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  2. The Identity Man
  3. Prison, Architecture and Humans
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The way the material is presented makes it all the more distressing as it is so matter-of-fact, one story after another, one vignette more heart wrenching than the next, so that cumulative effect is devastating. There are pictures as well, but the text is much more horrifying.

Ellis Parker conducted an independent three-year investigation onto the crime of the century — the kidnapping of the Lindbergh baby — and concluded that the wrong man, Bruno Hauptmann, had been arrested, tried and convicted for the crime. Even though Parker had a confession from the man he claimed was the real killer, Hauptmann was executed as scheduled.

Was Parker right? Did an innocent man die? You will have to decide for yourself. This one reads like fiction, well written fiction. The bar mitzvah is a momentous event in the life of a Jew, it is when they are considered an adult and agree to live under Jewish law. There is a religious ceremony, which is often skipped by the guests as they make a beeline for the party. We can also feel the hypervigilence of being on patrol and the tedium of doing nothing in between. More importantly, he describes the bonds of brotherhood that are forged under those circumstances and he does not gloss over the loss of those who will not return.

This is a strictly personal account, with no political commentary. It worthy of its place. Originally published 25 years ago, the books are considered classics and were required reading for both of my kids. This new book is a look at everything that went into the first two, along with interviews, original sketches, and much, much more.

Table of contents

It is a fascinating read that also comes with a DVD. Reading customer reviews on Amazon, apparently this is a common problem as almost all the reviews reference it. Like, the only President since World War II without military service — Bill Clinton, or how thousands became drug addicted during the civil war and were provided free morphine afterwards by the Federal government. Like, did you know the Pentagon was designed to handle 50, workers and visitors each day? To handle the traffic, the cloverleaf traffic intersection was designed and proved to be so successful it became the standard for the Interstate highway system.

I like cooking even more than I like eating. This is his very personal story about how he achieved permanent weight loss, the setbacks along the way, and why he is still fighting the battle of the bulge every day. He goes into his overweight childhood, his promise to his dying father that he would lose the excess weight, and glosses over his three marriages. Today Show fans will enjoy a bit of dish about Matt Lauer, Meredith Vieira and other cast members, and a peek at the some of the production of the show.

The book reads like Al talks, and fans will gobble this up. Now that credit has been given where credit is due, let me say that this is one beautiful book.

The Identity Man

For those unfamiliar, a Haggadah is the story of Passover and the books used at the Passover Seder are generally read cover to cover. Usually everyone has their own copy so they can follow along, which is fine for the free, classic Maxwell House Haggadah that many, many families have used for over fifty years, or the one my family has used for many years, A Family Haggadah by Shoshana Silberman, another paperback that I gradually collected until I had enough for everyone.

But my children are grown now and there were all adults at my Seder table this year, so we decided to give this New American Haggadah a go. I must confess, we did not read it cover to cover. Instead, we started at the beginning and passed the book around the table, and everyone skimmed through until they found something that appealed to them and then they read those pages. First of all, this is a beautiful book with gorgeous calligraphy and subtle contemporary artwork. Second, there is no transliteration of the Hebrew.

But this book is a thought provoking translation that, at least for my guests, inspired conversation and discussion of many things, from the actual Seder to contemporary politics. Hope it comes out in paperback next year, I could use a few more copies! Accompanied by photographs and organized alphabetically, Maher skewers everyone from politicians to celebrities to popular culture — mostly popular culture — cell phones, McDonalds, etc. Good stuff.

This is a light, fast read good for some laughs, especially for liberals. Each chapter includes an entry from Ms. From Samuel Peppys in the 17th Century to blogging on the Internet, anyone who aspires to write, or just enjoys reading will find a few jewels in here. In jumping, broke my leg. I passed all his pickets, rode sixty miles that night with the bone of my leg tearing the flesh at every jump.

I can never repent it, although we hated to kill. Ewalt: When I was first married in , my husband worked out at sea for two months at a time, working 12 hour shifts each day. When he came home, he tried to explain this game to me but it was difficult for me to comprehend without actually seeing it played, which I never did.

Once he moved up to the engineering department and worked a regular day job at home, he stopped playing. In an ironic twist, my daughter was invited to play at the local comic book store. This group meets each week and she loves it. Ewalt has been playing a long time, and manages to explain the game, and more importantly the passion of the players in a way that makes it all clear and understandable, without actually having to see it or play it. In its simplest form, it is a role playing game.

It is still played face to face, mostly by men but certainly there are plenty of women playing as well. But Ewalt goes further than just explaining the game, he also discusses the history — in its early years it was rumored to be Satanic and there were rumors of young men committing suicide because of the game. It has long been assumed that only geeks played, and frankly that has been my experience, but the game continues to flourish nonetheless. Here he vents and spews about all the fashion faux pas that women make that drive him up a wall, and there are a lot of them, from wearing flip flops guilty!

This is some nasty shit, but it is funny too, and had me laughing out loud more than once, despite my fashion shortcomings. This is the whole other bitchy side of the sweet, good-natured Clinton we see on TV. Would have made an entertaining magazine piece, but a book? I think not. Eig takes you through his first season, from the time he is called up to the majors, working things out with his teammates, the harassment of opposing team members and fans, all the way to the world series. The Yankees took the title that year, but it took them seven games to beat Jackie Robinson and the Brooklyn Dodgers.

A must read for baseball fans. Over the years people expanded them, renovated them and so forth until Levittown is no longer recognizable as a town with identical houses. My brother bought one of those houses many years ago and lived there for a while. So I was curious about this book. It is a compilation of stories, one from each decade starting in the s and ending in the s, written from the perspective of a child who lived there during that time.

It was an interesting book, and I liked learning how the town changed over the years from that child-like perspective. Clark owns one of the most successful restaurants in Washington D. Divorce, single mothering, and getting fired from more jobs than I wanted to count were just some of the troubles faced and overcome in this ultimately interesting and uplifting memoir. Roach takes a complex subject and makes it easy, breezy reading, with a twist; you learn tons about the space program without even trying.

But I digress. Roach looks at the history of the space program, where it began, how those chimps were sent into space, and more, then answers questions that were always in the back of my mind but never even fully realized, like how smelly does it get in that space shuttle after a week? Science writing has never been so fun. Check it out and learn enough incredibly interesting yet truly useless facts to impress your friends. Sorry if that ruins the ending, but please — a whole book that missed the point?

And while the illustrations are nice, I would have preferred photographs. Not a perfect book by any means. It is bacon. I found one I liked several years ago, and I stick with it. It is, however, informative. Their explanations of the various types of perfumes — feminines, masculines, chypres, loud, quiet, etc. If you like perfume, and wonder why you like different ones on different days and for different occasions, this book will help explain that, and help you choose.

Hefner sent Silverstein around the world to do travel cartoons for the magazine, visiting such diverse locales as Moscow, Paris, Haight-Ashbury and the White Sox Training Camp. This book is a collection of those works and includes a rare look at the lesser-known at least to me side of Shel Silverstein, including his fascination with nudist camps and beautiful women. Driven by a conviction that his own brain chemistry may be worthy of some sort of testing, Ronson begins to wonder about the higher ups in the psychology industry, whether their various and many diagnoses can be trusted, and as specifically pertains to psychopathy in particular, what qualifies a person as truly psychopathic.

Hilarious, insightful, and highly disturbing, The Psychopath Test will probably lead readers to wonder about some of the same issues driving Ronson in his search. A short book filled with personal success that is truly inspirational, especially to anyone who has had health problems or loves someone who does. Most importantly, they never took a night off.

No matter what. Baum Oz books to Shakespeare. But this is less a book about books, and more a memoir of a young girl coming of age with a single dad. Alice has given us a gift for readers, librarians, and maybe most important of all, families. Divorced for many years, she was a single mom raising her son alone. If you want to talk first, Trollope works for me. She seemed especially drawn to New York, to the men and the city itself.

She met a handful of men, had some heartbreak and some good times, and drew on her experiences to write this book. With various references to classical music and fine literature, this book is alternately intelligent, sweet, and salacious, which works for me! Their experiences and friendships over the course of their temporary relocation are chronicled here in Running Away To Home. Their examination of their lives and their genealogy and the history of Croatia make for entertaining reading in the form of an armchair travel experience tied in with a modern day memoir.

My 9 year old daughter loved it too! Battelle takes a look back at the company, at their early beginnings; a business biography of sorts. Battelle is the founder of The Industry Standard and original editor of Wired magazine, and frankly, a bit full of himself. And it was. He was delighted, as she knew he would be, but also intrigued. For mixed in with the baby books and wedding paraphernalia was a large manila envelope, crammed full with letters addressed to a Mr.

There was also a newspaper clipping from , with a personal ad. The ad asked people to send a letter to this Mr. Virdot, and tell him why they needed a little financial aid to make their Christmas merry this year, in the midst of the Depression. But investigative reporter Gup never heard of Mr. Virdot, and soon learned it was pseudonym used by his grandfather, Sam Stone. Gup started researching, and this book is the result of his findings — a family history that he never knew about, and a Christmas gift that changed lives.

You can read more about this amazing story online and watch a CBS Sunday Morning interview with the author. If you can achieve name recognition, book sales will follow. Just ask J. Rather, it was enlightening and funny. DeGeneres is one of the few people who can make you laugh through a blow-by-blow of her preparation for a colonoscopy. After the blow-by-blow she tells you the importance of regular colonoscopies. Not only should you get one, but you should keep getting them. Or until you stop eating. Or breathing. Whichever comes first. Not to worry, she touches on subjects other than colonoscopies.

It would be best not to read it in a place where laughter would confirm your lunacy. Enjoy the backstage secrets like the belt that was worn so frequently with so many outfits that they named it, the behind-the-scenes tidbits from all the stars and the producer, the insiders tour of NYC, and of course, the fashion. The Sexual Life of Catherine M. It reads like a laundry list of sexual events, one more tedious than the next. In all fairness, I read the first pages or so and skimmed the rest.

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There are no characters other than a list of names along with various nameless bodies with nothing to connect them to, Catherine and her boyfriend, and we never get to know anything about either of them except that she likes group sex and gets tired of being the one to initiate it. Her language, which is translated of course, leaves me cold. Utterly without merit. But read the book first so you get the full flavor of the language; after all, a quote should be quoted. The thing is that often the profanities are shocking or jarring, but they make this book sing.

Some of my favorites:. Trust me, none of them would ever want to fuck you anyway. Halpern provides the backstory on many of the posts, and puts things into perspective. Follow Halpern on Twitter to keep laughing. Hay is a rather unique place on this earth; the population is approximately , yet there are 40 bookstores. And even more remarkable, at least to me, only one of those bookshops carries new books, the rest are antiquarian, including one that is housed in a castle and boasts the largest collection of antiquarian American literature in the world. They put bids in on a few homes, but the inspections were invariably disheartening — it seems that homes that are more than a century old tend to have the sort of imperfections that need buckets of money to fix.

Nose jobs required a hospital stay of a few days, general anesthesia was the rule, and the girls were sent home with a hard rubber protective device taped to their face over their bandage-packed noses. His name was Dr. Howard Diamond. Diamond had his own unique ideas about rhinoplasty. He had the arrogance of a surgeon sure of his superiority; during the pre-surgical visit, he would examine the nose in question and dictate exactly what he was going to do. In my case, he informed me that he would remove the bump and that would make my nose appear shorter without requiring anything further of him.

He had a beautiful office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, with a private hospital on the premises. And I was sent home with a small bandage, no packing, no hard rubber protection, just a few stitches. Why am I spilling my guts about this in a book review? Howard Diamond, the grand master of rhinoplasty in New York in the s and s. Thousands of princesses from all five boroughs and New Jersey made the pilgrimage to Dr. I am a Diamond Princess. And being such, I knew this paragraph to be incorrect. This book is a work of nonfiction so therefore it must contain only fact.

With that in the back of my mind, I continued reading and got to this section on page 48 regarding the popularity of co-ops in NY:. There you have it; a nonfiction book of gossip and innuendo. Certainly lots of the information contained in this book is substantiated, there is a lengthy list of sources at the end. But not all of it, and that is unacceptable. In the interest of fairness, I must say that I read a review copy, not a finished book. I wrote the publisher of my concerns and asked where Mr.

Gaines got his information from. I never did receive an answer about his source, but was informed that the book had gone to print with the paragraph intact. Bertelli includes 40 of the best places to snorkel in this part of the state, but includes a lot more than that. Each location has a story as well, making this book way more than just a travel book but rather an enjoyable read about pirates, sunken treasure, and marine life.

Bertelli gives the history of each location, gives credit to the people who were instrumental in preserving these beautiful waters and discusses exactly what snorkelers should be looking for and how to stay safe at each spot. There is a small section of color photographs included and they are beautiful, and it is expensive to include more, but it would have perfected this book. Anyone with a desire to snorkel the Florida Keys should find this book instrumental in planning a trip or great fodder for just dreaming about it.

Focusing primarily on the pro game, the principles are applicable at all levels, with some relatively minor rules variations. You will pick it up. In an attempt to help, his wife dragged him to a local chain gym for beginner yoga classes. Soon, Pollack found himself wanting more. In an almost obsessive attempt to deepen his practice, Pollack immerses himself in yoga culture, researching and trying various styles at numerous studios throughout the country. And through it all, he maintains his hilarious sense of humor, relating to readers the ridiculous, the strange, and the fascinating aspects of yoga and the people he meets along the way.

From his early days of awkward bends and accidental farts through to his becoming a teacher himself, Pollack takes readers along on his laugh out loud journey through yoga. For about 6 minutes. Then I turned the last page and thought, is that all there is? Then I saw Leary on TV making the talk show rounds and finally got it. If you want to start your new year laughing, this is the book for you. Added bonus: a portion of the proceeds from sales go to the Leary Firefighters Foundation. This book is no different. Either way, Orman is smart, and she forces the reader to take a long, hard look at what they are doing with their money and why.

She addresses your credit rating, how to improve it and why you should, along with the mundane realities of life — retirement, paying for college my daughter is a junior in high school! He even turned her off completely. This little book was extremely helpful to both of us. I learned how to make phone calls, have Siri read my messages, and add items to my lists. My husband is playing nicely with Siri these days too. Moehringer: This book is styled as a memoir, but it is really more of an expression of gratitude to all of the individuals and institutions that helped Mr.

Moehringer grow from a small boy into a man who knows how to write about what he is seeing and what he is feeling. But in justifying the premise, Moehringer makes it clear to the reader, if not to himself, that he was both exposed to some very helpful people and bright enough be able to understand their gifts. Attempting a book about drinking and a drinking establishment is frought with peril. Generally, such books err either on the side of over-romanticizing the gin mill or becoming preachy about the evils of alcohol. Books of the first sort tend to be favored by people who think themselves equally serious drinkers and readers.

In addition to having read a lot of books over the years, I have been in a whole lot of barrooms. Books of the second sort tend to be produced by the newly sober, but badly spoiled personalities who are flush with their initial success. These books have no more to do with real sobriety than the romanticized bars had to do with the utopian Cheers. Moehringer avoids both those traps and produces to my way of thinking, a unique and readable product. It is an interesting story. I would recommend this book as a nice change of pace for the reader and good food for thought about our own lives and those who have contributed to them.

Their collection is available online at their website, Texts From Last Night. This book? Not so much. On the other hand, my seventeen year old daughter is an avid fan of the website, and so are some of my college age co-workers. Target audience, I suppose, are Millennials. Why the publisher felt the need to turn this into a book is beyond me. Maybe as a gag gift? This book made me feel like a cranky old fart. I enjoy all sorts of food books — memoirs, cookbooks, and so forth, and this is just a little different twist on the genre.

The book is sectioned by country and type of food, turning it into a culinary journey of sorts. What surprised me, however, was how judgmental the author was in his discussions — especially since he confesses to be a non-practicing Jew who never celebrated his own Bar Mitzvah. I would have liked to see a broader study and a less judgmental one, but it was interesting. Johnson has written an homage to librarians everywhere.

Johnson celebrates these librarians as heroes of the information age in an always interesting and often humorous way. Read all about it on the BookBitchBlog. A Thousand Days in Venice by Marlena de Blasi: Beautiful, middle-age, love at first sight story set in beautiful, old, love at first sight Venice. Delicious reading indeed! Ashley and her brother, Luke, were forced to live in foster homes overrun with children and suffered unspeakable abuse.

The odds were against her in a system that still has problems. Yet she not only survived, she flourished. Throughout her experience in the foster system she attempted to reach out to authorities about the atrocities that she and her foster siblings faced. Each time she was ignored; she was simply an unruly child seeking attention. After she was adopted, Ashley went on to become an advocate for the foster care system and her voice was finally heard.

One of the most powerful parts of the book is the three little words alluded to in the title. I suppose as a literary analysis rather than a story collection that is correct. Anyway, Morrell whose First Blood was the basis for the Rambo films, and Wagner who is a regular contributor to Mystery Scene magazine have selected examples of supposedly trendsetting thrillers, each introduced by a contemporary writer of the genre.

The entire work ebbs and flows and tends to wander around, but you will likely find a few new titles to add to your reading list. At least, I did. These are not ordinary thank you notes. A few are addressed to people but the majority of them are directed at emotions, experiences, locations and relationships. Thx Thx Thx is easy to browse; sometimes thought-provoking and other times funny. Estabrook discovered that tomato workers are virtually slaves, in fact he emphatically states that slavery is alive and well in the state of Florida.

He discusses the Florida Tomato Committee, the folks that ensure that all tomatoes that leave the state are hard, spherical, green without a hint of red, and can withstand 10 foot drops off the back of a truck onto the pavement without cracking or any other damage. Then more chemicals are sprayed onto the green tomatoes when they reach their warehouse destinations, chemically turning them red and beautiful. But beauty is only skin deep; the vitamins and nutrients normally found in tomatoes are severely lacking in these, as well as the delicious tomato flavor.

I have driven by that farm more times that I care to think about and never gave a thought to what may be going on there. He needed dialysis to get his leg amputated, but then decided no more dialysis. He was in complete renal failure, checked himself into hospice and began the process of spending his last few weeks dying. At least not for several months. He plans his funeral, his eulogy, the food being served; discusses heaven, living wills, and all the other things no one discusses about death.

This is pure Buchwald, dying on his own terms and determined to make us laugh as he does it — a truly fitting goodbye from an American icon. As Vanderbilt points out, people spend more time in their car than ever, and he examines why we do what we do in our cars. He claims to have gotten his inspiration while driving on the Jersey Turnpike, but really applies everywhere. Do you merge way before you know the lane will end, when you first see the warning signs? Or do you wait until you have no choice and the lane ends?

And if so, does that make you a selfish jerk who makes it harder for everyone else? Or are the people who merge early really the ones gumming up the works. I expected a lot from this book and he delivered. Anderson traces the evolution of the thriller from its earliest beginnings to what has become the modern day thriller.

There are tons of recommendations, including the authors Anderson feels are the best out there today: Michael Connelly, Dennis Lehane, Thomas Harris, and George Pelecanos. Jack-in-the-Box is serving foccacia sandwiches. The supermarket has ten kinds of olive oil. On draft! This is the story of how that happened, and ooh, it is dishy! Like how Craig Claiborne, the original New York Times food critic, had some very strange issues with his parents.

Prison, Architecture and Humans

Or how the staff of Chez Panisse would have rather wild parties after the restaurant closed. Even those old Time-Life international cookbooks have a somewhat scandalous backstory. The only thing missing is the recipes. The book is very colorful and interesting, but I have to question the validity of a lot of the information when Wikipedia is listed as the only source for many of the statistics given. There are simple blue pictures of a woman, a pig, a cow and so forth, with a bright yellow cloud of varying sizes behind each, but there are no numbers, just the diagrams.

So I learned that cows fart more than women — but was there supposed to be more info than that? Something about C02 perhaps? Not sure what I am supposed to be learning from this diagram. Very cute, interesting and useful in fact. The next page has the same layout featuring hangover remedies.

But then it turns to salad dressings, which could also be good except they left out the names of the various dressings, rendering the information useless. All in all, a great idea that needs a little more research using more authoritative sources than Wikipedia a good starting point for sure, but not a good ending point and a lot more proofreading. Alas, it was unable to be fixed upon the first printing. Did you love No Reservations by Anthony Bourdain? If you answered yes to either of those questions, put this book on your must read list immediately.

What Bourdain did for the kitchen, i. All this and more from a man who was the head waiter at a high end Manhattan restaurant and blogged himself into a book deal. This book leaves one yearning for the great outdoors despite the risks and the hardships. I listened to it on tape read by the author, which gives a real feeling of intimacy.

I have a very personal interest in this as a cousin gave up his Air Force career as the result of the stress of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The author knows his material and manages to present it in a very entertaining manner. Swanson makes a persuasive case that control of our country has effectively been ceded to a small power elite of individuals in business and government who report to no one and who guide the nation no matter which political party is in power. To support his argument Swanson uses previously unavailable information about the Cold War from the perspective of the Soviets.

Waxworks by Frieda Hughes: Ms. She is also the daughter of Sylvia Plath and Ted Hughes. Waxworks is a collection of poems all of which are Ms. Hughes reflections on figures of legend and history and art, much as if she were looking at their statues. Fittingly, one of the poems concerns Madame Tussaud herself, looking for models of her famous creations in people in the London streets. There is the best and worst in all of us. We are all potentially murderers and betrayers.

Other poems deal with characters ranging from Thor to Burke and Hare.

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To no avail. This is a compelling and often grisly work. I would like to say that Ms. Hughes is too much her own voice to be so rudely explained and pigeonholed. She is worth admiring in her own right. This review contributed by Geoffrey R. Afterwards we look around furtively to assess the damage, and more importantly to see if our moment of weakness has been witnessed. Hopefully, the damage is slight and the witnesses are few.

However, when your brain cramp occurs in or pursuant to a major sporting event before as many as millions of people, well, it becomes a regrettable but unforgettable episode. Definitely recommended. When my kids were little, I read parenting books, when they were teenagers I went back to the books. This book put some things in perspective for me and reassured me about other things. The writing style is breezy, not preachy, and real life situations are discussed. I found it of interest and even comforting. In my humble opinion, Who Moved My Cheese needed to be lampooned. This book will not appeal to the literati, not when it includes behind the scenes looks at J.

But as a book lover of all kinds, I really enjoyed it. Of course, Scottoline already had three dogs, two cats and chickens, among other pets, but the point was the same. The stories are just a couple of pages longs, easy and delightful reading, and made me laugh out loud. A wonderful holiday gift for any woman — or enlightened man. Since there is an updated version coming out at the end of the year that will include the Internet, I wanted to get a look at this book first. So I went to the Underhill book to learn about signage, shopping habits and so forth, and learn I did.

In fact, reading about his operatives invisibly following shoppers through department stores immediately brought to mind the Josie Marcus, Secret Shopper series by Elaine Viets. Anyone with a retail store really needs to read this book before they open their doors. It will be fascinating seeing how the world marketplace, the Internet, has changed the science of shopping. Poynter is geared towards journalists, but I think these writing strategies are of help to any kind of writing — journalism, fiction, school reports, whatever.

The tools make a remarkable collection and a very valuable book for anyone who is interested in improving their writing. A lot of what he says sounds like common sense, and it is — but sometimes we need to be reminded of the basics, and nudged further along, which he does quite well. The book is very readable and it is obvious that Mr. Enough twists and turns, gristly murders and nasty sexual stuff to keep me riveted for a few hours until I reluctantly turned the last page. This entertaining thriller is a fast, fun read. Only complaint: there is a new chapter every third page, which translates to two pages of text per chapter.

There must be some reason for this, but damned if I know what it is. Her trouble comes from a shooting incident for which she is being sued. The setting is appropriate for what is almost a beach read, albeit an entertaining one. Interestingly the why of the various murders seems to jump out much sooner than the whodunit. While the mystery of who really writes these books remains unsolved, Lindsay does survive the other challenges.

Someone is kidnapping the children of the rich and their nannies — and they are not demanding ransom. I do, and I also like an occasional chocolate dipped soft ice cream cone. James Patterson is re-investing a lot in the industry, so grab a copy and be lightly entertained for an hour or so. Two millennia ago, Alexander the Great broke the Capstone into seven pieces and hid them in the seven ancient wonders of the world. The Europeans and the U. In the event of stoppage of breathing oxygen masks will drop down.

Secure your mask before resuming reading. You hoped for a long weekend so you could enjoy it. One involves the disappearance of the teenage son of a former California governor — think Jon Benet Ramsey without a corpse. Also there is a serial arsonist at work responsible for the deaths of a string of wealthy couples. The two cases twist and turn before reaching their appointed end in the required number of pages. Maybe you will want to just catch this one on television — on a slow night.

Then, when she arrives on campus, her boyfriend dumps her and not one person acknowledges her birthday. Prison architecture, children and youths. From working schools and youth prisons to Youth Units. Prison architecture for children and youths from an immanent perspective. To study prison architecture — methodological considerations. The lunch table. Milieu work. The Battle. The Mirror. Faking a smile. The process of becoming within prisons.

Closing comments so far. Gudrun Brottveit. Analytical and methodological reflections through being affected and moved. Punishment and prison architecture. Punishment and pain. The becoming of a new life. The becoming of a new identity. The punishment affects the human body. Punishment and humans. Humans affect the experience of incarceration. A call for help. Incarceration an invasion of private space. Living with privation and loneliness. Punishment and humanity. Material luxury tells nothing about life inside prison. The becoming of punishment in time and space. The punishment as a continuous process of becoming.

The becoming of punishment beyond the humanity. Closing remarks. Tore Rokkan. Interviews — explorative study. The analyses. Thoughts and experience of the offenders. Changes in the way of living. Principle of normality. Yngve Hammerlin. A timeline — A new way of thinking?

A brief theoretical overview. Neo-materialism, topographic change and spatial turn. A theoretical way points. Modern sociology of space. A historical glimpse and a view of the present situation. Prison — materialism, topographic and spatial turn. The Human Turn. A rough sketch, some ideas and some rudimentary considerations. On criminal justice ideology and architecture. The various punishment ideologies. The significance of prison architecture. Different buildings — different ideologies. Ullersmo — the industrial prison. Some developments. Ferdinando Terranova. Governance and Social Strategies in the Prison System.

Prison Regulation Scenarios. Designer Ethics. Building Process. From Conception to Creation. Suggestions for Prison Designers. Rehabilitation as an Aim of Sentencing and Prisons. A Possible Combination? Loredana Giani. After the Fall. An Outline of the System Post-Unification. Riot Act. Reflections on Sentencing in the Constituent Assembly. No Action. Human Touch. The Emergence of the Rehabilitative Aim of the Sentence. Let Them All Talk. Jailhouse Tears. Attempts to Modify the System. The Land of Give and Take. Adapting to the Need for Social Protection.

Getting Mighty Crowded. The Buffer Operations. Changing Partners. Attempts at Outsourcing. Stefano Catucci. The Birth of the Gip. A Militant and a Theorist. A Science of Prisons and a Science of Criminals. The Treatment of Marginal People. Logic of Exclusion. Listening to Prisoners, Criticizing the Present. About the Contributors. Region of Lazio, IT. Reproduced with permission; no reuse without rightsholder permission. Reproduced with permission; no reuse without rightsholder permission..

Sketch by the author; no reuse without permission. Sketch by the author ; no reuse without permission. The size of the words indicates the frequency of terms used in the interviews. The green index line represents the total frequency. During this warmer season it will perhaps be better this way. The cell is at once very simple and very complex. I have a wall cot with two mattresses one filled with wool ; the sheets are changed approximately every fifteen days.

I have a small table and a sort of cupboard-night stand, a mirror, a basin and pitcher made of enamelled iron. I own many aluminium objects bought at the Rinascente department store that has set up an outlet in the prison. I have a few books of my own; each week I receive eight books to read from the prison library double subscription. His letters give a detailed description of prison architecture as well as how prison life affects the body in the way he sees his surroundings and hears sounds, and the way light finds its way into the cell and makes it possible for him to read.

Gramsci, also a journalist, Communist and resistance fighter, was arrested in November by the Fascist regime in Italy. He died in April , just a few days after being released, 46 years old. The biographical material he left through his letters is of considerable historical and penological value and reminds us, among other things, of the importance of prison architecture and how the human body habituates to material conditions.

Small details, like different objects and things, which in ordinary life outside prison seem insignificant and taken for granted, become important inside the prison in order to construct a meaningful existence. The way Gramsci describes his cell tells us that this room and the space connected to it, hold his whole existence — simple, but at the same time very complex: in the bed he sleeps, lies awake, dreams, worries and feels the structure of his bed.

With the aluminium objects he eats, feels his appetite and is reminded of food and meals outside prison, and with the help of the basin and pitcher he washes himself and tries to uphold some measure of hygiene and an acceptable appearance. In the mirror he can see an image of himself — of who he has become. Right outside the cell is the courtyard where he can be outside, but through the narrow window he only gets a glimpse of the sky. The rest of the prison landscape and its surroundings are hidden from him. On the other hand everything is taken away from him.

Often, like in a prison, life in a total institution is regulated by a totalitarian regime. Laws, rules and regulations tell what a body can and cannot do, and strict schedules regulate where a body should be in each hour of the day, which Moran , refers to as carceral TimeSpace. Prison, architecture and humans are, in this anthology, understood as related concepts. We draw upon a complex and reflexive cultural concept, understanding prison architecture as both discursive, relational and historical. The earliest definition of architecture and its obligations is from ancient history. Vitruvius wrote in the first century BCE Ten Books of Architecture: De architettura 1 , and included both town planning and the planning of fortresses.

Vitruvius believed that architecture must unite:. Durability firmitas - Structures must be stable, durable and resistant to stress Utility utilitas - Structures must be useful and appropriate Beauty venustas - Structures must be beautiful and for the enjoyment of humans. In the narrow understanding of the concept of architecture, it involves art or science to plan the design of a man-made environment - the meeting between man-made space and nature, and the interaction between man and his surroundings.

The architecture icon, Arne Gunnarsjaa reproduces several earlier definitions, in order to attempt to make a summary definition:. It refers to the composition and design of buildings, walls and fences that physically constitute a prison. According to time and shifting perspectives, different philosophical positions have emerged. One is postmodernism, a movement in the late 20 th century in art, literature, architecture, and literary criticism. Postmodernism asserted that the world is in a state of persistent imperfection and constantly insoluble.

Postmodernism promoted the perception of radical pluralism; that there are many ways of knowledge, and many truths in a fact. From a postmodernist perspective, knowledge is articulated from different perspectives, with all its uncertainties, complexities and paradoxes. Postmodernism includes skeptical interpretations of culture, literature, art, philosophy, history, economics, architecture, fiction, and literary criticism. It is often associated with deconstruction and poststructuralism, and as its use as a term gained considerable popularity at the same time as the post-structural ideas of the 20th century Frichot and Loo, Someone who has had a far-reaching and significant impact on both the practice and thinking of architecture since the s, is the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.

There is no heaven for concepts. The work of Deleuze has contributed to critical approaches regarding ecological, political and social problems that architecture has to deal with, and to the relationship between aesthetics and ethics. The discussion about the link between philosophy and architecture may relate to the assumption that architecture has to do with built projects. What the philosophy of Deleuze and also Guattari provides are the critical and creative skills by which we can further expand the field of architecture, question authorship and creativity, reconsider architectural ethics and politics, and rethink what architecture can do and what it can become.

Fricot and Loo, She described the laundry work of prisoners in correctional facilities and observed that they developed a coded communication language formed by ironing crease patterns into prison uniforms:. Like the prison tattoo, another form of inscription on soft, pliable surfaces, the crease is a mark of resistance by the marginalized ibid Unlike the tattoo, the crease acts directly on the institutional skin of the prison uniform, and unlike the tattoo, its language is illegible to the uninitiated.

Diller, : The crease 2 possesses a resistance to transformation, having a long memory and is hard to remove. Its resistance persists until a new order is inscribed Burns, Several of the chapters in this book are inspired by the reading of Deleuze. Also Doreen Massey points out that a place, such as a prison, is not just physical buildings but overlapping social activities and social relationships that are in a process of change.

A place, like in this book — a prison, does not have one unambiguous identity without friction. This is because a place evolves through many social relations and meetings Massey, This understanding of prison architecture draws attention to how architecture is lived, how it speaks to people and affects bodies, and how architecture, prison artefacts and people melt together and create forces that produce energies and atmospheres in the prison Deleuze and Guattari, Architecture is never neutral.

It is at all times, and places involved in exerting power. In general, architecture can be understood to be the result of a multiplicity of desires - for shelter, security, privacy, control and for status, identity, reputation Dovey, — and, a place for torment where punishment takes place Christie, Looking at prison architecture in this way, as open and dynamic, we are able to notice people who want or do not want to belong, follow or develop interests, identify or do not identify with a place.

In this book, we not only focus on prison architecture as buildings, and other physical installations, but also as social constructions and mental images. All the categories of users need to be involved in the design process. How we build and organize our prisons expresses how we understand human beings and their needs, and how a society cares about its prisoners. As Terranova points out in his contribution chapter 14 ; architects are humans building for other humans, bridging the concepts of prison, architecture and humans.

Prison research in Norway has traditionally been more oriented towards other Nordic and Anglo-Saxon countries than continental countries like Italy, France and Germany. It is often easier to look to and generalize from countries that we presume are more like Norway. A collage of Italian and Norwegian texts on prison architecture and humans is interesting for several reasons. They are both countries who lock up people for shorter or longer periods of time, but in different quanta and in different kinds of prisons and units. It is possible that the differences in, for example, welfare systems and catholic versus protestant cultures are reflected in perspectives on punishment, re-integration and reconciliation.

Important theoretical influences from Cesare Beccaria, Antonio Gramsci and Georgio Agamben have had and still have today a major impact on the scientific community, offering interesting perspectives that could also stimulate the Norwegian discussion on prison architecture.

On the other hand, Norwegian pioneers within criminology, like Nils Christie and Thomas Mathiesen, may offer interesting approaches within the Italian scientific community. Writing a book on prison, architecture and humans from an Italian and a Norwegian perspective, includes a kind of comparison even if this is not a comparative study. Some distinctions do occur in the texts, but our intention is not to pursue these further here. However, we hope that distinctions could lead to reflection and to new research questions and perspectives regarding prison architecture and humans.

It is important to mention that similarities and differences are not phenomes lying there as objective phenomena ready to grasp. They are developed through a process of comparison Krogstad How we feel about and understand what we see, hear and read are vital to reflect upon, and are maybe the most interesting aspect of a book like this.

The book draws together a collage of independent multidisciplinary contributions discussing places and spaces where punishment takes place. It is important to emphasize that the contributors themselves have chosen the topics and studies they present. The chapters stand alone and do not represent conditions in Norway or Italy. The texts are written by researchers and architects who work within different disciplinary traditions, practice fields and within various methodological traditions.

In different ways the authors are occupied and inspired by theories and approaches within their own and other disciplines, by epistemological and methodological issues, as well as recent developments in their own countries. This applies to both the authors and the readers. Most likely, an Italian reader would be interested in this issue. Socio-materiality has in later years had renewed interest and significance inspired by concepts such as the spatial and materialistic turn and other concepts that we as researchers ponder see Hammerlin in chapter 12 and Catucci in chapter These concepts and perspectives are often complicated and need a translation to be discussed in a broader sense, but they also need time to be developed together with architects, as for example Fagnoni in chapter 7.

In this book researchers and architects study the socio-material conditions in prisons related to time, space, topography and interior. Our hope is that the book can offer an original approach to prison as a study field, and to existing penological writings focusing on prison design, prison furniture, space and place, the body and the prison environment. The book is an invitation to move into different prison landscapes and let pictures, theory, ideas and affects directly and indirectly enable reflection on connections and disruptions, lines and dilemmas related to prison architecture and humans.

How is it to be young and imprisoned? How do women talk about their cells? How can prison architecture be studied? What can prison architecture breathe into the process of becoming within prisons, and does it contribute to becoming somebody else than a prisoner? What is the relationship between prison architecture and the imprisoned body? How are concepts like humanism, dignity and solidarity translated into prison architecture? Could we think otherwise regarding the prison landscape in between the prison buildings? What is the outside and the inside of a prison?

What is the connection between prison architecture, ideology and aims of punishment and scientific knowledge? These questions are all brought up through the various chapters in this volume. The book is organized in three parts: 1 architecture and the prison landscape; 2 perspectives on humans, prison space and the imprisoned body; and 3 prison ideology and aims of punishment. A brief introduction of each part will be placed in the beginning of the various sections of the book. Before the introduction of the first part, and with a link to Gramsci, we are pleased to present John K. For readers interested in this debate regarding architectural acts and pattern-making and various positions regarding Deleuzian positionings we refer to Burns Describing how buildings, colours, designs and furnishings can affect people is beyond my understanding.

I know that a lot of research has been done into how institutions should be built and designed, but I have never concerned myself with this and must say that giving more weight to these materialistic aspects than to human relationships amazes me. You can guess from my opening statement where I stand in respect to this topic. I will attempt to explain my point of view, and my conclusions will surely surprise scientists, architects and interior designers.

But this is what I believe, and the following reflects my perception of reality. I served several years of a long sentence in Halden Prison. These were difficult years for me and I look back on them with pain and bitterness. That at least is what we inmates were told. This is off the beaten track and far from civilization.

Halden is really just the gateway to the Swedish town of Svinesund where Norwegians cross the border to buy cheap meat. The prison was built far from man and beast. It was built out here in the woods and, as a modern prison, it was constructed so that nature could be preserved within the walls. Halden Prison was to be built on a different plan to all other prisons in the country. Several buildings were erected in an area with lots of woods and wild Norwegian nature. I could not help slipping in that bit of typical Norwegian irony.

When I arrived at Halden Prison, I was in shock. I had just confessed my crime and struggled hard to accept what I had done. I was seeking human contact, I cried and I had difficulty getting through each day. I asked for help, I asked for a psychologist, but no help was available. The prison did not have the capacity to give me an appointment with a psychologist. I was locked up with cruel thoughts, deep remorse and a fierce desire to escape from my situation. I did not want to escape from prison, but to escape from my own body, leaving all those I had failed and would continue to fail by being absent for many years.

So, here I sit in Halden Prison. Beautiful nature! Trees outside my window! A peace and quiet I simply was not used to. The fact that so-called experts have decided that Norwegian nature, trees and silence will be good for me makes me more angry than you can imagine. How could I be? My mind bubbled, my brain was working overtime, my emotions tore my heart into pieces and I missed those I loved.

This caused me so much internal noise that I could not find comfort in those bloody trees outside my window. The silence was more of a torment than a consolation. If noises were to influence my mental state, what I needed was what was normal for me: the sound of traffic, stress, people, the noise of the city and the smell of asphalt and exhaust! Peace and quiet may sound inviting to a researcher … but for me it was totally meaningless. I am a man, an honest man used to speaking my mind. It is possible that research has proven that different colours elicit different moods in humans.

But it does not make sense to me in my situation. Choice of colours seems a trifling irrelevance when I am locked up in a place without the help I need to deal with my internal demons. That is just how it is with me. I was suffering so much that I was not aware of the colours around me and they had no meaning. I did not see anything clearly, not colour, not the future, not the present … everything was just full of pain.

Looking back, I was living the life of a zombie. In some periods I was an outgoing windbag, in others I could be silent and detached. It was my mood that decided who I was and who I socialized with. That is what really mattered: who I met, how I behaved and how I related to other inmates. I always try to be polite and if I like the person I am talking to, I can joke and be open. However, if I do not like the person I am talking to, I tend to retreat politely. I think most people are like this. People are influenced by those they interact with.

Further, I think I have some degree of colour blindness! Part joke, part truth. Interior…if interior means furniture, then I admit to being more aware of fixtures and fittings than of colours as I like to have things neat and tidy around me. As I managed to put some of the pain behind me, I actually began to notice that the furniture in Halden Prison was totally neutral in form, without any distinctive design.

The cells were all furnished in beech: a bed, a desk, a chair, a cupboard. Everything is neutral — as though taken from an absurd catalogue of minimalist cell-furniture where Halden Prison was the finest model on display!. A bathroom that can be compared to one in the cheapest cabin on an overnight ferry. I accept that prisoners are not entitled to a private bathroom, but the point of this article is to comment on how inmates are influenced by the prison environment.

In this respect, I would point out that these bathrooms are only just sufficient for a grown man to maintain a basic level of personal hygiene. White tiles and a shower do not impress me. A tiled bathroom is not a substitute for a hug from someone who wishes you well. A tiled bathroom could not remove the sense of desolation.

A tiled bathroom does not make you happy. Other inmates played an important role in my life in prison. It may surprise some people to discover the degree to which intrigue is a central part of prison life. I believe this applies to all prisons, independent of security level or in which country they are found.

I am still serving the same sentence for which I was sent to Halden prison. This is my first and only conviction and all my impressions should be understood as based on this first-time experience. I had no prior experience of prison life. Looking back, I see that my image and the way I presented myself to others resulted in me building a wall around myself.

I am myself , have always been myself and am proud of it. But being myself took some time for others to accept. But I was not weak and often spoke my mind even though this resulted in some conflicts that I could have avoided. As a result, I received a level of respect I could live with. The other inmates knew who I was because I was genuine. But I still had to adapt myself to fit in with the system. Prison life is not easy! Some rules must be followed and some individuals should be avoided.

It is precisely the point of my contribution to this work. How interpersonal relationships function is much more important than colour, shape and surroundings! There is not the time nor opportunity to allow environmental trivialities to determine daily life in prison. The most important issues must be confronted: it is the people around you that count. I have now written a bit about other inmates, but there are others we have to relate to: the employees. The fact that I am no longer serving my sentence in Halden Prison, allows me to write more generally about the staff. For there are always good and bad staff in all workplaces.

I have heard staff uttering vicious comments intended to provoke or hurt, and I have met empathetic staff who, in spite of the constraints imposed by the regulations, still manage to convey a caring attitude and let you know that they wish you well. Just seeing such an employee gives hope for better times. I have met employees who suspect you of planning manipulation or deception. And if a female employee shows care and understanding, some will interpret this as attempted seduction.

But I have encountered staff willing to offer something approaching friendship — something that contributes to a feeling of self-worth. The staff in a prison play an enormous role in the life of inmates. Being locked up for so many hours a day, belief in human dignity counts for more than anything else. That is all that is needed — just to be respected as another human being. What makes it a home to you?? Basically, like I said, I guess it? I try to respect people 8 to the best of my ability,? So you are in a community where there is a familiarity with other people??

I said. Yeah, you know it has become a home by way of, yeah, people are used to seeing me in the doorway now.? So there is a social familiarity with the place and that makes it your home?? Yeah they even call it [Hockeystick? I struggled with this point. My assumption, based on years of direct service positions and research was that sleeping in a doorway facing a busy downtown east side street would surely qualify as homeless, by any measure? However, according to Hockeystick? He felt at home-in-community.

This was partially due to his own effort of carrying himself, and the community? I see it now as a socio-linguistic network that affirmed personal dignity and was centered on the recognition of the individual? This is precisely what the existential philosophers would predict, but the tradition had never been read into the special case of urban homelessness.

We are not merely animals that depend on physical dwelling; we also dwell poetically, linguistically? If I had not managed to finally bracket my assumptions about Hockeystick being homeless, I would not have reached the epoche? This epoche? A description of the fundamental existential conditions of dwelling is then possible. The natural attitude, a comportment of prejudiced interpretation, reigns in every day life; and it reigns in the scientific approach to gaining knowledge.

The epoche? The natural science method begins questioning into homelessness and mental illness from a theory, or a set of theories. The phenomenological method begins this questioning from descriptions of homeless dwelling, and descriptions of mental illness, taking existence as a starting point. This method can be seen as an anti-method that allows special epistemological claims. It is worthwhile to highlight differences between this method, founded by Edmund Husserl , and certain other methods of inquiry such as psychoanalysis Freud, S.

Respectively these presume to reveal an ego hierarchy, a psyche, or effective causes in personal existence. Phenomenology does not reveal these, nor does is assume a transference of energy, collectivism, or will power in social existence as they do. Instead it reveals a concerned perspective and a nascent logos in flux with a body? The position that?? Rather, the existential-phenomenologist speaks of the total, indissoluble unity or interrelationship of the individual and his or her world?

Valle, King, and Halling, , p. And yet, existential-phenomenological psychology has made some of the same mistakes. All of these positions accept the clinic as a neutral territory where psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia, will show in their pure form? They also make the mistake of assuming that the homeless person is on equal ontological footing as the domiciled person.

My rejection of these assumptions at the outset of this essay offers a novel phenomenology of dwelling and psychopathology. Phenomenology had already produced a new approach to epistemology Husserl, E. This philosophical movement allowed a renewal of the questioning into ontology, or the emergence of subjective consciousness of? It is often translated as uncanniness. Dwelling, or being at home, is seen here as a temporalizing event while homelessness always threatens to plunge the individual into the immediacy of perception.

Thus it reminds us again and again of death! Dwelling then is seen, from the phenomenological perspective, as the ceaseless activity of creation of bulwarks and fortification against the dread that encroaches on subjectivity. In the home I find everything that I live for and live from. Even the things, people, and events of the world that lie beyond the threshold of my home are present. Objects are pregnant with meaning that echo a deeply embodied attunement with the personally historic world. The beloved Other is there as kin or partner, ever present in corporeal or phantom form and, sometimes, even relics.

The spaces where I prepare and share food, and lie down for sleep are cultivated places. Here the tasks of existence are given over to the physical frame of the dwelling. Freedom is the opportunity to go beyond the ego and its private solipsistic version of reality. Transcendence of the self is granted by the appearance of the face of the autonomous Other which gives me the opportunity to act for the sake of something other than myself. In the appellation?

Heidegger describes a human being that is radically temporal. I am thrown into my existence, inheriting certain inescapable facts that are not given by a mediating rationality or a metaphysical form, as in Kant or Plato, but by the things that I encounter themselves. Essences shine forth, self revealing, in a field of being. However, they take on significance as part of my always-already-active and 12 ongoing plans. My ability to respond to what the world gives to my perception, greatly depends on my comportment. While Heidegger describes a person as always with others and never alone, I am always concerned for my own-most projects.

Existential anxiety is rooted in the fact that I always face the potential for the impossibility of all possibilities: death. Other writers in the tradition suggest that my efforts can best serve, not my ego, but the needs of other people. The greatest tensions generated within the existential-phenomenological tradition are between Heidegger?

I am exploiting this tension to examine the special case of homelessness and SMI. Levinas suggests that my responsibility imposes itself as my most primal decision to respond to the given situation of the world for the sake of other people, and not just for my own sake or for my projects as in Heidegger? The appearance of the face of the Other person is an epiphany that calls my actions into question. They are without edges, and unfathomable. While the rest of the world calls me to respond in whatever way I will, the Other calls me to respond to his or her needs.

The kernel of the argument is that arbitrary decisions appear to be free, but are actually contingencies of a self-obsessed madness. The face sets me free from solipsism; free from my personalized desires and reflexive attempts to meet them. This essay is an attempt to respond to my research participants and those who share their plight? These labels limit the person?

This is often referred to as? Each of my participants suffered from severe emotional stress and lived in impoverished conditions and yet they participated in the study with the intent of helping other people. Their efforts offer novel access to the basic nature of psychopathology.

For Levinas, the regression to the lived world follows a? I approached the case-studies and semi-structured interviews presented later in the spirit of Levinas? BT is a work aimed at the elucidation of a fundamental ontology, being-in-the-world, which characterizes our existence. This key phrase and concept for Heidegger maintains central significance in all of his later works. It has had an enduring resonance within holistically oriented social sciences and existential psychotherapies.

It is an antidote to the dualist tradition that began with Descartes? The expression "bin" is connected with "bei" "Ich bin" means I dwell, I stay near Being as infinitive of "I am"; that is understood as an existential, means to dwell near Being-in is thus the formal existential expression of the being of Da-sein, which has the essential constitution of being-in-the-world BT, p.

This shows that? The emphasis is on the verb to dwell and its equivalence to the infinitive of? The mind-body split is overcome through this finding which shows that we are inseparable 14 from the world and from the other people we share it with. There is no mind, or thinking thing that is distinct from the body. I am a being immersed in a world that I cohabitate, or dwell together in with neighbors. The existential? It is the qualitative distinction between human beings and all other beings.

Dwelling is an essential attribute of an ecstatic being and to dwell means to have time, as past, present and future as an attribute. It is ability to recognize the facts of reality: the past events that precede the present; and the potential consequences of my actions on the future state of affairs.

The dwelling space is like an always-transforming sculpture. We learn how to clean, and how to order our environment as children. Regardless of whether one presumes a psyche, mind, or merely behaving organism, the accomplishments of dwelling precedes all of these. What is accomplished in dwelling? Dasein never leaves behind the multi-faceted angst that underlies all mood. We make decisions whose value diminishes with time, or that disappears entirely if we do not act upon them.

It is important to understand Heidegger? These last two of Heidegger? He wrote BDT for the? Symposium on Man and Space? After recapitulating his position on dwelling he adds: "We do not dwell because we have built, but we build and have built because we dwell, that is, because we are dwellers? Architecture, i.

It is a careful analysis of some lines from the poem? In Lovely Blue? Heidegger seems to see him as a kindred spirit, and envy him for his eloquently written voice. I believe that Heidegger sees in H? His interpretation includes an account of the appeal to the divine; something greater than humanity. It is part of a fourfold of existence, which he articulates with the help of this poem. Here dwelling is never a mere set of behaviors.

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This fourfold is: being on the earth; being under the sky; being with other people; and measuring oneself against the divine PMD, p. While each fold is distinct, they each always imply the others. Furthermore, "To 16 dwell, to be set at peace within the free, the preserve, the free sphere that safeguards each thing in its essence. The fundamental character of dwelling is this sparing? PMD, p. This is accomplished at the moment of ontological becoming, which equals care:?

Mortals dwell in the way they safeguard the fourfold in its essential unfolding? The free preserve for my research participant Hockeystick is not merely the doorstep where he sleeps, but the community of people in the neighborhood. Those people preserve and safeguard him in the essential form that his existence is becoming.

In turn he carries himself in such a way that preserves his space and preserves other people? This mutual caring has the characteristic of setting free. This saving of the earth is not to exploit it. Safeguarding is our authentic relationship to earth PMD, p. To exploit other mortals, or use up the earth, is to hold back the revelatory unfolding of the fourfold of existence. This unpoetic dwelling style, in turn, forestalls the wait for divinities. In near poetic prose Heidegger stated,? Mortals dwell in that they await the divinities as divinities? They wait for intimations of their coming and do not mistake the signs of their absence.

They do not make their Gods for themselves and do not worship idols. In the very depth of misfortune they wait for the weal that has been withdrawn? He is describing a spirituality that is free of nihilism and humanism, grounded in the dwelling. This spirituality is given when the spirit is broken, and when I have used my last resource and my fortune still wanes and I face the ultimate humility of impotence?

I must wait. Weal is related to both whole and heal by its etymology. The divine arrives to heal and restore wholeness of the being at home within the essential 17 unfolding of existence. For Heidegger, our task is not to choose between theism or atheism, Christianity or Islam, etc. If the idea was latent in his early work, he brings it to fruition in these later essays.

True divinity is distinct from mythical idolatry. It beckons toward healing, fulfilled existence and beyond to the great mystery. Here he calls for us to give up the customary notion of dwelling as a set of behaviors that can be isolated for analysis. Most importantly, we attain to dwelling by a poetic creation, or building PMD, p. Full of merit, yet poetically, man dwells on this earth. This line further bears the essence of Heidegger? It means that dwelling is merited a priori. It does not rely upon evidence other than its appearance, and no further evidence can refute it.

The mere inhabitation of space, existence itself, merits dwelling2. Poetic dwelling also brings me to earth, beneath the sky. The expanse between earth and sky is "? The accepted, western concept of place relies on a na? Things in the world are reached and utilized by a remote, rational and autonomous subject.

Heidegger describes a radically different state of affairs. I am immersed in an irreducible and unfolding nexus of relationships. Space as devoid of meaning, or as an abstraction, is dismissed by phenomenology. There is no 2 Granting that mere existence merits dwelling and therefore a just society must provide homes for all becomes the basis of my ultimate conclusion in the essay. Phenomenology reveals instead, locales; places of free inhabitation. Following Heidegger further leads to suspension of the?

He points out that?? BDT, p. Dwelling both precedes and constitutes building. This implies that dwelling is pre-reflective and pre-cognitive, and that building actually constitutes the mind or thought. As in the title of Heidegger?

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Building does not cease after the? This helps explain the reasoning of Freud? Consciousness is congruent with the dwelling space and they are built simultaneously through poesis. Building, dwelling, and thinking are inseparable activities. To be is to build. Later in this essay I consider one architect, Gregory Henriquez, who? His mixed-use attempt at ethical architecture in the DTES, the Woodwards redevelopment project, actually increased social injustices.

If anything his dismal failure points out what Heidegger was already telling us in the essays on poetic dwelling: it will be impossible to dwell poetically, or build ethical architecture, as long as it is meant to serve an elite class that does not recognize the a priori merit of every person to dwell freely. In conclusion, Heidegger blames the decidedly unpoetic state of affairs in western civilization on a frantic excess of calculating. Only kindness will allow us to heed the fourfold. He said,? As long as this arrival of kindness endures, so long does man succeed 19 in measuring himself not unhappily against the Godhead.

When this measuring appropriately comes to light, man creates poetry from the very nature of the poetic. When the poetic appropriately comes to light, then man dwells humanely on this earth? The humane society is a concept that I return to in my final conclusion. Perhaps it is before all else man's subversion of this relation of dominance that drives his essential being into alienation? Alienation, homelessness,? Strange distortions appear in our existence as we are driven into alienation.

When language becomes only expressive instead of poetic, it decays to the point of becoming a relic that does not speak. Authentic speaking happens when it responds to the appeal of language to be spoken PMD, p. In my reading, this provides one way to distinguish between the psychological and the existential modes of being. The difference between response and reaction is the difference between a free choice and a conditioned behavior, the difference between the human person and the human animal. The emphasis Heidegger places on this point is unmistakable when he adds:?

Among all the appeals that we human beings, on our part, can help to be voiced, language is the highest and everywhere the first? Jacques Derrida? It is his 20 personal description of experiences of growing up under linguistically restricted conditions as a Franco-Maghrebian Jew in French-Colonial Algeria. His personal case throws into relief the ontological conditions of the person in general as a dweller in the linguistic. Language has us, we do not have it. Derrida takes this to be the supreme condition of our existence. These conditions include the paradoxical linguistic law:?

We only ever speak one language? He is wary of the effect this paradox has on us. He suspects that it, as well as language itself, is mentally ill, and that it is?? If language is the condition for mental illness, and language is a dwelling, we may already understand mental illness as a problem with language. This is most interesting in regards to those psychotic states during which such phenomena as? It also applies readily to cases of rigid personality, to obsessions and compulsions in speech, act and in dwelling. Derrida makes himself at home within the language of Levinas and Heidegger.

He occupies a space in-between and overlapping the two philosopher? Language leads the ego out of the? I inhabit language similarly to how I inhabit my dwelling. Both forms of inhabitation provide conditions for the possibility of personhood. Language cannot be surpassed or avoided because I am always in language before I arrive anywhere. This is because of the inescapability of the Other. I am always already in transcendent interpersonal relationships that precede even my own subjective relation with myself.

One finds oneself coming after language, having been thrown beyond its origins. It is constitutive of the? I-ness of the I? My monolingualism dwells, and I call it my dwelling; it feels like one to me, and I remain in 21 it and inhabit it. It inhabits me? The primal? I can? This word has etymological branches linking it with both hospitality and hostility p.

For Derrida this is the very ipseity of the? This is a hospes within language, not in a house etc. This ambivalence will almost inevitably give rise to?? This understanding of ourselves in relation to spoken language should be extended to architectural language. My thinking occupies a position overlapping these three thinkers. The language of architecture, as I will show in inner-city projects like the Woodwards complex, is ambivalently hospitable and hostile. Architecture is built form with a syntax that we rely upon to interpret and express meaning Alexander et. Heidegger emphasizes our inverted relationship to language in the context of dwelling and architecture.

Except for the poets, like H? He correctly concludes BDT by asserting that mankind has not yet learned to dwell. If taken in terms of the fourfold, humankind has not yet produced an architectural arrangement that allows the essential unfolding of the earth, the sky, the divinities, and the Other person.

Just as our relationship to language is inverted, so is our relationship to architecture. We have not yet found a way to dwell together. The post-modern movement in architecture has offered some resistance to this ancient and ongoing failure. According to Otero-Pailos the inspiration of phenomenology helped bring post-modern architecture to fruition. However, 22 architectural phenomenology has carried on ambiguously and without a proper definition of itself.

Heidegger, along with H? The more poetic a poet is, the freer that is, the more open and ready for the unforeseen his saying?? The more engaged one is in the fourfold, the wider the horizon of possibilities and the more likely one will have the ability to respond. Instead we find ourselves dwelling? Dwelling can lead to building, but not through technical architecture, construction engineering, or some combination of the two BDT, p. Authentic building, the primal form of which is poetic, can occur as long as poets are at work in the architecture of dwelling structures PMD, p.

They should respect the aspects of the fourfold that affect the site. This was initiated through an extension of my Master? It was my first attempt to explain the severe mental and emotional disturbances I observed among homeless people. Levinas describes the person as they emerge out of an undifferentiated 23 boundlessness3 of general being. The horror of anonymity precedes, and is far worse than, the anxiety of being as described by Heidegger.

Horror portends something more threatening. Anxiety coincides with the? Only an? John Doe does not leave a will. This description appeared in Levinas? Emergence from boundlessness remains without meaning until the face of the Other appears. The uniquely human epiphany of ethical service frees an existent by giving it options that lie outside its own ego? The main shelter space was a ballroom that had hosted gigantic parties of loggers, fishermen and longshoremen through the first half of the 20th century. While it retains its cavernous layout, the building is now one of the last refuges for Seattle?

Large folding tables would cover half the old ballroom during breakfast and dinner. At night, the tables were stacked aside and specially-made sleeping pads, resistant to all 3 According to a personal conversation with a close prot? Anaximander said that the first element, from which all elements arise and to which they return, was the apeiron Waterfield This is translated as?

I was part of a small staff of social workers piloting a new program, called the Crisis Respite Program, that was an augmented shelter within the DESC. We were set up following years of federal and state funded research by DESC staff in outreach and shelter assessment. Our primary purpose was to house homeless mentally ill people who had been discharged from the psychiatric emergency room at the King County hospital also known as Harborview with no place to go. With increasing shortages of clinical beds, these folks did not qualify for long-term commitment, although they all carried diagnoses of SMI including schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder, and substance abuse disorders.

This, in addition to the fact that they were homeless, still did not qualify them for long-term treatment. I saw and assessed countless exhausted, drug addled, traumatized, psychotic, depressed and homeless people there. I had already spent the better part of an academic year training in outreach psychotherapy as it has been developed by Dr.

Craig Rennebohm I hypothesized that it is the place and act of dwelling noun and verb senses of the term together that separates an individual from the elements and allows for a passive and reflective mode of being to occur. These people had to be able to sit back, relax, rest, reflect and finally sleep in order to go on. This physical-subjective quality, the inner relation one has with oneself, precedes the cognition or psychic processes that is normally taken for granted.

See a Problem?

For Levinas, to dwell was to accomplish the ontological adventure and a victory of consciousness over anonymity, a state of powerlessness over the dissembling forces of 25 being-in-general EE. Furthermore, overcoming this horror, this vertigo at the edge of the abyss, leads to enjoyment of the world or element TI. This position had support in existing Levinas scholarship with the notions of affective intentionality; a bodily felt sense of meaning Tallon, and that of the inter-twining of the body and the places of inhabitation Jager, Besides the primal event of the overcoming of ceaseless flux of time, inhabitation of the dwelling space allows the careful articulation of a personal life.

It is the act in which experience becomes possessed through reflection, and especially the activities of homemaking. The world, and one? It is also the place where the subjective aspects of experience that cannot be articulated outside of dwelling are cultivated. One comes to be, and to know oneself, simultaneously.

Over time the personality, biography and hospitality of the person is developed and expressed in the dwelling. Guests are hosted, intimacy is enabled and indulged there. Peaceful solitude is had in this personal place. The most basic act being that of lying down on one? Sleeping is one of the basic events that characterizes dwelling. In sleep one? I proposed that the result of this cycle of lying down in bed, sleeping, getting up and going out; then returning home at the end of the day is what establishes mood: the bringing of the psychic and the somatic forces into harmony.

This mood, a general state of feelings i. Mood is the embodiment of emotion that sustains a person with 26 a distinct past, a secure present and a future, to which one may realistically tend. It follows that certain deficits in dwelling spaces or the activity of dwelling could lead to the fragmentation of mood by interrupting psychological and physical processes of homeostasis. This fragmentation does not correspond to the? This is the disappearance and absence of mood, stripping bear the existent person, which leads to anxiety at best, terror and horror at worst.

I took the case of radical homelessness to be the most severe challenge to the embodiment of emotion. This disruption of dwelling leads to the breakdown of the temporal sense that arises from the enjoyment of the element and normal embodiment of mood. The loss of mind and the experience of horror follows when one can no longer distinguish the past, present and future. Memories from the past, what is currently impinging on the senses, and what one imagines may happen in the future, all flash before consciousness with equal validity.

When psychiatrists and other clinicians witness? I argue that it is more accurately understood as a mood disorder, as a breakdown of dwelling and the inhabitation of language. The self disintegrates, becomes disordered and resorts to mythical interpretive themes to maintain linguistic coherence. Levinas called this state of prolongation of being in the elemental the? TI From social perspectives, the person then appears to friends and family as mad, crazy, or insane.

Through the clinical process they will be? I was doubtful of the effectiveness of diagnosis, but the system depended upon it. Our goals in the Crisis Respite Program included medication stabilization, connection to necessary services especially medical, psychiatric, and drug and alcohol recovery programs , and a transfer into short term or long term housing? Clients are faced with a complex array of services from welfare to criminal justice, medical and mental healthcare, and shelter or social housing housing situations that are fully or partially paid for by some level of government and that provide services of various kinds that they must navigate.

In many cases we would receive large files for the client from other service providers in various institutional settings such as hospitals, half-way houses, and the foster-care system. Sometimes the files were three to six inches thick, dating back for several years. Other times we wouldn? We considered these materials in conjunction with the assessments that we performed, which included qualitative and quantitative measures.

Over the course of about a year, our team completed nearly a hundred such assessments. I observed that some clients who had significant history in the system had been diagnosed with more than one major mental disease over the years. These included, but were not limited to, the severe? Axis I? Psychiatrists and other medical doctors, as well as front-line workers, generally assume that each mental disorder has biological origins distinct from each other disorder. Therefore multiple diagnoses of this kind for one individual could 28 not be correct. Experienced advisors I consulted in the field responded to this observation in two ways.

Social workers blamed psychiatrists whom, they would say, see a client for 15 minutes once a month in order to write a prescription. They are prone to mistakes because they simply do not care enough, or take enough time to do a proper diagnosis. Furthermore, certain MDs prefer to prescribe certain medications. They may be acting on quotas from pharmaceutical distributors and, in some cases pursuing rewards or kickbacks cash bonuses or special reward packages, including flights to exotic locations for informational seminars about the product, for instance.

They may invert the order, making a diagnosis based on which meds would be indicated for treatment. In short the fluctuating histories of diagnosis may depend on indifference, etiological prejudices, or pharmaceutical trends. Psychiatrists, on the other hand, would blame social workers and cite a sort of slop in the system. Their understanding was that the system was overburdened and understaffed with poorly trained personnel.

The prison industrial complex, psychiatric inpatient and community based programs, and homeless shelters, were connected by revolving doors. No one questioned the existence of the diseases, or the diagnostic system itself. Some assumed ineptitude on the part of under-qualified, or neurotic front-line staff who had risen from the ranks of the population under treatment. Others would cite inadequate funding and systemic mismanagement of programs by city, state and federal authorities; and they reasoned that if there was more money, then there would be adequate services.

I was not satisfied with any of these explanations. I was hearing something like an echo of observations made in D. To carry out that famous study, 8 researchers 29 posed as mental patients and gained admission to psychiatric hospitals by falsely reporting experiences that assessors interpreted as signs of psychosis. After admission research participants proceeded to behave as normally as they could.

Their length of stay ranged 7 to 52 days, and the average stay was 19 days. Although some of the real patients in the settings recognized and called out some of the researchers, none of the clinical staff ever detected the pseudo patients. The researchers found that once a mental health patient was admitted to a locked inpatient facility and given a diagnosis, clinicians interpreted all of the client?

Furthermore, when pseudo patients approached clinicians with normal questions such as:? When am I likely to be discharged?? Rosenhan also found that psychiatrists in the study tended to presuppose patient? The findings of the study shook the status-quo of clinical practice and observers were left with the question,? Hock, p. The combination of the prejudice of assessors, the diagnostic trends that are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry, and blind faith in the assessment instruments, gave rise to a dogmatic belief system.

Behind the revolving doors, the multiple diagnoses, and the class-like antagonisms between social workers, nurses, and psychiatrist is a complex set of assumptions.

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