ". Lors la dame debonere Al hermite dist son avis :. Qeja le soen propre esteyt ; A sa file est ore en dreit A qi apent le heritage. Soun dreit noun est Katerine ;. Vous la troveretz en bref tens. Salutz lui dites de moy part.
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De par celui qe fet asart [4ra] De chescun peril et des enuyz. One might even emend to a dreit. Rather an unexpected metaphor, the sense seems to be 'clears the ground fet asart of all perils like a clearing in a forest , and plants goodness [in their place]'. The hermit is to give greetings to Katherine from the BVM in the name of Christ, and mention Katherine's vow made to her mother, which Katherine will recognize as a sign of his kona fides.
The emendation is highly conjectural, and assumes a sense 'I shall find her such a husband and a better one in every way. It is far from clear what might account for such a mistake, and of course many other negative expressions would be as likely as en nul liu. Prove seems rather forced in the next line, too, though to judge by its appearances elsewhere, it was an automatic rhyme for the author cf. A cest qe conusetz bien. Et ceo ne lest pur autre ren ". Avant ala.
T-L have a couple of examples of this use. This seems more plausible than the possibility that the word should be cofnjrey, none of whose many meanings seems a particularly close fit here. The subjet of ad is, of course, Katherine — nous : MS vous ; given the difficulty of the following line, this emendation is not certain — The scribe originally wrote ceo, then wrote st over the final o. One would expect nule in place of autre i. Although A-N is particularly prone to mixing tu-and vows-forms, often within the same sentence, it is rare to find a verb immediately adjacent to a pronoun that does not match it though cf.
In the context, baudement seems to have a more negative connotation than is found in AND, something like 'impudently' — De joie aver qe amastes. Pur quei lors lui sermentastes, Pur sa dolour qe fust si grant,. Tout lui dist quant qe devisa A sa mere quant lui parla. AND has mettre en espleit 'carry out' ana faire bon espleit 'make progress' ; perhaps one should emend meys to fey s — The line is unconvincing : 'you scarcely succeeded in having scarcely made much effort to have? An emendation along the lines of De joie porter a eele qe amastes would make better sense but would be pretty arbitrary and, of course, over long.
Lui must refer to the BVM, though the fact that she has not been mentioned since may betray the loss of a couplet here. Hastant is not glossed separately in AND, though T-L have a few examples of the adverb hastanment meaning 'in Hast, eilig, rasch', which suggests that the participle had become a real adjective ; here it is used as an adverb: 'quickly' — Outrepassant : MS Outre pussant ; gens : MS sens — This line may mean 'they are partakers in full power', or 'they are all powerful allies'.
N'avras mester qe te pleynez, Ne pur sa mort dolour eyetz. De ceo qe vous ay dist devant. De tiel prendre soit a toun chois. Katerine nent [a] a dire,. De grace de seint Espirit. Plus pensa qe ele ne dit. Conseil de nul voleyt prendre. Seint Espirit dedeinz lui esteyt Qe par dehors bien la guye[y]t. Saunz plus dire de son purpos.
De seignurie lest sa part ; Estrange swit ne sout quel part. Ensemble vont de un assent. A demander ne out un d'eus : " Quel part vous meyne Deus? Et dixit Habacuc : Domine, Babylonem non vidi, et lacum nescio. Blame may be no more than a cheville to provide a rhyme for dame, and should perhaps not detain us too long ; son in line could refer to the dame of Bon espeir les conforte. Venuz sont dreit a la porte, De richesse si garnye. The dictionaries are of no help. Maybe the original had some form of ovrer 'to work hard'?
Espiritz can, it is true, mean 'humours, spirits' in the medical sense, though this seems hardly to fit here, particularly with a singular verb, and bon espeir is a standard collocation. Targer here, of course means 'hinder' — urent : MS virent, which might be allowed to stand, though the following ussent suggests that urent was intended here — 'Even if they had not taken another step' — MS ne de hale. AND only notes the sense 'hall' for hale, though this obviously does not make sense here ; the contrast is between a palatial sale and a mere covered market — resemblait : MS resemblant, which is perhaps not impossible, if one understands ert again from line — I.
Nent plus qe le mound a un festu A ce qe en la sale ont veu, Tant i ount joie entere,. Un petit avant pus se meovent Pur aviser qe leyns treovent. A haut deys ert primes assis. Jhesu, le douce, lui debonere. Et les lui sa douce mere, Mere virgine quant enfaunteyt,.
Et son cher fitz rey ensement ; Bien resemblent de un linage. Ne ici ja nel saura Desqes face a face lui vera. Corounes urent a lour devis,. Among the senses of conrey are 'pomp, show' and 'standing, social position', either of which might do here ; alternatively one might add bon, or riche to form a set phrase — Cf. Lumere as Lais see note to line above , lines If. Lebsanft op. II est rois — jeo su sa mere — Et rey de reys ; et [de] sun pere A cist apent le heritage. Qe Fun agree, l'autre veut ; L'un saunz l'autre estre ne peut.
S'il lui plest et il te plese,. Cele respond : " Vostre mercy. Ma dame, unqes rien ne vy Qe de queor puise tant amer. Ceti averay. S'il me deigne, Sus moy mette sa enseigne. Ja de lui ne parteray. There is a turned point after this word : one might read the sentence as a question rather than an exclamation. Although je vous plevis without the object pronoun is known as a set phrase, 'I guarantee, I pledge'. T-L has various examples of the verb used in the sense 'promise to marry, become betrothed'. The verb applies to both men and women, but generally has one of the engaged couple as its subject ; here we seem to have a sense 'give in marriage', hence the placing of the full stop — de un estage : AND has examples suggesting the meaning 'situation, state, condition' ; here the sense seems to be 'adopt the same position', 'are of one mind' — There is a raised point after averay ; thus punctuated, I take the lines to mean T will have him.
If he thinks me worthy, let him place his mark upon me'. However transitive deigner with a person as object is extremely rare : T-L give only one example and that not very convincing , translated as 'jem. Perhaps one should emend me to le, and translate 'if he deigns [to do] it', or even omit the pronoun, and emend mette to mettfrje, 'if he deigns to place his mark on me'.
Perhaps the original rhyme was an imperfect one between ne pur molest and porterez al col dur fes?
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Of course it is Katherine's passion that is predicted in these lines — toun : MS tey cf. The construction without a preposition before the infinitive, though rare, is attested — 68 1 lye : MS lyee — a ese : MS aesee — al rey : MS a tey — The gender of desirouse makes it clear that it is the wife who should desire the husband, hence the emendation chosen, though the syllable count and the rather awkward Mes make it just possible that some lines are missing here.
In prose the lines might read : soit desirouse de lui amer. Ceo prodom, le nostre amy Qe par grace te mena ici, II seyt tresbien le bayn fere. La pucele Katerine. Facetz en moy qe mester est Qe a toun fitz et a tey plest ". Ele ne sout dount par qi ce vint, Mes bien paie en tot se tint. Roques, Paris, [CFMA, 89] ; T-L have two examples under mirer translated as 'zuerkennen, verleihen', but also give mire as subjunctive of merir in the transitive sense 'etwas jem. All of their examples contain le, though it is possible that the expression was also used without it, especially with a noun clause object as here — nostre [sire] : one might less confidently read vostre [fitz] ; dyre : MS deyre — voulers : MS valuers.
Ti s is a well attested Anglo-Norman form of the masculine nominative possessive adjective, here like the substantival infinitive with its flexional s apparently used for the object of dire. As the line stands, we must understand dount to be used for done, though it would be possible to emend to dount [ne] par qi 'whence or by whom' , perhaps suppressing ce. Qe al entrer ert paene Et al issir bon cristiene. Le noun de lui en renuwe :. Lors remeinent la certeyne. Eynz qe ele de vous s'en ayle, Parfacetz le esposaile ".
De son cher seyn tres[t] un anel ;. Qe ja vewe put ellyre. De Katerine prist la meyn It should, perhaps, be noted that our author uses the word certein in rather an idiosyncratic way. Even though it seems to agree like an adjective, it nonetheless appears to function rather like an adverb cf.
T-L have two examples of the word used as an adverb, glossed 'wahrlich, sicherlich', and FEW ha? The emendation is a makeshift. None of the many senses of chere seems a better fit : 'took her face', 'took the fleshy part of her hand', or even 'held her so dear' si chere la tenist? One might instead read Et parfurnist.