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An investigation that would show how they have developed all the way from Garrick to the 21 st century, that would reveal their educational and social importance, and that would offer further details and evidence of their history in order to preserve the memory, the work and the theatrical practices of our times for the future.

Starting with definitions of culture, I demonstrated how they can vary from a broad anthropological perception, to political discussions, and to debates on value and hierarchy in society. For the purposes of this research, I focused rather on artistic expressions of culture, and more specifically, drama.

Secondly, I discussed some of the most common definitions of popular culture including traditional views based on festivity and communal practices as being culture of the people, perceptions focused on the composition of the audience i. Such cultural expressions have been seen in my work as a site of negotiation and assertion of identities — these being the positions relevant in the analysis of the specific objects of this research, namely Shakespeare Festivals and the production of a Brazilian version of Romeo and Juliet.

It is thus only in the second chapter that I approached this cultural phenomenon which helped popularize Shakespeare in different parts of the world. Combined together, these elements generally work for the demystification of Shakespeare as exclusively owned by the expensive indoor circuit and for the construction or affirmation of communal values, while offering social inclusion and meeting a general wishful longing for a mythical, glorious past.

In need of possibilities of cohesion, the participants seek an opportunity to reaffirm their roots and collective memory. The bridge created in these events closes the gap between the present times and some lost utopian past for which Shakespeare persistently stands. However, this use of Shakespeare as a symbolic alternative to the alienation and fragmentation of postmodern life may at times insert the playwright into the very process of reproduction and commodification characteristic of the context from which he seems to secure escape.

To situate their production in a national framework, I first presented the post-colonial context in which Brazil is placed, including some historical, social and cultural contextualization. As with most countries in this position, issues of national identity are complicated by the anxiety generated from their colonized status, always in a complex relationship with foreign influence. Interestingly enough, Gabriel Villela chose to focus on the wandering troupe style one of the most marginal theatre forms in Brazil for this production of Romeo and Juliet , resorting to a rudimentary theatrical language that allowed the classic work to speak to the diverse audience found in the street, often caught unadvised.

Their strategy allowed an approximation between the place and time from which the text was enunciated and the contemporary context of their target audience. The comic approach, the circus elements, the popular and contemporary references to daily life and even the car on the stage, surprisingly, do not converge in estrangement, but identification by the spectators. The detachment provoked by the fact that what the spectators see stems from a foreign work cause them to analyse and accept it while recognising themselves in national elements.

It is through productions such as Romeu e Julieta that theatre can voice popular dissatisfaction with the alienation of post-modern life and lead to more political and progressive attitudes. Available at www. Culture and Anarchy. London: CUP, III, Rabelais and his World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead, Richard Nice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, Belo Horizonte: Argumentum, Grupo Galpao. Diario de Montagem. Livro 1. Grupo Galpao, 15 Anos de Risco e Rito.

Belo Horizonte, Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, What is Cultural History? BURT, Richard. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Paris: Gallimand, The Great Shakespeare Jubilee. MA Thesis. Cambridge: CUP, ERNE, Lukas. Shakespeare as Literary Dramatist. Cambridge: CUP, ; paperback ed. London: Routledge, Oxford: Dugdale Society, Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Toronto, Toronto, Shakespeare and ElizabethanPopular Culture.

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London: Arden Shakespeare, London: The Globe, July 3, Shakespeare no Brasil. Shakespeare Festivals around the World. USA: Xlibris, GURR, Andrew.

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Cambridge: CUP, 2 nd ed. HALL, Stuart. John Storey ed. Cambridge: Harvester Wheatsheaf, In Identity:Community, Culture, Difference. Johnathan Rutherford, ed. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, Robert Shaughnessy ed.

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Cambridge: CUP, , pp. Performance, translation and Adaptation in Britain and Abroad. The Shakespeare Myth Cultural Politics. Manchester: MUP, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, The Modern Girl: Childhood and Growing up. KANT, Immanuel. Critique of Judgement.

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James Creed Meredith trans. Oxford: OUP, Ode on a Grecian Urn. In English Romantic Poetry: an Anthology. Stanley Appelbaum ed. New York: Dover Publications, Inc, Shakespeare and Modern Popular Culture. New York: OUP, Elizabethan seasonal entertainment and the professional stage. Mass Civilisation and Minority Culture. Cambridge: Minority Press, Fiction and the Reading Public. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, In The Shakespeare Myth.

Holderness, Graham. In Rosenberg, B. Mass Culture: The popular arts in America. New York: Macmillan, Rio de Janeiro: Abril, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Uma Historia de encontros. Understains: sense and seduction of advertising. London: Comedia Publishing Group, Cronistas do Descobrimento. Paris: Dunod, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, The Oxford Book of English Verse: — The Shakespeare Thefts. Foreign Accents. Brazilian Reading Of Shakespeare. Newark: University of Delaware Press, Shakespeare Australia.

Melbourne, November Cultural theory and popular culture. A Reader. Hertfordshire: Harvester Wheatsheaf, An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture. London and New York: Routledge, Edited by James T. Grupo Galpao em Londres. Romeu e Julieta. Shakespeare Globe Theatre, London, May WARD, Russel.

Melbourne: OUP, Excerpts from Chapter 3, pp. Culture and Society. New York: Columbia University Press, Online Sources: Availabe at www. Encyclopaedia Britannica: Library edition. Herald Sun. Oxford Dictionary of National Bibliography. Online edition. January Oxford English Dictionary. Online version January Super Interessante.

The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. Originally published in Wikipedia - English. Do you feel like you have been "trained" to think Shakespeare is an imperative part of school education? The narrator. Minack Theatre. And I think it's a problem, this access to quality culture. And Brazilian culture is very lively; it has this thing of the cultural mix, many elements of black culture, European, Indigenous. It is a cosmopolitan country in that sense; it seems to me that it is the case in England today as well.

I find it interesting that this festival shows a bit how England can - I think, it is not something that I have fully formed an opinion about - but I think that it is one of the countries in Europe that has got more this mix of cultures, for example, more than France, which has the tricky thing with the Arabs, Muslims, a somewhat conflicted relationship.

And I think it is a very strong element of Brazil. This is obviously associated with education. There is, of course, high culture is valued, popular culture is often seen as something very exotic, which is then acceptable for its exoticism and not the intrinsic value it has. I think Europeans themselves behave like that in relation to the rest of the world and especially to Brazil, they see all that we do as something exotic, it's funny, interesting, but nothing more than something exotic.

I think there is this hierarchy of value. The group's work is in part to destroy this hierarchy a little, taking a symbol of high culture as Shakespeare and turning it into something accessible and popular? Today Shakespeare became an industry, has it changed in recent years? Does he belong to popular culture classical, popular, a little of everything? He managed to build works that, for example, were very suitable for cinema, appropriated by popular culture, erudite, academic Of course, for example, in Brazil, also because of an issue of translation, Shakespeare remained fairly inaccessible, difficult.

Sometimes there is a great barrier in terms of translations, which somehow turned Shakespeare into something very scholarly, inaccessible, poetic. For example, when we started to work with Romeo and Juliet, we were advised by the work of great directors like Peter Brook, and the question was how could our bodies not say that poetry, but live it? It was a great challenge. And the way we found was through the body. The fact of having used the translation of Pennaforte makes sense within this baroque construction. Of course, everything has to be said very clearly, but besides being Baroque, it is the best translation of Romeo and Juliet until today.

It is very intelligent, poetic, it goes deep in the Brazilian, in the Portuguese language But that's another thing I find interesting related to what Peter Brook said, that in today's world, the place that can better reproduce the atmosphere of the Elizabethan theatre, is the street. It is very important that people see it, and that art go to the street, that it is not enclosed in these playhouses, which are expensive, where people do not feel empowered, that it is not their place. Here in Europe, this problem is much smaller. In Brazil, they think that the theatre is not their place.

Because in the beginning, for the company, street theatre was very important and over time the group went through phases of development of other languages, with performances in conventional theatre as well. Even inside the auditorium, are these street features part of the base of the show?

Even if the younger ones do not know them, had no direct contact, it was through parents, grandparents, tradition; it touches something very deep in their culture, which sometimes people do not realize. The contrast of these two nostalgias is very interesting and I think it is present in this new re-production of the play. They have an obsession, love, respect for the theatre that is really beautiful, the way they respect it, standing for hours, watching in silence, in the rain. I think no other people in the world have such reverence for the theatre as the English do.

Now, of course in Brazil, you will hit the street, it is a much messier, more heterogeneous, dispersed, there is a disrespect, but that is also respectful, a more lively audience, who do not exactly know the conventions of theatre, but who are also touched by the theatre, without having asked to be there. And it happens in a very vital way when you do not know the conventions and you suddenly enter the theatre and become part of the game.

Of course it is much more disorganized, but it is also good. But Europe in general has a different level of attention to culture, respect, and knowledge; it is very different. Is it a way of bringing art to the streets, or a way for the government of locking up, institutionalizing something that you tried to deinstitutionalize? For me it was amazing to see the performances of others here at the Globe, I saw Serbia, Belarus; you see Shakespeare, but you see the spirit of that people, it is different, even without understanding anything.

I think it's a great legacy as an exchange, training, and as popularization, bringing art to the street, to the theatre, calling people to watch. In the case of Greek tragedy, yes. But Shakespeare always has this mixture, all his works, as in Hamlet, have many funny scenes, there is always humour. An intentional choice as a symbol of high culture, or because of the strength of the story? Shakespeare is the greatest dramatist.

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Frevo Dance. Scholars in this line focus on interdisciplinary investigations of cultural phenomena in different groups or societies. Leavis, Fiction and the Reading Public and F. Leavis, Mass Civilisation and Minority Culture The Herald Sun, October 21, Stuart Canterbury, , a pornographic version of Macbeth. The novels present the comic and satiric story of the giant Gargantua and his son Pantagruel, and various companions, whose travels and adventures are a vehicle for ridicule of the follies and superstitions of the times.

Entry: Gargantua and Pantagruel. Entry: Carnival.

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During his reign, which lasted anywhere from 12 days to 3 months, the Lord of Misrule was responsible for arranging and directing all Christmas entertainment, including elaborate masques and processions, plays, and feasts. Entry: Lord of Misrule. Cited and discussed in Laroque What we did was Carnival. Here it follows a mention to the Catholic religion imposition in the country by the Portuguese. It is especially meaningful as carnival is considered a profane practice. See chapter 2. Without Caesar. Entry: Totem. Thus called because of its intense mining activity beginning in the 17 th century.

Throughout the show, the actors smell, look, lick, listen and touch each other, while encouraging the audience to do the same with their neighbours. Comedy works, then, as a therapy, minimizing the hypocritical intellectual defenses, and the colloquial register is adopted to facilitate self-analysis by the audience.

Lond:Bohn Lewis, H. Ryde and C. Paris: Floury Folio, blue pict. An especially nice copy of a book generally found in Paris: Tolmer []. There are 20 mounted color plates Every page has striking art deco color illustrations by Helle to accompany musical Beautifully illustrated in color on nearly every page in Helle's distinctive 's style. Printed on good quality, heavy paper Beautifully illustrated in color on nearly every page in Helle's distinctive Paris: Emile- Paul NY: Franklin Watts Concise text and beautiful color lithographs on every page that are more reminiscent of the 's than of the 's.

See Illus. A well The story of a little Native American Indian boy, illus. JOB illus. Each page of text faces a most elaborate and colorful full Paris: Boivin , not 1st. French history for children is presented with toys portraying historical figures. Each page of text faces a most elaborate and colorful full page Henry May, [].

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The text is a detailed history of Paris: Hachette []. The text describes the life and conquests of Joachim Murat, a Marshall in Napoleon's army and also Napoleon's brother in law he married Caroline, one Paris: Callman Levy Illustrated on every page with beautiful color lithographs by Legrand. Artfully done and quite uncommon.

Vienne: Chex Jean-Thomas de Trattnern Illustrated with more than very fine engravings. NY: LEC Folio, wraps, fine in cloth and leather slipcase. Written by Ionesco and illustrated by him with 4 striking and primitive color lithographs. Magnificently illustrated 32 full page color illustrations and many in-text color Paris: Hachette, no date, circa Racine: Whitman Folio, cloth backed pictorial boards, several dedication signatures on endpaper plain endpapers some edge rubbing else near fine in dust wrapper dw soiled.

Whitman: Racine Paris: Marcus Featuring the most absolutely stunning full page color illustrations by Magnificently illustrated in bright colors with 32 full page color illustrations and many smaller Illustrated by Lorioux with 30 full page striking full color illustrations plus smaller 2-color illustrations in borders. A wonderful edition of a classic. The story of Reynard the fox is illustrated by Lorioux with 12 wonderful color plates and a profusion of silhouettes throughout NY: Macmillan Boards faded some else fine in slightly worn dust wrapper.

The book consists of 5 fairy tales arranged and edited by Rachel Field MARS illus. London: George Routlesge and Sons, no date, circa Every page is full of charming color illustrations showing children with a variety of London: William Heinemann NY: Henry Holt The Fatapoufs are fat people who enjoy eating as a major sport. The scowling Thinifers are the opposite. This is the fantasy tale This is the Offered here are two of the illustrator's dummies for this book published in by Scribner.

The story itself is a strange tale based upon an old French legend about three children who bring a frozen man into their home to thaw out No date, circa Each panel features very fine and detailed chromolithographs of Each panel features very fine and detailed chromolithographs of the members Each panel features very fine and detailed chromolithographs of French soldiers Paris: Tolmer The story was handed down through generations and finally came into print with this volume by Tolmer.

Charming folk-peasant style color illustrations by Russian born artist Serge Wischnevsky bring alive Each page features large and detailed Little luggage, a few boxes, are the precondition for tranquillity and even safety Lottin de Laval By concentrating on the context in which these reports were produced, historiography has tended to ignore the history of the practices leading to the formation of modern archaeology, allocating these practical dimensions a central role - proximate to that of history - in the construction of hegemonic discourses and legitimacies.

It is precisely because of this emphasis on 'ideological distortions' that historiography has tended to overlook the historical processes involved in defining the criteria and techniques used to determine what could be accepted as reliable material evidence of past events. The national and international networks used for exchanging objects and information were a fundamental element in this process. The process involved in the appearance of these scientific objects closely matches the emergence and consolidation of 19 th century trade goods.

As the American explorer John Lloyd Stephens wrote : "Like other articles of trade, they old cities are regulated by the quantity in the market, and the demand; but not being staple articles, like cotton or indigo, they were held at fancy prices, and at that time were dull of sale. And just as the Patagonian fossils were exported along the routes and infrastructure used by the wool trade Podgorny , the Central American ruins followed the paths established by the commerce in indigo, cochineal, timber and livestock cf.

Wortman From its outset the emergent discipline faced a particular problem: how to transport essentially 'immovable' objects - the ruins - to the space of the cities and their scientific circles. Another related issue was how to move the relics without obliterating their meaning or their use value as scientific evidence. This preoccupation helps explain Flinders Petrie's comment from when he suggests that archaeology's purpose is to produce 'portable antiquities:' in other words, plans, photographs and drawings capable of connecting the objects to their place of origin Petrie This idea reflects another defining feature of modern science: the emergence of 'immutable mobiles' that enable the transfer of information between the spaces of the field and the cabinet Latour However, as I argue in this article, the acceptance of these transportable objects as an immutable element that truly represented the 'real thing' was far from being straightforward.

This process of transporting the ruins to the cabinet in a physical condition as similar as possible to that encountered in the field depended on the creation of new technical procedures, but also on the use of pre-existing technological capacities. In those regions favoured by scientific explorations, the 'field' was dominated by communication and transportation technologies powered by water and wind canoes, small boats , animal-drawn vehicles mules, carts, elephants, camels, boats and, in some communication nodes, by paper correspondence , steam power steamboats, railways and human brute force.

These technologies lived alongside what Peter Hugill , inspired by Harold Innis and Lewis Mumford, identifies as the dawn of the 'neo-technological era:' the technology of electronic communications, whose first breakthroughs date from the mid s. This neo-technological era was characterized by the new transportation techniques enabled by electrical energy, the idea of individual mobility and the internal combustion engine: that is, the tram, the bicycle and the automobile, which became prevalent in urban areas from the s onwards.

One could say that the exploratory journeys of the 19 th century involved the use of transportation networks based on technologies that the middle and upper social classes of modern cities were already gradually abandoning. Focusing on the case of the archaeological exploration of Palenque after Mexican and Central American independence, this article analyzes how the 'Stone Houses' discovered in the jungle of Chiapas at the end of the 18 th century became a scientific entity.

In the first part, I discuss the general problems involved in the transportation of the ruins and some of the means created and employed by travellers to ensure that these objects could appear before the eyes of those wishing to observe them in their real dimensions. In this section, I describe the means of transportation and technologies available at the time. In the second part, I turn to the race between English, American and French explorers to obtain a reliable description of Palenque.

The text focuses in particular on the reports written by Francesco Corroy, a French doctor living in Tabasco and a correspondent for various learned societies, taking his correspondence as our guiding thread for analyzing the exploration of the ruins. Lacking the picturesqueness of Waldeck, Stephens and Charnay - the explorers most celebrated by historiography - the little known figure of Corroy nevertheless sheds a clearer light on the material history behind the eventual recognition of Palenque in the s.

Transportation of ruins. Using the modelling techniques invented by the latter, Charnay had succeeded in copying one hundred square metres of inscriptions from the ruins of Palenque in very unfavourable circumstances. Hinsley , Barthe Due to the Napoleonic intervention and the downfall of the Spanish Empire, some of these reports and illustrations remained 'forgotten' in the archives of the colonial administration, only to be later exhumed and published in Europe following the intercession of foreign consuls, merchants and travellers. This provoked a kind of fever - lasting many years - among the antiquarian and geographic societies of the Old Continent, eager to find out what had become of these ruins, last seen in the previous century and buried in the archives of a now disintegrated empire.

Palenque spurred endless debates on the origin of American peoples, the architectonic order of these ancient cities and the European or Asiatic provenance of their unknown builders cf. Neither the chronicles of the Spanish conquistadores or the testimony of the nineteenth century Indians were sufficient to understand or decipher these signs from the remote past.

The enigmas generated were such that the Parisian Geographic Society set a reward of 2, francs for anyone producing a reliable description of the ruins cf. The expeditions of C. The trade competition between Britain, the United States and France to impose their products and control the region's ports, was compounded by the series of independentist and interventionist political experiments in the region, frequently riven by civil war and the so-called 'caste war.

The itineraries used to reach the site and obtain a realistic and transportable description reveal the inter-relationship between travel, trade and the real possibility of creating a scientific object. Transporting ruins to the museums entailed a series of complications. On one hand was their apparently immobile nature, which, in the case of the pre-Colombian cities, made them almost mountain-like in their immutability.

Fragmenting the steles, smashing the walls and mutilating the statues were seen as viable alternatives only when sufficient funds were available to pay for the work of the labourers and move the pieces to a populated centre, leaving aside the obstacles posed by the road infrastructure. Consequently, although the pieces could reach the ports, they could still run into municipal regulations or the rulings of a judge disposed to enforce the nation's rights of ownership over the interests of science.

The invention of the daguerreotype in and the later introduction of photographic technology into archaeological explorations were very far from providing a solution to this problem. The chemical substances and glass plate negatives - aside from being fragile - were a much more difficult cargo to carry than the ruins themselves. Charnay, for instance, needed to transport more than kg to photograph the ruins of the ancient Mexican cities cf. Charnay I-II justified the increased weight load as follows:. Surprised by the incomplete manner with which certain travellers had approached this important topic, it seemed to me that within such a vast oeuvre of text and engravings, everything had to be redone.

Believing that the public indifference towards such an original civilization stemmed from the uncertainties obscuring it, I wanted to make sure nobody could doubt the accurateness of my work and so I turned to photography as a form of testimony. For Charnay, this photographic testimony - an embodiment of objectivity - would corroborate that the objects seen by the traveller's eye had passed onto paper and glass without the mediations of the pencil and the iconographic traditions that skewed the designs.

Palenque, though, remained hidden. Moreover, in the s, before photographic techniques were perfected, the images were frequently distorted by framing and lighting, complicating factors which altered the 'real' object. Travellers preferred to make use of the 'camera lucida' as a way of obtaining greater precision in terms of proportion and details. Despite being relatively dependable for taking portraits, daguerreotype cameras created distortions that curbed any enthusiasm concerning the possibility of a mechanical and rapid reproduction of these non-transportable objects.

Stephens , p. At times the projecting cornices and ornaments threw parts of the subject in shade, while others were in broad sunshine; so that, while parts were brought out well, other parts required pencil drawings to supply their defects. They gave a general idea of the character of the building, but would not do to put into the hands of the engraver without copying the views on paper, and introducing the defective parts, which would require more labour than that of making at once complete original drawings.

Nor were the plans, drawings and transcription of the inscriptions perceived to be a neutral medium, capable of transposing the solidity of the monuments to the lightness of paper. Aside from the time consumed and the need to rely on experts to produce plans and sketches, copying the inscriptions of the monuments from barbarian antiquity sensu Burke involved the pitfalls entailed by the sheer foreignness of the images to be reproduced.

An example was the controversial case of Waldeck Brasseur de Bourbourg, n. Despite his considerable experience of the barbarian antiquity of the Old World, Catherwood's pencil would become paralyzed for days when faced with the complexity of the Mayan glyphs. Far from being a mechanical process, the art of sketching and copying the ruins onto paper was contaminated by associations with the known world. Indeed European learned society acknowledged this problem when they observed that the illustrations produced by these authors were distorted by subjectivity and their own representational traditions, obscuring their relation to an object that, retaining its imprecise nature, failed to attain the status of a real entity.

Since Lottin de Laval had headed a series of archaeological expeditions in Europe and Asia, commissioned by the French government to study the ruins of Armenia, Assyria and Baghdad. His manual, he claimed, would solve the quadruple problem involved in making and transporting the casts: namely, ensuring the precision, solidity, lightness and speed needed to produce castings in a limited time span.

Moreover, by using sesame oil or mutton fat, the cast could be rendered completely impermeable, a crucial factor in avoiding rain damage. Using this technique, which he called - somewhat immodestly - 'lottinoplastique,' one could reproduce everything from the surfaces of monuments to complex large-scale cuneiform inscriptions, solving the problems caused by the imprecision of hand-sketched copies. Using substances and elements readily available anywhere in the world - paper, gelatine, oils and fire - casts of an extraordinary lightness could be produced within a few days.

This made it possible to transport more than 10, square feet of monuments in a container measuring 1. Lottin de Laval celebrated this momentous event in the history of art and science in the following manner: "I could already bring back, from the ends of the world, in a crate from my cantines, an immense series of monuments, which could then be reproduced by me in Paris in plaster, in Roman concrete and finally in zinc and bronze. A simple crate - just like the one desired by Charnay - was large enough to store the most colossal monuments from the remotest corners of the Earth.

The only precautions indicated by the author were the need to find good quality paper to produce the casts and a label stating the origin and nature of the latter in order to avoid confusing monuments from different peoples placed in the same crate. This technique would, the author argued, provide an economic solution to the study of distant antiquities, making the dispatch of artists superfluous and rendering the logistic support of the State or private patrons unnecessary.

However, Lottin de Laval's invention was not as well received as expected. To begin with, it was valued at 1, francs, a price that he considered derisory given the advantages it would bring and which was effectively below the reward offered for obtaining images of Palenque. Lottin de Laval observed that moving a ruin inevitably meant mutilating the monuments and thus replicating the kind of damage inflicted by barbarism. The facsimiles, obtained through a 'faithful and perfect' procedure, would enable the monument to be transported in a form that respected the integrity of its actual state and ensured that their authors remained within the boundaries of civilized behaviour.

Lottin de Laval compared the time and resources saved: the work he had undertaken alone, some eighteen hours per day for ten days and using only two hundred francs worth of materials, would have been equivalent - using normal casting procedures - to employing about ten sculptors for twenty years, transporting the casts in thousands of crates and employing an army of camels to carry them to the shores of the Nile, from there dispatching the cargo to France in a fleet of ships. But the scale of these advantages generated doubts over the very plausibility of reproducing and transporting the monuments and bas-reliefs in one relatively small crate loaded on the back of a camel.

The suspicion of fraud meant that the invention was ignored and the casts assumed to be merely the product of the creative skill of Lottin de Laval's atelier in France. Indeed fake objects flooded the 19 th century antiquities market and undoubtedly aroused people's suspicions cf. Angrand []; Pradenne But aside from the phenomenon of falsification, the envy provoked by the inventor and the increasing adoption of photography, another factor almost certainly had an impact, arising from the same rhetoric as Lottin de Laval's and running against the grain of all the exploration reports: from Humboldt to Livingstone, a serious expedition implied enormous expenses and equivalent quantities of animals and transportation equipment.

Lottin's insistence on the fact that he had transported his casts on a single camel contrasted with the extravagance displayed made by Charnay and other explorers of America, including the paradigmatic case of Humboldt, who crossed the Quindiu mountain range in New Granada with a dozen oxen loaded with his equipment and a collection of objects that grew endlessly in weight and volume Humboldt The opposite cases were abundant: the model explorations of the Portuguese Serpa Pinto took seventeen cases and a tea service.

Stanley left for Lake Victoria with 18, pounds of equipment divided among sixty pack animals and three hundred porters. Stephens, describing the incidents befalling him in Central America, unashamedly mentions the mishaps suffered by his teapot.

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  4. The list of objects recommended for the camp and as protection for the travellers from rats, snakes, ants, damp and mosquitoes, which includedbraziers, linen, cotton, silk or wool clothing to protect oneself from the sun and temperature variations, enable transpiration and avoid stings and bites, footwear, helmets and parasols, guns, food and drinks, all made Lottin de Laval appear to be a charlatan who had never left the cabinet where he had sketched his Asian statutes.

    The lightness of the French inventor's proposal and the possibility of dispensing with large caravans revealed the forms of transportation available to the traveller and the conditions of absolute dependency generated on local resources and inhabitants, not always resolvable with money. The need to rely on the pack animals found on each continent - a resource unfamiliar to the travellers - led to painstaking studies on the walking speed that each type of animal would impose on the caravans, their loading capacity and the advantages for the explorer.

    Thus African elephants, each capable of carrying about kg, could create more problems than donkeys and mules, more familiar to the traveller and much easier to manoeuvre cf. In comparison, donkeys and camels could support around 80kg, while the weight indicated for a human porter was no more than 30kg. In the Americas, overland transportation consisted of mules, oxen, various types of carriages and porters. Using porters transporting a load or a person on a man's back was commonplace in various mountainous zones of America, a means of transport similar to the palanquin, kitannda and hammock of Africa and Asia.

    Transportation by chair - a cane structure tied to the back and held balanced by a device suspended in front of the porter - condensed all the conflicts that surfaced between the traveller and the local environment. Making use of human brute force generated egalitarian feelings but also fear and a complete dependency on the porter's body.