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Van Os et al. Zunehmende Inzidenz bei Personen ohne pos. Zunehmende Inzidenz bei Personen mit pos. Weich et al. Zusammenhang zwischen depriviertem Wohnumfeld, psychischen Erkrankungen und Drift-Hypothese. Aus Berry ; mit freundlicher Genehmigung. Angesichts der weltweiten rasanten Urbanisierung ist die Frage nach ihren Effekten auf die psychische Gesundheit weiterhin von hoher Relevanz. Angermeyer und Klusmann Dadurch, dass soziale Stressoren auch als Folgen gesellschaftlicher Stratifikation und Organisation konzipiert werden, die nur durch kollektive und politische Handlungen beeinflussbar sind s.
Merkmale der sozialen Ungleichheit werden meist wie Alter und Geschlecht als Kontrollvariable verwendet und stehen selten im Zentrum einer Studie. Die Varianzausbeute blieb allerdings mit 1 bis max. Nach Wittchen Aus Wittchen, von Zerrssen Die Mehrzahl der Studien, die im Vergleich zu Normalpopulationen bei psychiatrischen Patienten konsistent eine positive Korrelation zwischen Lebensereignissen und psychischen Erkrankungen finden, sind Fallkontrollstudien. Aus Hurrelmann , mit freundlicher Genehmigung.
Berufs- und Familienrolle. Wheaton ; Wittchen und Zerssen , Abb. Dabei kommt es v. Im Unterschied dazu ist jedoch eine konsistente und inverse Beziehung zwischen unteren Schichten und chronischen Belastungen nachgewiesen u. Entsprechend dieser Funktionen lassen sich Copingstrategien als problemorientiert z. Informationssuche, zielgerichtetes Handeln, aktive Anpassung, Vermeidung oder emotionsorientiert z. Dieser impliziert gesellschaftliche Werte und Normen, die die Regeln des Umgangs mit belastenden Situationen festlegen z. Studien zum Zusammenhang von Copingressourcen und sozialstrukturellen Faktoren belegen eine soziale Ungleichverteilung von Ressourcen u.
Geschlecht, Bildung und Einkommen sind entscheidende sozialstrukturelle Faktoren, die sich u. Die Anwendung solch komplexer Strukturmodelle erscheint auch deshalb in der angewandten psychiatrischen Forschung wenig sinnvoll, da ab einem bestimmten quantitativen Differenzierungsgrad nicht mehr auf funktionelle Eigenschaften geschlossen werden kann. Grad der Segmentierung, d. Dichte des Netzwerks, d.
Grad der wechselseitigen Kontakte Vernetzung ,. Es sind bei schizophrenen Patienten jedoch nicht nur negative oder positive Merkmale sozialer Beziehungen verlaufssteuernd, sondern auch ihr Fehlen bzw. Pietzcker und Gaebel Aus Schwarzer und Leppin , mit freundlicher Genehmigung. Nach spezifizierteren Untersuchungen von Brown et al. Mit der Psychiatriereform und dem Ausbau gemeindepsychiatrischer Angebote ist die Bedeutung der Familie zunehmend gestiegen. Schizophrenie, M. Das Hilfesuchverhalten von Familien wird durch Privatheitsideologien gesteuert. Das Geschlecht ist wie das Alter nicht nur eine biologische, sondern auch eine soziale Kategorie , ein grundlegendes Prinzip gesellschaftlicher Organisation.
Typologie der Geschlechterrollenorientierung Modell der psychischen Androgynie. Abnahme bzw. DAK Gesundheitsbericht , mit freundlicher Genehmigung. Nach bisherigen empirischen Ergebnissen sind v. In den Studien von Brown et al. Geschlechterstereotype sind bis heute — trotz Rollenwandels — erstaunlich resistent geblieben. Wird differenzierter nach einzelnen Aspekten der materiellen, professionellen und psychosozialen Versorgung gefragt, zeigen sich durchaus Differenzen zur Gesamtzufriedenheit: So sind z.
Optimale psychiatrische Versorgung aus Sicht der Patienten. Nach Hansson et al. Wodurch unterscheidet sich der zufriedene Patient vom unzufriedenen Patienten? Hinsichtlich klinischer Variablen korreliert eher die psychotische Symptomatik als die Diagnose mit Unzufriedenheit. Beschreibung der aktuellen Behandlungsstruktur und Behandlungsprinzipien ,. Die Grenzen bisheriger Zufriedenheitsforschung in der Medizin sind v. So kann die hohe Patientenzufriedenheit schwerlich als Konsumentenzufriedenheit interpretiert werden.
Nach sozialwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen ist Zufriedenheit ein komplexer psychosozialer Regulations- und Adaptationsprozess, der weniger durch objektive als durch subjektive Faktoren gesteuert wird. Es soll u. Die Grenzen eines solchen objektivistischen Ansatzes wurden bereits von der Sozialindikatorenforschung aufgezeigt. Insgesamt verweisen diese Ergebnisse auf die entscheidende moderierende Bedeutung der subjektiven Wahrnehmung und Bewertung. Nach Zapf Franz , mit freundlicher Genehmigung. Die Arzt-Patient-Beziehung ist seit den er-Jahren, beginnend mit den klassischen Arbeiten von Parsons , einer der ersten Schwerpunkte der medizinischen Soziologie.
Definitionsmacht Behandlungsrecht, Diagnosestellung, Krankschreibung und. Siegrist Hospitalismus bewirken. Folgen der strukturellen Asymmetrie der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung zeigen sich v. Raspe Dies mag nur z. Verschieben der Antwort vom gefragten Inhalt zum Beziehungsaspekt der Kommunikation,. Mitteilung funktionaler Unsicherheit Vorenthalten von Befunden, die dem Arzt bereits bekannt waren. Compliance kann u. Allerdings stellt die Umsetzung dieses Rechts auf den verschiedenen gesellschaftlichen Ebenen eine stetige Herausforderung dar.
Vier Modelle der Arzt-Patient-Interaktion. Scheibler et al. Erfassung der wichtigsten Werte des Patienten und Implementierung der Therapie stellvertretend. Vielmehr geht es um eine Partizipation des Patienten bei Entscheidungsprozessen. Isfort et al. Linden und Priebe Badura Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Soziologische und sozialpsychologische Aspekte psychischer Erkrankungen.
Living reference work entry First Online: 04 May Download reference work entry PDF. Open image in new window. Chronische Belastungen sind v. Insofern stellt z. Im Vergleich zu den eben genannten Netzwerktypen unterscheiden sich die sozialen Netzwerke schizophrener Patienten signifikant in allen o. Die Familie als soziale Ressource ist jedoch u.
Meist wird z. Nach Kelstrup et al. Prozessmodell von Bruggemann Hier werden verschiedene Formen von Zufriedenheit konzipiert, die aufgrund unterschiedlicher psychischer Verarbeitungsmechanismen der Soll-Ist-Differenzen entstehen. Lauer ; Priebe et al. In Patientenbefragungen z. Der Wertewandel vom Paternalismus zur individuellen Autonomie bzw.
(PDF) Hot Spot oder Hot Rod? () | Anke Finger - hujekarezubo.ga
Die Partizipation des Patienten setzt voraus, dass ihm entsprechende Entscheidungshilfen in Form ausreichender Informationen an die Hand gegeben werden, z. Angermeyer MC, Klusmann D From social class to social stress: new developments in psychiatric epidemiology. Probleme und Gestaltungsperspektiven. Siegburg Google Scholar. Baronet AM Factors associated with caregiver burden in mental illness: a critical review of the research literature.
Bem SL The measurement of psychological androgyny. Bernstein B Studien zur sprachlichen Sozialisation. Bierhoff-Alfermann D Androgynie. Detailed description of the battery electric road vehicle type as regards to the shape of the bodywork, the electric drive train motors and controllers , traction battery type, capacity, battery management. A vehicle representative of the vehicle type to be approved shall be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the approval tests. The competent authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted.
If the vehicle submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraph 5 below and Annexes 3, 4, 5 and 7 to this Regulation, approval of this vehicle type shall be granted. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved. Its first two digits at present 00 for the Regulation in its original form shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval.
The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to another vehicle type. Notice of approval or of refusal or of extension or withdrawal of approval or production definitely discontinued of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation, by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation an international approval mark consisting of: 4. A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval . The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle described in paragraph 4. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations annexed to this Agreement in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.
The approval mark shall be clearly legible and shall be indelible. The approval mark shall be placed on or close to the vehicle data plate affixed by the manufacturer. Annex 2 to this Regulation gives examples of the arrangements of the approval mark. Vehicle construction requirements 5. Traction battery 5. Installation of the traction battery in the vehicle shall not allow any potential dangerous accumulation of gas pockets.
Battery compartments containing battery modules which may produce hazardous gases shall be safely ventilated. The traction battery and the power train shall be protected by properly rated fuses or circuit breakers. The manufacturer shall supply data to the laboratory which allows verification that their calibration ensures opening, if necessary; 5. Protection against electric shock 5. Protection against direct contact with live parts of the power train: 5.
If the working voltage of the electric circuit is lower than 60 volts DC or 25 volts AC, no requirements are necessary; 5. Direct contact with live parts of the electrical power train whose maximum voltage is at least 60 volts DC or 25 volts AC shall be prevented either by insulation or by the use of covers, protection grills, perforated metal sheets, etc.
These protections shall be reliably secured and shall be mechanically resistant. They shall not be able to be opened, disassembled or removed without the use of tools. In passenger and load compartments live parts in any case shall be protected by enclosures having a protection degree of at least IPXXD. In the engine compartment the access to live parts shall only be possible with voluntary action.
After opening the cover, the access to the parts of the coupling system shall be protected with IPXXB protection. Vehicle markings Protection covers of live parts described in paragraph 5. Protection against indirect contacts with exposed conductive parts of the power train. The design, installation, and manufacture of electric material shall be such that insulation failures are avoided; 5. Protection against indirect contacts shall be ensured by using insulation and additionally, the exposed conductive parts of the on-board equipment shall be galvanically connected together. This potential equalisation is obtained by connecting the exposed conductive parts together either by a protective conductor, e.
Two exposed conductive parts welded together are considered as having no discontinuity points. If there is some discontinuity, this point shall be by-passed by potential equalisation. Insulation resistance 5. This test shall be performed by a current of at least 0,2 A. Connection of the vehicle to the mains network: 5. In no case the vehicle shall be capable to move by its own means when it is galvanically connected to an energy supply network or to an off-board charger; 5. The components used when charging the battery from an external source shall allow the charging current to be cut in case of disconnection without physical damage; 5.
The coupling system parts likely to be live shall be protected against any direct contact in all operating conditions; 5. All exposed conductive parts shall be electrically linked through a conducting wire plugged to earth when charging. Functional safety requirements 5. Power on procedure: 5. The power on procedure shall be applied via a key switch. It shall not be possible to remove this key in any position that energises the drive train or makes active driving possible.
Running and stopping conditions: 5. At least a momentary indication must be given to the driver either: a when the vehicle is in "active driving possible mode"; or b when one further action is required to place the vehicle in "active driving possible mode". When the state of charge of the battery reaches the minimum state of charge value defined by the manufacturer, the user shall be warned to perceive this situation quickly enough to be able to drive the vehicle, on its own power, at least out of the traffic zone. Unintentional acceleration, deceleration and reversal of the drive train shall be prevented.
In particular, a failure e. When leaving the vehicle, the driver shall be informed by an obvious signal e. Reversing 5. Reversing shall be possible only after operation of a specific control. Above this speed all actions on this device shall be ignored. The device shall have only one stable position. The state of the drive direction control unit shall be readily identified to the driver. Emergency power reduction 5.
If the vehicle is equipped with a device to limit the performance in an emergency e. Determination of hydrogen emissions 5. This test must be carried out on all battery electric road vehicles referred to in paragraph 1 of this Regulation.
Road vehicles equipped with non-aqueous electrolyte batteries or sealed "gas recombinant" batteries are excluded. The test must be conducted following the method described in Annex 7 to the present Regulation. The hydrogen sampling and analysis must be the ones prescribed. Other analysis methods can be approved if it is proven that they give equivalent results.
During a charge carried out by an on-board charger presenting a failure conditions given in Annex 7 , hydrogen emissions must be below 42 g. Furthermore the on-board charger must limit this possible failure to 30 minutes. All the operations linked to the battery charging are controlled automatically, included the stop for charging. It shall not be possible to take a manual control of the charging phases. Normal operations of connection and disconnection to the mains or power cuts must not affect the control system of the charging phases. Important charging failures must be permanently signalled to the driver.
An important failure is a failure that can lead to a disfunctioning of the on-board charger during charging later on. The manufacturer has to indicate in the owner's manual, the conformity of the vehicle to these requirements. The approval granted to a vehicle type relative to hydrogen emissions can be extended to different vehicle types belonging to the same family, in accordance with the definition of the family given in Annex 7, Appendix 2. Every modification of the vehicle type shall be notified to the administrative department which approved the vehicle type.
The department may then either: 6. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alteration shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.
The competent authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number for such an extension and inform thereof the other Parties to the Agreement applying the Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation. Every vehicle approved under this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set out in paragraph 5 above. In order to verify that the requirements of paragraph 7. The holder of the approval shall, in particular: 7.
All the necessary steps shall be taken to reestablish conformity of the corresponding production. The competent authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applied in each production unit. At every inspection, the test records and production records shall be presented to the visiting inspector. The inspector may take samples at random to be tested in the manufacturer's laboratory. The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer's own checks. When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests carried out in application of paragraph 7.
The competent authority may carry out any test prescribed in this Regulation. The normal frequency of inspections by the competent authority shall be one per year. If unsatisfactory results are recorded during one of these visits, the competent authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to reestablish the conformity of production as rapidly as possible. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type, pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 7 are not complied with, or if the vehicle or its components fail to pass the tests provided for in paragraph 7.
If a Contracting Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation, by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation.
Upon receiving the relevant communication, that authority shall inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 1 to this Regulation. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: 2. Vehicle type: 3. Vehicle category: 4. Vehicle submitted for approval on: 7. Technical service responsible for conducting approval tests: 8. Date of report issued by that service: 9. Number of report issued by that service: Location of the approval mark: Reason s for extension of approval if applicable 2 : Place: Date: Signature: The documents filed with the request for approval or extension may be obtained on request.
The first two digits of the approval number indicate that the approval was granted in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No in its original form. Model B see paragraph 4. The first two digits of the approval numbers indicate that, at the dates when respective approvals were granted, both Regulations Nos and 42 were in their original form. Enclosure A part providing protection of equipment against certain external influences and, in any direction, protection against direct contact IEV Note : This definition taken from the existing international electrotechnical vocabulary IEV needs the following explanations under the scope of this standard: a Enclosures provide protection of persons or livestock against access to hazardous parts.
Direct contact Contact of persons or livestock with live parts IEV Note : This IEV definition is given for information. In this standard "Direct contact" is replaced by "Access to hazardous parts". IP code A coding system to indicate the degrees of protection provided by an enclosure against access to hazardous parts, ingress of solid foreign objects, ingress of water and to give additional information in connection with such protection.
Hazardous part A part that is hazardous to approach or touch. Hazardous live part A live part which, under certain conditions of external influences, can give an electric shock see IEC , at present Document 64 CO Hazardous mechanical part A moving part, other than a smooth rotating shaft, that is hazardous to touch.
Protection provided by an enclosure against access to hazardous parts. The protection of persons against: a contact with hazardous low-voltage live parts; b contact with hazardous mechanical parts; c approach to hazardous high-voltage live parts below adequate clearance inside an enclosure. Note : This protection may be provided: a by means of the enclosure itself; b by means of barriers as part of the enclosure or distances inside the enclosure. Adequate clearance for protection against access to hazardous parts A distance to prevent contact or approach of an access probe to a hazardous part.
Access probe A test probe simulating in a conventional manner a part of a person or a tool, or the like, held by a person to verify adequate clearance from hazardous parts. Object probe A test probe simulating a solid foreign object to verify the possibility of ingress into an enclosure. Opening A gap or aperture in an enclosure which exists or may be formed by the application of a test probe at the specified force. Access probes Access probes to verify the protection of persons against access to hazardous parts are given in table l.
Test conditions The access probe is pushed against any openings of the enclosure with the force specified in table 1. If it partly or fully penetrates, it is placed in every possible position, but in no case shall the stop face fully penetrate through the opening. Internal barriers are considered part of the enclosure as defined in paragraph 1. For tests on low-voltage equipment, a low-voltage supply of not less than 40 V and not more than 50 V in series with a suitable lamp should be connected between the probe and the hazardous parts inside the enclosure.
Hazardous live parts covered only with varnish or paint, or protected by oxidation or by a similar process, are covered by a metal foil electrically connected to those parts which are normally live in operation. The signal-circuit method should also be applied to the hazardous moving parts of high-voltage equipment. Internal moving parts may be operated slowly, where this is possible. Acceptance conditions The protection is satisfactory if adequate clearance is kept between the access probe and hazardous parts. Starting from the straight position, both joints of the test finger shall be successively bent through an angle of up to 90o with respect to the axis of the adjoining section of the finger and shall be placed in every possible position.
In case of the tests for the additional letter D, the access probe may penetrate to its full length, but the stop face shall not fully penetrate through the opening. See Annex A for further clarification. Conditions for verification of adequate clearance are identical with those given in paragraph 2. For low-voltage equipment rated voltages not exceeding V AC and V DC : The access probe shall not touch hazardous live parts. If adequate clearance is verified by a signal circuit between the probe and hazardous parts, the lamp shall not light.
Trade name or mark of the vehicle: … 1. Vehicle type: … 1. Manufacturer's name and address: … 1. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: … 1. Schematic diagram of all electrical functions included in power circuit: … 1. Working voltage: … V 1. Make: … 2. Type: … 2. Working principle: … 2. Transmission ratios: … 3. Dimension of tyres: … 4. Trade name and mark of the battery: … 4. Indication of all types of electrochemical couples used: … … 4. Nominal voltage: … V 4. Number of battery cells 4.
Number of battery modules Gas combination rate in per cent 4. Description of cooling system if any : … 4. Brief description of maintenance procedure if any : … 4. Battery energy: … kWh 4. End of discharge voltage value: … V 5. Brief description of each electronic converter and auxiliary equipment: … 5. Make of electronic converter assembly: … 5. Type of electronic converter assembly: … 5. Make of each auxiliary equipment: … 5. Type of each auxiliary equipment: … 5.
Make and type of different charger parts  5. Drawing description of the charger  Output nominal power kW  Maximum voltage of charge V  5. Maximum intensity of charge A  Make and type of control unit if any  5. Diagram of operating, controls and safety  5. Description and characteristics of charge periods  5. Specification of mains: 5. Voltage: … V 6. Type: … 6. Diagram showing the functional range: … 7. Type: …  - Strike out what does not apply. The test consists in the following steps: a vehicle preparation; b discharge of the traction battery; c determination of hydrogen emissions during a normal charge; d determination of hydrogen emissions during a charge carried out with the on-board charger failure.
The vehicle must be in good mechanical condition and have been driven at least km during seven days before the test. The vehicle must be equipped with the traction battery subject to the test of hydrogen emissions, over this period. If the battery is used at a temperature above the ambient temperature, the operator must follow the manufacturer's procedure in order to keep the traction battery temperature in normal functioning range. The manufacturer's representative must be able to certify that the temperature conditioning system of the traction battery is neither damaged nor presenting a capacity defect.
Figure 7. Chassis dynamometer The chassis dynamometer must meet the requirements of the 05 series of amendments to Regulation No Hydrogen emission measurement enclosure The hydrogen emission measurement enclosure must be a gas-tight measuring chamber able to contain the vehicle under test.
The vehicle must be accessible from all sides and the enclosure when sealed must be gas-tight in accordance with Appendix 1 to this Annex. The inner surface of the enclosure must be impermeable and non-reactive to hydrogen. To accommodate the volume changes due to enclosure hydrogen emissions, either a variable-volume or another test equipment may be used. The variable-volume enclosure expands and contracts in response to the hydrogen emissions in the enclosure.
Two potential means of accommodating the internal volume changes are movable panels, or a bellows design, in which impermeable bags inside the enclosure expand and contract in response to internal pressure changes by exchanging air from outside the enclosure. Any design for volume accommodation must maintain the integrity of the enclosure as specified in Appendix 1 to this Annex.
The enclosure must be capable of latching to a fixed volume.
A variable volume enclosure must be capable of accommodating a change from its "nominal volume" see Annex 7, Appendix 1, paragraph 2. Analytical systems 4. Hydrogen analyser 4. The atmosphere within the chamber is monitored using a hydrogen analyser electrochemical detector type or a chromatograph with thermal conductivity detection. Sample gas must be drawn from the mid-point of one side-wall or roof of the chamber and any bypass flow must be returned to the enclosure, preferably to a point immediately downstream of the mixing fan.
Kulturspezifik in der europäischen Wirtschaftskommunikation
The hydrogen analyser must have a response time to 90 per cent of final reading of less than 10 seconds. The operational ranges of the analyser must be chosen to give best resolution over the measurement, calibration and leak checking procedures. Hydrogen analyser data recording system The hydrogen analyser must be fitted with a device to record electrical signal output, at a frequency of at least once per minute.
The recording system must have operating characteristics at least equivalent to the signal being recorded and must provide a permanent record of results. The recording must show a clear indication of the beginning and end of the normal charge test and charging failure operation.
Temperature recording 4. The temperature in the chamber is recorded at two points by temperature sensors, which are connected so as to show a mean value. The temperatures of the battery modules are recorded by means of the sensors. Temperatures must, throughout the hydrogen emission measurements, be recorded at a frequency of at least once per minute. Pressure recording 4. Voltage and current intensity recording 4. The on-board charger voltage and current intensity battery must, throughout the hydrogen emission measurements, be recorded at a frequency of at least once per minute.
It must be possible to reach a homogeneous temperature and hydrogen concentration in the chamber during measurements. The vehicle in the enclosure must not be subjected to a direct stream of air from the fans or blowers. Gases 4. The following pure gases must be available for calibration and operation: purified synthetic air purity hydrogen H2 , 99,5 per cent minimum purity.
Calibration and span gases must contain mixtures of hydrogen H2 and purified synthetic air. The concentrations specified in Appendix 1 may also be obtained by a gas divider using synthetic air as the dilution gas. TEST PROCEDURE The test consists in the five following steps: i vehicle preparation; ii discharge of the traction battery; iii determination of hydrogen emissions during a normal charge; iv discharge of the traction battery; v determination of hydrogen emissions during a charge carried out with the on-board charger failure.
If the vehicle has to be moved between two steps, it shall be pushed to the following test area. Vehicle preparation The ageing of traction battery must be checked, proving that the vehicle has performed at least km during seven days before the test. During this period, the vehicle must be equipped with the traction battery submitted to the hydrogen emission test. If this cannot be demonstrated then the following procedure will be applied.
Discharging is stopped: a when the vehicle is not able to run at 65 per cent of the maximum thirty minutes speed; or b when an indication to stop the vehicle is given to the driver by the standard on-board instrumentation; or c after having covered the distance of km. Initial charge of the battery The charge is carried out: a with the on-board charger; b in an ambient temperature between K and K. The procedure excludes all types of external chargers.
The end of traction battery charge criteria corresponds to an automatic stop given by the on-board charger. This procedure includes all types of special charges that could be automatically or manually initiated like, for instance, the equalisation charges or the servicing charges. Procedure from paragraphs 5. Soak Within fifteen minutes of completing the battery discharge operation specified in paragraph 5.
The vehicle is parked for a minimum of 12 hours and a maximum of 36 hours, between the end of the traction battery discharge and the start of the hydrogen emission test during a normal charge. Hydrogen emission test during a normal charge 5. Before the completion of the soak period, the measuring chamber must be purged for several minutes until a stable hydrogen background is obtained.
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The enclosure mixing fan s must also be turned on at this time. The hydrogen analyser must be zeroed and spanned immediately prior to the test. At the end of the soak, the test vehicle, with the engine shut off and the test vehicle windows and luggage compartment opened must be moved into the measuring chamber. The vehicle shall be connected to the mains. The battery is charged according to normal charge procedure as specified in paragraph 5. The enclosure doors are closed and sealed gas-tight within two minutes from electrical interlock of the normal charge step.
The start of a normal charge for hydrogen emission test period begins when the chamber is sealed. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi for the normal charge test. These figures are used in the hydrogen emission calculation paragraph 6. The ambient enclosure temperature T must not be less than K and no more than K during the normal charge period. Procedure of normal charge The normal charge is carried out with the on-board charger and consists of the following steps: a Charging at constant power during t1.
Over-charging intensity is specified by manufacturer and corresponds to the one used during equalisation charging. The end of traction battery charge criteria corresponds to an automatic stop given by the on-board charger to a charging time of t1 t2. This charging time will be limited to t1 5 h, even if a clear indication is given to the driver by the standard instrumentation that the battery is not yet fully charged. The hydrogen analyser must be zeroed and spanned immediately before the end of the test.
The end of the emission sampling period occurs t1 t2 or t1 5 h after the beginning of the initial sampling, as specified in paragraph 5. The different times elapsed are recorded. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the normal charge test, used for the calculation in paragraph 6. Hydrogen emission test with the on-board charger failure 5.
Within seven days maximum after having completed the prior test, the procedure starts with the discharge of the traction battery of the vehicle according to paragraph 5. The steps of the procedure in paragraph 5. The battery is charged according to failure charge procedure as specified in paragraph 5. The enclosure doors are closed and sealed gas-tight within two minutes from electrical interlock of the failure charge step. The start of a failure charge for hydrogen emission test period begins when the chamber is sealed. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi for the failure charge test.
The ambient enclosure temperature T must not be less than K and no more than K during the charging failure period. During this phase, the on-board charger is blocked at maximum current. The times elapsed are recorded. The hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured to give the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the charging failure test, used for the calculation in paragraph 6.
Hydrogen emissions from each of these phases are calculated using the initial and final hydrogen concentrations, temperatures and pressures in the enclosure, together with the net enclosure volume. The calibration methods to be used are described in this appendix. Initial determination of enclosure internal volume 2. Before its initial use, the internal volume of the chamber must be determined as follows. The internal dimensions of the chamber are carefully measured, taking into account any irregularities such as bracing struts. The internal volume of the chamber is determined from these measurements.
The enclosure must be latched to a fixed volume when the enclosure is held at an ambient temperature of K. The net internal volume is determined by subtracting 1,42 m3 from the internal volume of the chamber. Alternatively the volume of the test vehicle with the luggage compartment and windows open may be used instead of the 1,42 m3. The chamber must be checked as in paragraph 2. Determination of chamber background emissions This operation determines that the chamber does not contain any materials that emit significant amounts of hydrogen.
The check must be carried out at the enclosure's introduction to service, after any operations in the enclosure which may affect background emissions and at a frequency of at least once per year. Variable-volume enclosure may be operated in either latched or unlatched volume configuration, as described in paragraph 2. The enclosure may be sealed and the mixing fan operated for a period of up to 12 hours before the four-hour background-sampling period begins.
The analyser if required must be calibrated, then zeroed and spanned. The enclosure must be purged until a stable hydrogen reading is obtained, and the mixing fan turned on if not already on. The chamber is then sealed and the background hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured. These are the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi used in the enclosure background calculation.
The enclosure is allowed to stand undisturbed with the mixing fan on for a period of four hours. At the end of this time the same analyser is used to measure the hydrogen concentration in the chamber. The temperature and the barometric pressure are also measured. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf.
The change in mass of hydrogen in the enclosure must be calculated over the time of the test in accordance with paragraph 2. Calibration and hydrogen retention test of the chamber The calibration and hydrogen retention test in the chamber provides a check on the calculated volume paragraph 2. The enclosure leak rate must be determined at the enclosure's introduction to service, after any operations in the enclosure which may affect the integrity of the enclosure, and at least monthly thereafter. If six consecutive monthly retention checks are successfully completed without corrective action, the enclosure leak rate may be determined quarterly thereafter as long as no corrective action is required.
The enclosure must be purged until a stable hydrogen concentration is reached. The mixing fan is turned on, if not already switched on. The hydrogen analyser is zeroed, calibrated if required, and spanned. The enclosure must be latched to the nominal volume position. The ambient temperature control system is then turned on if not already on and adjusted for an initial temperature of K.
These are the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi used in the enclosure calibration. The enclosure must be unlatched from the nominal volume. A quantity of approximately g of hydrogen is injected into the enclosure. The contents of the chamber must be allowed to mix for five minutes and then the hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the calibration of the enclosure as well as the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi for the retention check.
On the basis of the readings taken in paragraphs 2. The contents of the chamber must be allowed to mix for a minimum of 10 hours. At the completion of the period, the final hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured and recorded. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the hydrogen retention check.
Using the formula in paragraph 2. This mass may not differ by more than 5 per cent from the hydrogen mass given by paragraph 2. Calculation The calculation of net hydrogen mass change within the enclosure is used to determine the chamber's hydrocarbon background and leak rate. Initial and final readings of hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are used in the following formula to calculate the mass change.
See paragraph 4. Each of the normally used operating ranges is calibrated by the following procedure. Establish the calibration curve by at least five calibration points spaced as evenly as possible over the operating range. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas with the highest concentrations to be at least 80 per cent of the full scale. Calculate the calibration curve by the method of least squares. If the resulting polynomial degree is greater than 3, then the number of calibration points must be at least the number of the polynomial degree plus 2.
The calibration curve must not differ by more than 2 per cent from the nominal value of each calibration gas. Using the coefficients of the polynomial derived from paragraph 3. This is to be carried out for each analyser range calibrated. This table shall also contain other relevant data such as: Date of calibration Span and zero potentiometer readings where applicable Nominal scale Reference data of each calibration gas used The real and indicated value of each calibration gas used together with the percentage differences Calibration pressure of analyser 3.
Alternative methods e. In some cases there may be interaction of parameters. These effects must also be taken into consideration to ensure that only vehicles with similar hydrogen emission characteristics are included within the family. To this end, those vehicle types whose parameters described below are identical are considered to belong to the same hydrogen emissions. Traction battery: - Trade name or mark of the battery - Indication of all types of electrochemical couples used - Number of battery cells - Number of battery modules - Nominal voltage of the battery V - Battery energy kWh - Gas combination rate in per cent - Type s of ventilation for battery module s or pack - Type of cooling system if any On-board charger: - Make and type of different charger parts - Output nominal power kW - Maximum voltage of charge V - Maximum intensity of charge A - Make and type of control unit if any - Diagram of operating, controls and safety - Characteristics of charge periods.
Infolge der Wirtschaftskrise ist die Branche jetzt aber unter besonders starken Druck geraten. Ihre Exportleistung zeigt, dass sie die Produkte anbietet, die der kontinuierlich wachsende Weltmarkt verlangt. Die besondere Situation der Automobilbranche Europa verdankt einen erheblichen Teil seines Wohlstands der Automobilindustrie. Nahezu jeder dritte auf der Welt hergestellte Pkw stammt aus Europa.
Der Automobilbau ist mit vielen anderen Branchen eng verflochten. Die Automobilindustrie ist sehr international orientiert. Der innergemeinschaftliche Handel mit Kfz-Komponenten erreicht deshalb ein erhebliches Volumen. Manche Unternehmen bekommen keine Kredite mehr zu akzeptablen Bedingungen.
Drittens: langfristige strukturelle Probleme, deren Ursprung vor der Krise liegt. Die Automobilindustrie stand schon vor der Krise in einem scharfen Wettbewerb. Auch die Zulieferbranche hat sich erkennbar konsolidiert. Auf einem informellen Treffen vom Besonders wichtig ist dies im Automobilsektor, wo die private Nachfrage weitgehend kreditfinanziert wird. Der im Dezember angenommene und am Euro in Vorbereitung sind.
Entsprechend den Vorarbeiten im Rahmen des 7. C 16 vom C 10 vom Translation - English The European automotive industry is one of Europe's flagship industries. It is a key driver of growth, exports, innovation and jobs. Its impact filters down across a wide variety of other sectors. And it has a particularly important cross border reach, with suppliers, manufacturers and sales and servicing downstream creating a web of mutual interest that touches every one of the EU's Member States.
The Commission believes that the EU needs a dynamic and competitive automotive sector. The economic crisis has put the automotive sector under particular pressure. Properly targeted support is needed to help the industry and its workforce through the downturn and to address structural problems by making the sector more competitive and more in tune with the needs of the future.
The European automotive industry has a strong future. Its export performance shows it can make the right products for a global market that will continue to grow. Its workforce has the skills to maintain its technological edge. And it is already working to produce the new generation of motor vehicles needed for the low carbon age.
This communication sets out how the EU can bring policy levers into play to support the automotive industry. It represents a European framework for action: a framework which sets out how both the EU level and Member States can take the decisive measures needed. Different Member States will use different mixes of action to address the needs of manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and their workers. All can be most effective working with the confidence provided by a common EU framework.
The internal market has been a major cause of the vitality of the European automotive industry, the competitiveness of its manufacturing and the scale of its sales. It will be critical to the recovery phase. It is therefore essential that state aids and other measures are well directed, working to build the future strength of the industry rather than introducing short-term distortions that will damage long-term competitiveness.
That means cooperation and working upstream of national decisions to ensure they fit in well with the EU's overall ambitions. At the same time, the EU can offer a variety of other steps to build a platform to stabilise the industry and help it to recover. This includes measures to invest in strategic technologies. It includes steps to help workers whose jobs are at risk to retrain and find new work, as well as safeguarding and developing the key skills of some of the most valued technicians in Europe.
It includes a determined and concerted effort to combat any move towards protectionism in global markets. And of course, the industry will benefit directly from the core measures of the European Economic Recovery Plan to get credit moving again, as well as from specific measures like the European green cars initiative. This European framework for the automotive sector shows how the intelligent application of EU and national policies can not only offer a cushion for the automotive industry in a time of intense pressure, but a springboard for the future. The common goal is a dynamic, competitive and sustainable automotive sector in the EU for the coming decades.
The particular situation of the automotive sector The automotive industry is central to Europe's prosperity. The EU is the world's largest producer of motor vehicles, producing over 18 million vehicles a year and almost a third of the world's passenger cars. It is a huge employer of skilled workforce, directly employing over 2 million people but responsible for some 12 million jobs.
In addition, the sector plays a central part in tackling many of the key economic, social and environmental challenges faced by Europe today, such as sustainable mobility and safety. Automotive manufacturing is closely linked with many other sectors. Electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering, information technology, steel, chemicals, plastics, metals and rubber are all key suppliers. It also has a very significant cross-border dimension in Europe and globally. Within the EU, the production lines are split between 16 Member States, and every single Member State is involved in the supply chain for manufacturing and the downstream chain for sales.
Any downturn in the automotive sector therefore strongly affects other sectors and all EU Member States. The current economic crisis is being marked by a sudden downturn for manufacturing. EU industrial production slumped by 8. The difficult situation of the European automotive industry has three major reasons: First, there has been a sharp and uniform drop in demand for passenger and commercial vehicles both in the EU and worldwide. Tight credit conditions, declining share and asset prices, and the uncertainty created by the global economic environment are translating into very low consumer confidence and declining purchasing power.
New passenger car sales fell by 1. The producers of commercial vehicles were even harder hit with orders for heavy duty vehicles falling from The situation varies between individual Member States but the downturn has now reached every market in the EU, and all major producers on the European market are severely affected. Second, parts of the automotive industry are reporting problems with access to credit financing and fears of liquidity shortages.
Some companies are unable to get loans on reasonable terms, with credit ratings downgraded in light of market outlook. In addition, suppliers are expressing an additional concern about money not moving down the supply chain. The situation is particularly difficult for smaller lower-tier suppliers which are less capitalised and diversified than their larger counterparts.
Third, the industry suffers from longer-term structural problems pre-dating the crisis. Automotive companies already faced a very competitive business environment. High fixed costs, structural overcapacity and intensive price competition has meant that many automotive companies were already focusing on reducing costs and improving internal efficiency. There has also been significant consolidation in the supply sector. Globally, vehicle production capacity is currently at ca. The situation is aggravated by the rising risk of protectionism , threatening reduced access to third country markets for European producers who have thrived on the export market.
The first cases have come in the form of new import licensing requirements, e. Current forecasts for are not encouraging. This is likely to put further pressure on the whole automotive value chain particularly in terms of production volumes, capacity utilisation, employment and research investment. Falling production levels and subsequent cost-cutting by automotive firms has already led to reductions in employment. Up to now it has mainly affected temporary workers. Negative employment effects could be magnified as a result of regional impacts because of the clustered and geographically concentrated nature of the automotive industry.
Additional pressure comes from potential spill-over effect from restructuring of GM and Chrysler. For example GM has announced that out of However, the long term global outlook for the automotive industry is promising: world-wide demand for vehicles is projected to double or even triple in the next 20 years as a result of motorisation in emerging markets.
The imperative of a "greener" car fleet will bring new opportunities for innovative technology. And since the current decline in demand in mature markets such as Europe and U. This makes it particularly important for the EU automotive industry to be able to weather the downturn and be ready to take advantage when demand returns. A key priority for the future is to ensure that European industry is able to respond to the current crisis and emerge from it in a stronger position to compete globally once market conditions improve.
This will be notably the case if the automotive industry will master the triple challenge of technological leadership with an environmental and safety performance that is world class. The Recovery Plan emphasises the importance not only of addressing the causes of the current problems of the automotive sector, but doing so in a way which will secure and further reinforce the longer-term competitiveness of the industry. Such an approach will in turn make a major contribution to make industry fit for the low-carbon economy and thus to achieving Europe's ambitions in reducing CO2 emissions and improving energy security.
Primary responsibility for dealing with the crisis lies with industry , individual companies and their managements. Industry itself is called upon to address the structural problems of production efficiency and capacity utilisation in a way that improves its long-term competitiveness and sustainability. In addition, as part of the overall industrial policy approach, the EU and its Member States can contribute to creating framework conditions in which industry can thrive. They can also promote fair competition in open global markets. This public support should preferably be covered by horizontal policy instruments applicable to industry as a whole and should be met through a combination of European and Member State level action.
At an informal meeting with Ministers on 16 January, Member States shared these views and agreed to a number of key principles to guide their responses to the current situation, such as the need for open global markets, fair competition, respect of better regulation as well as cooperation and transparency. It will be important to ensure that measures taken at Member State level be coherent, efficient and co-ordinated. As much of the importance of the European automotive industry is derived from its knock-on impact for the broader EU economy, it is particularly important to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market, and retain competitive neutrality and a level playing field, thus also ensuring solidarity between the Member States.
In the European Economic Recovery Plan, the Commission has set out the key elements of the public support relevant for the automotive sector. Some of these measures are general, while others target specifically the automotive industry. The main objectives of the proposed approach are: 1 to support demand in order to assist with remedying the effects of the credit squeeze; 2 to facilitate the adjustment by cushioning the costs associated with restructuring, in particular for workers and upgrade their training 3 to encourage the modernisation of the plants with a view to ensure a sustainable competitiveness of this industry at world level and 4 to assist industry to implement the radical technological change required by the climate change challenge.
While some progress has been achieved already, it is important to ensure that the objectives are fully met in an efficient and coherent way. In the current economic climate, a clear orientation towards long-term competitiveness, based on innovation, safety and environmental performance, is even more important.
The Commission therefore reconfirms its commitment to fully take into account the recommendations of the CARS 21 process see Annex 1 , fully respecting the principles of Better Regulation. The Commission will ensure that a coherent and co-ordinated forward-looking approach to future road transport and sustainable mobility requirements is adopted through the follow-up to CARS Given the impact of the current crisis the Commission will weigh up the costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative and seek, as far as possible, to avoid creating new economic burdens. Ensuring that the financial system starts operating properly remains the first priority in steering the economy towards recovery.
This is particularly important in the automotive sector, characterised by capital intensity and credit financed private demand.. The car industry will have to finance research and innovation in particular to design new engines that meet the ambitious European legislation on the reduction of CO2 emissions, starting from The new vehicles will also have to comply with stricter thresholds for pollutant emissions and tougher safety requirements. It is therefore imperative to assist companies to access finance.
The issue of financing is not only relevant to the future of the European automotive industry, but to the economy as a whole. In this respect the Commission has already taken important initiatives, with the adoption of the Communication concerning the application of State aid rules for the banking sector and the Communication on recapitalisation of financial institutions in the current financial crisis. With specific regard to the automotive sector, it should be noted that the financial branches of car makers may also qualify for aid under the schemes adopted by the Commission for the banking sector.
In addition, the Commission is conscious of potentially damaging liquidity problems, in particular in the supply sector and will, together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the Member States, seek ways to improve the flow of credit to SMEs, including automotive suppliers.
From the State aid perspective, the new Temporary Framework for State aid measures adopted in December  slightly adapted on 25 February was designed to allow Member States to provide aid to companies facing problems of acess to liquidity. Typical instruments authorized under this framework are subsidised loans, subsidised guarantees and subsidised loans for the production of "green" products including cars.
In this context it needs to be stressed that aid granted on the basis of these frameworks fully respect internal market rules in order to avoid distortions and fragmentation. This framework only applies to companies whose difficulties do not pre-date the crisis. For companies whose difficulties are mainly due to structural problems rather than the current crisis, any State aid must be supported by a restructuring plan that ensures long term viability, in line with the objectives of promoting the competitiveness of this industry.
The wide range of "traditional" State aid instruments see list in Annex 2 available to Member States for supporting their industries can also be an important tool for promoting research and innovation, environmental development and restructuring, where this appears necessary, for the automotive industry, while maintaining a level playing field within the internal market. The Commission, together with the European Investment Bank and the Member States, will support industry in their efforts to maintain investments into future technologies particularly green technologies such as fuel efficiency and alternative propulsion throughout the economic downturn.
This will be done primarily through the European Investment Bank as well as through the 7 th Research Framework Programme. Loans granted to automotive industries can also draw on horizontal programmes, in particular those targeting SME's, convergence or safety. The Commission and the EIB will continue working together closely to ensure that the financing provided is as effective as possible. The possibility to further front load the lending planned for and is being kept under permanent review.
Procedures for granting support have been streamlined allowing the shortest possible processing for decisions following a request for support while maintaining strict appraisal procedures to ensure the viability of investments in the long term. In line with preparatory work done under the 7th Research Framework Programme and the relevant European Technology Platforms, the main focus of this partnership will be on the development of "green" vehicles including passenger cars, buses, urban vehicles and trucks, but also addressing related issues such as infrastructure and logistics.
Finally, the Commsssion is working on establishing the necessary standardisation required to ensure that future technological solutions are provided with legal certainty and can be applied throughout the internal market. As nine Member States have already established vehicle recycling and recovery schemes "scrapping schemes" and more are considering doing so, the Commission invited Member States experts for the first time on 16 February in order to ensure transparency of all initiatives and provide for an exchange of best practices.
The Commission has discussed with the Member States common principles which shall allow smooth adoption of such scrapping schemes see Annex 3. The Commission invites Member States to make full use of public procurement to boost demand for cleaner and more fuel efficient vehicles in the short term, assessing the possibility to advance investment into infrastructure and into the renewal of the public transport fleet including heavy duty vehicles.
Member States will have to face substantial challenges and several regions may be hit very hard. In line with this, the European social partners and industry organisations of the sector have launched in October a " European Partnership for the anticipation of change in the automotive sector". A comprehensive two-year work programme is being carried on to anticipate and mitigate the social impact of restructuring. Various EU funds and policy instruments can be mobilised to support the social cost of adjustment and to ensure that necessary skill levels required for the future competitiveness of industry are retained in the industry.
This should be done in ways which support moves over time to new forms of production and should not preclude necessary restructuring. Such measures apply to all sectors; they are particularly relevant for the automotive sector with its supply chain as it will have to tackle significant overcapacities. The Commission has also proposed an increase of advance payments from the European Social Fund ESF , and simplification of the criteria.
This can be used to support to implementing measures to retain jobs and combat unemployment in the automotive industry, such as: i supporting short-time workers by financing training and a part of wage and non-wage labour costs; ii supporting company and sector restructuring; iii financing retraining; iv anticipating change requirements and matching skills. There are already successful examples of how the ESF has supported restructuring in the automotive industry in the past, which can be drawn on for inspiration.
The EGF has already intervened in four automotive sector cases with a fifth in the pipeline. This will allow the Fund to intervene more swiftly and, for a limited period of time, will allow interventions to be justified by the current economic crisis, irrespective of any link to globalisation. Fair competition in open markets can help to fight the current crisis, whereas any protectionist measures threaten to deepen it.
The EU is committed to avoid any new trade restrictions being created towards third countries. It expects the same attitude from its trading partners and will not tolerate a revival of protectionism. The Commission will follow closely international developments and encourage international dialogue , in particular with its main trade partners including the US, Japan, Korea and China.
Together with them it will work to keep world markets open and to ensure fair competition. It will keep progress under constant review. The Commission suggests that the CARS 21 process should be strengthened, with a round table with Member States, automotive industry producers and suppliers and trade unions. Its main aims should be to provide a platform of mutual information, dialogue and best practices.
It should support the efforts of the sector to restructure so that it can compete in world markets with a strong focus on retaining skills in the industry, retraining workers for future tasks and for new jobs in this and other sectors. The round table should also monitor the development in the following areas: - Reviving private demand and frontloading public demand : - Financial support for research - Active support for reducing overcapacity while maintaining skilled workforce via the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund; - Strict respect of CARS 21 recommendations , in particular as regards Better Regulation and the need to weigh up costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative with a view to avoid, as far as possible, creating new economic burdens; The Commission stands ready to make full use of the potential of the TEC to intensify the dialogue with the US with regards to the situation of US automotive producers and its spill-over to the EU.
German to English: Glossary - Subject Names. Konversation Akt. Arbeitsvorbereitung Arbeitswiss. AVT Aufbau- und Verbindungstechn. Werkzeugbau Automat. Kunststofft, Werkz. Schaltungen Bauelem. Bautenschutz Bautenschutztechnik Bekleidungstechnik Berechn. Konstruktionslehre Berechn. Anlagen u. Betriebliche Kostenrechnung Betriebsfestigkeit Betriebskostenr. Fertigung Betriebskostenrechnung Betriebsl. Betriebslehre Betriebslehre u.
Betriebsorganisation Betriebsplanung und Org. Betriebsplanung und Organisat. Betriebspsychologie Betriebspsychologie 1 Betriebspsychologie 2 Betriebssoziologie Betriebssysteme Betriebssysteme 1 Betriebssysteme 2 Betriebsw. Arbeitsvorb Bilanz und Steuern Bildverarb. Simulation in Autom. Engin Com. VisualWorks Einf. Internet u. Aktoren und Sensoren El. Ausl El. Maschinen Vertiefungsf. Energietechnik Labor Elektr. Maschinen und Anl. Maschinen und Anlagen Elektr.
Messen mech. Elektronik 1 Energiemaschinen Energiesysteme Energietechnik und techn. WPF Energieumwandlung Energieversorg. Englisch English for Mechanical Engin. Halbleiterschaltungen Entwurf integr. Schaltkreise Erg.