- Action items
- Dictionary Navigation
- Spirit – Science – Society: Sources versus sorcerers – Quellentipps
Forum zum Thema Schwangerschaft. Willkommen im Wanderland Schweiz Wirtschaft Wissenschaft. Jedenfalls ist es in der Lage, Schweizer Dialekte mit hoher Treffsicherheit zu identifizieren. Es ist nicht notwendig, alle Begriffe zu untersuchen. Dennoch: je mehr Angaben Sie machen, desto genauer wird die Analyse sein. Oder: Sollte man als Deutscher in der Schweiz anfangen Schweizerdeutsch zu lernen? Sind Sie auch manchmal galt oder rindrig? Sexuologie e.
CH Swisswalking. CH Walking-Technik Ryffel. CH AG. BE Virtueller Zytglogge-Turm. Auf der Webseite www. Besonders interessant ist der virtuelle Rundgang mit Fotos von jedem Stockwerk des Turms. TI WalkingTicino. Webcams Swiss-Webcams. Weltzeit Weltzeit: Die Uhrzeit auf der gesamten Welt. Die Krise hat zwei Ursachen: 1. Bodenspekulation und 2.
CH Was ist Zen? Fast scheint es so. Noch anschauen und verteilen!!!!!!!!! Weitere Links Sammelsurium : Heilpraktikerschule Luzern: www.theranchhands.com/images/other/il-lungo-inverno-di-spitak-italian-edition.php
Alle auf dieser Website genannten Produktnamen, Produktbezeichnungen und Logos sind eingetragene Warenzeichen und Eigentum der jeweiligen Rechteinhaber. Medscape: www. Completeness, exhaustiveness and coherence are specific attributes, because a dictionary should be more than an incomplete list of words, and more than a database of lexical units. The criteria for evaluating the quality of the macrostructure should be the same as those for printed dictionaries.
Excluding some commendable exceptions as www. However, a combined system has been proposed, cf. The absence of space restrictions is one of the major advantages of online dictionaries. The various indications of each article must be conditioned by the general characteristics of the dictionary. The presence of definition, phonetic information, synonyms, grammatical information, examples, etc.
Therefore the absence of space restrictions must not be a reason to include indiscriminate information and, at the same time, it is important to make better use of space. Differences in the morphology of information are the most important changes, because multimedia resources allow the introduction of image, sound and video in dictionary entries. A good online iconic structure should include such multimedia resources, but unfortunately this is not very usual in current online bilingual dictionaries. Besides their ornamental value, multimedia resources should be considered appropriate information.
At the moment, only images are used as a resource cf. Thus far I have outlined the main lexicographical features of online bilingual dictionaries. But just as important are the specific online requirements of such dictionaries, precisely because they are products used in an Internet environment. Amongst them, I would like to emphasize usability, updating, degree of digitization, and permeability. Reliability of online bilingual dictionaries 3 Specific online requirements 3. Usability is the quality of a system that makes it easy to find, easy to learn, and easy to remember.
Lack of usability can cost time and effort, and can greatly determine the failure of a system. Given a choice, people will tend to buy user-friendly systems. Online usable bilingual dictionaries must provide several alternatives to the users, and they must do so relying on visual content; they must use markup and style sheets, and do so properly; they must use natural language; they must provide contextual and orientational information; they must provide clear navigation mechanisms; and, of course, they must ensure that the lexicographical information is clear and simple If we consider stability, it is obvious that printed dictionaries exist; they may be found and purchased, and nobody questions their existence.
In contrast, the existence of online dictionaries is ephemeral, and minor errors may render them impracticable. Permanence may be one of the big inconveniences of online bilingual dictionaries, because of the potential daily changes of digital context. If an online dictionary is created as an open-ended product, some explicit marks of updating should be visible, because information is offered almost in real time. Last updated, or simply updated, are some of the most used references, but other formulations are also possible: year of creation — current year; indication of update frequency, etc.
Online bilingual dictionaries with a printed version are more stable than true online bilingual ones. For this reason, updating is more important in more unstable dictionaries. Even though updating is a factor that favors reliability, most online bilingual dictionaries do not display this information. Some commendable exceptions are www. But unfortunately not all online bilingual dictionaries are really designed as online products.
Most of them are digitized printed products, or just transformed Word documents, without any consideration for digital resources and possibilities. As a quality standard of online bilingual dictionaries, proper digitization is required. Such dictionaries must allow interaction with consumers and provide some system to invite users to participate, but at the same time they have to establish filters to avoid indiscriminate addition of data a good example of interaction is www.
Factors such as web page origin, user type, adaptation to lexicographical functions, data-accessing system, lexicographical structures, updating or interaction, are also important points to take into account in order to establish criteria for evaluation of online lexicographical products.
This paper has focused on online English-Spanish dictionaries and has presented some factors for determining the reliability of such products. The reliability of online bilingual dictionaries is seen to be based on various aspects. In particular, an online bilingual dictionary must have a real and public author; it must be oriented to the main addressee or user; it must be designed according to its lexicographical function and main objectives; it must be adequately organized with regard to hyperstructure, access structure, macrostructure, microstructure and iconic structure.
At the same time, a good online bilingual dictionary should be usable, updated, hypertextual and should offer some degree of interaction. Reliability of online bilingual dictionaries The panorama of existing online bilingual English-Spanish dictionaries is large and, in some cases, very satisfactory. Other lexicographical products, however, are in need of modification.
I hope I have suggested ways to improve these products. Notes 1. An explicit reference should be enough, as is the case with www. Some examples can be found: www. See also the www. See, for instance, www. Some examples not excellent may be found in www. A good example of a search option system is www. Medina Guerra ed. Barcelona: Ariel. Berlin-New York: De Gruyter.
- The Freedom In Surrender: A College Master / slave Romance.
- Geschichte – Geist – Gemeinwohl?
- Mortis Unbound (Vox Cycle Book 1)?
- WIKIPEDIA - keine Quelle für Belege - Language lab: English ⇔ German Forums - hujekarezubo.ga!
Manual of Lexicography. This contribution deals with the grammatical data in this dictionary; it is not only described how these are arranged content-wise depending on corpus data, but also how they were modelled. Dieses soll im Internet publiziert werden, wobei schon in der Lemmaliste online recherchiert werden kann, die Diese sind im Vergleich zur traditionellen Lexikografie umfangreicher.
Damit kommt das Projekt einer Forderung der Metalexikografie nach, die u. Dabei handelt es sich um ein komplexes Werkzeug zur Strukturierung von Massendaten, das zu vielen verschiedenen Zwecken eingesetzt werden kann, z. Chapter 2. Grammatische Angaben in elexiko und ihre Modellierung Abbildung 1.
Als Beispiel sollen hier die Funktionen des Adjektivs tipptopp im Satz untersucht werden. Abbildung 1. Systematisch wird beispielsweise im elexiko-Artikel nicht nur die Wortart angegeben, sondern es werden auch das syntaktische Verhalten bestimmter Wortarten, Valenzeigenschaften bestimmter Wortarten oder morphologische Charakteristika erfasst.
Die DTD wurde z. Abbildung 2. So beziehen sich unsere grammatischen Angaben explizit auf ein bestimmtes Grammatikmodell mit bestimmten Beschreibungskategorien vgl. Besonders zwei Konfliktgebiete vgl. So wird traditionell, und auch in Zifonun et al. Abbildung 3. The problem is primarily one of interpretation: is the absence of an inflectional form an indication that it does not exist, or is it an indication that the corpus is simply not large enough?
Abbildung 4. Somit ist im elexiko-Korpus diese finite Form des Flexionsparadigmas von weben nicht belegt. Die Struktur von Verbartikeln in elexiko sieht aber vor, dass mehrere finite Formen verzeichnet werden, und zwar immer die 3. Abbildung 5. Es geht demnach hier mehr um die texttechnologischen Aspekte von elexiko.
Denn das Zusammenwirken von Lexikografie und automatischer Sprachverarbeitung kann sehr konstruktiv sein. NLP needs dictionaries, und dictionary-makers can use NLP to make better dictionaries, so there is a great potential for synergy between the two activities. Kilgarriff Auf das genaue Zusammenwirken kann in diesem Zusammenhang nicht weiter eingegangen werden. A fundamental concept in the use of generic markup languages is a move from formatting markup to content markup. Daher muss genauer spezifiziert werden, wie die Modellierung erfolgen soll.
Modellierungskonzepte unterscheiden sich von ihrer Intention her u. Die Auszeichnung der lexikografischen Daten ist damit sehr granular, wodurch sie flexibel und gezielt zugreifbar werden. Abbildung 6. Die Angaben zu einem ewl-artikel, d. In elexiko wird auch die Grammatik lesartenbezogen angegeben; deshalb ist das Element ewl-grammatik unter den lesartenbezogenen Angaben angeordnet. In der Mitte sieht man den Artikel selbst, auch hier kann man Teile des Artikels ein- und ausblenden. Zur Valenz gibt es im Fall von international keine-angabe. Unter Syntax werden die im ersten Teil beschriebenen Angaben zum Geltungsbereich gegeben.
Mit dieser Auswahl sind die Angaben zum Geltungsbereich gemacht. Innerhalb dieser Angabe oder Angabegruppe gibt es allerdings ein Ausweichelement keine-angabe. Abbildung 7. Fehlermeldung beim Validieren des Artikels Chapter 2. Mit ihr lassen sich so genannte Stylesheets erstellen, in denen die Darstellung der Daten festgelegt wird.
Der Vorteil ist dabei, dass separat zu den eigentlichen Daten die Darstellung der Daten spezifiziert wird. Im Moment wird in elexiko nur ein Stylesheet verwendet, in dem die Darstellung aller Angaben im Artikel festgelegt wird. Belege werden hier nicht mit angeboten. Abbildung 8. Dies hat sich auch u. Doch das volle Potenzial der gezeigten Modellierung kann erst dann wirklich gezeigt werden, wenn man 1. Literatur Bergenholtz, Henning und Joachim Mugdan. In Studien zur neuhochdeutschen Lexikographie V, H.
Wiegand Hg. Bergenholtz, Henning und Joachim Mugdan. Storrer Hgg. Series Maior ], 7— In Symposium on Lexicography XI. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Lexicography. Zettersten Hgg. Series Maior ], — Geeb, Franziskus. Sprache und Datenverarbeitung 2 : 27— Gennusa, Pamela L. Anwendungen und Perspektiven, W. Schmidt Hgg. Heyn, Matthias.
Series Maior 45]. Kilgarriff, Adam. Klosa, Annette. Series Maior ], 93— Mugdan, Joachim. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Lexikographie. Zgusta Hgg. Berlin und New York: De Gruyter. Series Maior ], 29— Schryver, Gilles-Maurice de. Storrer, Angelika. Series Maior ], 53— Trap-Jensen, Lars. II, A. Povlsen Hgg. Kopenhagen: CST. Wiegand, Herbert Ernst. Mugdan Hgg. Series Maior 3], 20— Grammatik der deutschen Sprache.
Other boxes, menus, frames and flashcards are just embellishments of this fundamental standard interface scheme. Pronunciation in particular is graphically represented in but one century-old method: as a phonetic transcription field appearing or not right after the entry headword. In this paper I argue for the application to the representation of EFL electronic dictionary pronunciation of the new Java- and Flash-enabled animated GUIs based on concept-mapping techniques, recently proposed for database querying by various authors.
The benefits to learners include: a improved customizability, b explicit mapping of phonetic processes, relations and groupings homophony, allophony, similarity, minimal-pairs, assimilations, deletions, L1 substitutions, etc. Introduction Seen from the internet perspective, with all its vibrant cornucopia of lavishly colourful banners, dynamic animation, high-quality streaming video and multichannel MP3 stereo sound, electronic dictionaries must appear as a niche of primordial tranquillity and stability.
One would be hard-pressed to find a dictionary, either in the stationary CD-ROM-mounted format, or indeed in a web-based form, which would venture beyond the standard tradition-sanctioned graphical user interface GUI of two or three tiled panels with a the scrolling word-list, b the chosen entry, and c something extra, depending on the dictionary illustration, hit-list, exercise module, or the like. Figure 1. True enough, there is now sound of the recorded audio rendition of the looked-up word, to be retrieved by clicking on the word itself or the loudspeaker icon, as the case may be, but this lexico-phonetic mode of pronunciation representation in electronic dictionaries is outside of the scope of this paper, and will not be discussed further.
The static, essentially nineteenth century, view of dictionary contents, pronunciation in particular, presented to the user may surprise in the field of research and commerce which — out of all domains of widely conceived linguistics — is among the most innovative. Additionally, electronic dictionaries and word-lists are the very hub of many Natural Language Processing NLP applications, which are now Chapter 3.
Mind- and concept-mapping techniques, intelligent database and corpus querying, user-adaptive multimedia, distributed neural nets, 3D visualization modes, human-like animated interactive agents, automatic speech recognition ASR and text-to-speech synthesis TTS — these are but selected areas of potential relevance for designing electronic dictionary GUIs. The main advantages to the learner will be presented as well as some of the potential problems. Even afterwards data was normally displayed statically on the screen of the video display unit VDU of early computers.
Text could be scrolled in four directions, and some simple graphics could be obtained to render tables and graphs, for example see, e. Wong and Kuo , but truly dynamic animation only came with the demise of DOS and the advent of Windows. A number of ingenious and widely different database visualization techniques followed, including twoand three-dimensional, hierarchical e. With the growing need to visualize the content of the exploding internet about a decade ago the main thrust of research moved in this direction, with visualization engines now catering specifically for the fuzzy and noisy web data e.
Andrews , McKiernan and have many more examples and some discussion. All these developments have not gone completely unnoticed in the lexicographic circles. Sobkowiak for an extended discussion it is only to be expected that none of these projects applies the new visualization techniques to the representation of pronunciation.
Rather, they are all semantically oriented, with links, clusters and movement signaling meaning relations. Ignoring the rich structure of the underlying phonetic relations in a lexical database unfortunately has a long tradition, which I will not discuss here. In the following sections of the paper I argue that applying innovative GUI techniques to electronic dictionaries, and especially to representing pronunciation, can bring substantial advantages to learners. On a similarly approving tone, Oppentocht and Schutz notice in ! As has been rather forcefully argued in contemporary Chapter 3.
Pedagogy should ideally accommodate all these different variables in designing methods, techniques, syllabuses and resources to suit each particular learner. An ordinary dictionary is a representation of alphabetically listed word-chunk lexical idiosyncrasies. Even the revolutionary invention of hypertext has only expedited the look-up technique rather than changed the underlying lexicographic philosophy of one long word-list. On the other hand, innovative GUIs based on concept-mapping theories and techniques foreground structure, make relations explicit, visualize links and clusters, help in noticing and formulating regularities.
To what extent these new potentials are used will of course depend on the circumstances of the learning situation, but even in the most traditional glotto-pedagogical paradigm of grammar translation there might then be place for some learner-initiated data-driven vocabulary work or fun. This will only be possible, however, with dictionary GUIs which, at least to some extent, reflect the structure of the human mental lexicon, where the various lexical networks or fields are closely connected and form a kind of multi-dimensional word-web.
Within the human word-web, each word is linked to other words or groups of words in a variety of ways and can be retrieved from different starting points Abel and Weber Munzner , Munzner Chapter 3. For example, a multiply customizable, three-dimensional, fully multimedialized and animated interface carries with it the cost of complexity. One facet of this is screen clutter, a problem well-researched in the field of computer science and human-computer interaction, if less so in electronic metalexicography.
There are many solutions to screen clutter, of varying age and effectiveness. New search techniques must be elaborated once the familiar linear arrangements of data are abandoned I owe this note to the anonymous reviewer of this paper. How pronunciation is accessed in the dictionary should best be left to the user, to decide through a complex but friendly interface.
- Dictionary Navigation.
- El pasado llega de repente (Spanish Edition).
- Sins of the South: Big Secrets in a Small Town.
- About this book?
- Wo die Weichsel fließt (German Edition);
This interface should allow, or better still: stimulate, the learner to discover phonetic regularities as well as idiosyncrasies. Of course, it is not only assonances and rhythm that are at stake here. So has anyone developed a policy for indicating such pronunciation variation in their dictionary? In pronouncing dictionaries, such as the CEPD exemplified in Figure 1 above, one can at least expect a short note on usage, which is however as static as the rest of the entry.
It is perhaps not surprising that the aspect of FL pronunciation most in need of a dynamic, animated, innovative display is the broadly conceived prosody: segmental length, stress and rhythm, tone, intonation, fast speech reductions. This is where the traditional phonetic representation, carried over from paper dictionaries into the electronic realm, fails most miserably. The techniques of innovative GUIs discussed in this paper could help, with their animation, colour, hyperlinks, 3D views, drags-and-drops, and more, but are sadly unexplored and under-applied. Chapter 3. As a matter of fact, Semantica is not particularly well suited for the purpose; like many similar programs, it is heavily biased semantically, with no provision for font control, for example, which immediately excludes easy manipulation of phonetic transcription.
The aim of this exercise, however, is not to advertise this particular package, but rather to show what can be achieved phono-lexicographically with a simple off-the-shelf application. The actual implementation of these ideas in an electronic dictionary GUI is another matter altogether, of course, and should best be left to professional programmers. To fully demonstrate the functionalities of an innovative animated GUI would of course require an interactive presentation, which is not possible in this traditional medium of print one of the increasingly unbearable paradoxes of contemporary writing on multimedia.
The best that can be expected here, as opposed to the actual presentation in Copenhagen, is the demonstration and discussion of some screen shots. This was done for two reasons: a it is one of the commonest English wordforms to be introduced at the very beginning of EFL teaching and learning, b it presents many phonetic difficulties at least to Polish learners of English in a relatively short form. Let me begin by observing that the GUI of Semantica offers all the advantages itemized in section 2 of this paper: it is to quite an extent customizable, it foregrounds patterns, it simulates physicality, and allows interactive exploration.
To be fair, one should add that it also falls prey to some of the classic GUI problems, such as excessive jiggle, for example. Some of the concept nodes have additional information attached to them. First: representation. This is where electronic dictionary phonetic information normally stops. With an innovative Semantica-like GUI the learner will be able to learn much more clock-wise in Figure 2 : — Common, L1-sensitive, mispronunciations are provided, some of which may turn out to be homophonous with other words e. And each can be clicked to reveal this information, leading further and further into the network.
Rhyme can be used as a vehicle for highlighting different spellings of the same sounds, a notorious problem for EFL learners. The Semantica GUI provides an easy way to append a few minimal pair items with each word. Each of these will be a fully-fledged node in its own right, of course. Everything on screen is freely manipulable and deletable. Every element can be temporarily hidden from view to reduce clutter or to accommodate learners of particular characteristics. To fully appreciate the quasi three-dimensional nature of the display, one should go into the so-called global view, where all concepts and relations can be shown simultaneously in an animated 3D lattice gracefully wiggling in the middle of the screen.
It is not possible to reproduce this effect here, of course, but its frozen 2D rendering is shown in Figure 3. It is immediately obvious from this view that clutter can be a serious obstacle to legibility. At the same time, however, this view forcefully demonstrates the complex network of relations, which is conceptually by far more true a representation of lexico-phonetic information in a dictionary than the standard listing of transcription.
Increasingly, dictionaries are used as fully fledged learning resources, at least in the exploding foreign language arena in the rapidly uniting Europe see, e. Zock or Zock and Quint In this context, patching up the standard and boring interface with a few additional pulldown menus, hyperlinks or hotspots will not do, either pedagogically or commercially. It is perhaps not surprising that the two technologies preferentially used for the design of the new interfaces discussed in this paper, namely Java and Flash, are the recent offspring of the internet, to which they have added in the last decade unprecedented degrees of interactivity and animation.
Both KirrKirr and Visual Thesaurus are available on-line, for free download and restricted lookup, respectively. Neither, however, is a standard dictionary. Another relatively safe prediction is unfortunately to a Chapter 3. Innovative phonetic interfaces for electronic dictionaries phonolexicographer that pronunciation will be the last to benefit from this breakthrough in GUI design.
References Abel, A. In Euralex proceedings, U. Heid et al. Stuttgart: IMS. Andrews, K. Information visualisation. Tutorial notes. Graz: Graz University of Technology. Towards a theory of instruction. New York: W. A summary of literature pertaining to the use of concept mapping techniques and technologies for education and performance support. Fairchild, K. Poltrock and G. In Readings in information visualization: using vision to think, S. Card, J. Mackinlay and B. Schneiderman eds. Herrmann, F. Jansz and N. Literary and Lingustic Computing 16 1 : — Kay, A.
In The art of human-computer interface design, B. Laurel ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Lynch, P. Journal of Biocommunications 21 1 : 22— McKiernan, G. The Serials Librarian 45 2 : 87— Munzner, T. In A practical guide to lexicography, P. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Ottmann and I. Tomek eds , —1. Ruane and D. Baoill eds. Piaget, J. The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books. Sobkowiak, W. Pronunciation in EFL machine-readable dictionaries.
Gottlieb, J. Mogensen and A. Zettersten eds. Series Maior ]. Sowa, J. Kaufman ed. Zock, M. Gouws The macrostructural presentation of lexical items as either main or sublemmata is too often done in an uncritical way — employing a system which is part of an established lexicographic tradition. This paper focuses on the need for a critical approach to the macrostructural positioning of lexical items, dominated by the needs and reference skills of the intended target user and the lexicographic functions prevailing in the dictionary. It is shown that the degree of textual condensation in the presentation of sublemmata can impede successful access to the lemma signs and an optimal retrieval of information.
It is argued that the access structure of a dictionary is primarily a lexicographic device and not a linguistic instrument. The macrostructural positioning of lexical items should not be done in accordance with linguistic principles but should rather be the result of the implementation of user-driven lexicographic criteria. In current printed dictionaries adhering to a system of alphabetical ordering lemmatisation procedures lead to lemma candidates being accommodated as either main or sublemmata.
In dictionaries with a strict alphabetical ordering all the lemmata will be presented as main lemmata in a vertical ordering, cf. Where provision is made for the presentation of lemmata in a sinuous lemma file additional procedures of textual condensation come into play and the lemmata display a horizontal ordering.
Textual condensation can have a further effect on these horizontally-ordered lemmata where the omission of the mutual component, usually the first stem, results in a clustering of partial lemmata presented as sublemmata, cf.
GW The use of main and sublemmata as two major types of lemmatization is seen in both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. The argument is that what has been good so far will be good in future. This is a problem related to an approach where lexicographers plan their dictionaries only in terms of models on offer in existing dictionaries without negotiating the motivation for certain aspects of an existing model or the implications of the use of such a model for the new dictionary.
Chapter 4. They need to take a critical look at existing patterns and models and they should expect theoretical lexicographers to do the same in their continued research efforts.
Spirit – Science – Society: Sources versus sorcerers – Quellentipps
This also implies that theoretical lexicographers should not restrict the scope of their research to the models on offer in existing dictionaries. In stead they should rather constantly question the continued value and applicability of these models. This may lead to the formulation of new strategies that would lead to new models, better dictionaries and more successful dictionary consultation procedures. However, it may also lead to a situation where theoretical lexicographers advise practical lexicographers to take a step backwards in order to re-employ some outdated methods in order to enhance the success that users will experience in their various situations of dictionary usage.
As a part of the user-driven approach in lexicography the focus should constantly be on ways and means to improve dictionaries and when planning a dictionary or even when revising an existing dictionary lexicographers need to take a critical look at established procedures in order to determine whether they can still be regarded as functional and efficient for present-day lexicography.
However, this form of textual condensation is too often used in an uncritical way without giving any thought to its influence on dictionary usage situations. Theoretical research has focused on main and sublemmata as different types of lemmata, cf. Wolski and Wiegand , with an additional distinction in the category of sublemmata between nested and niched lemmata.
In the category of nested lemmata a further distinction has been made between first level nesting and second level nesting, cf. Gouws Niching merely represents a change in the direction of ordering, i. Gouws marmer. HAT Second level nesting introduces a cluster internal deviation from the alphabetical order with the internal ordering of lemmata determined by morpho-semantic motivations, cf. Recent research regarding main and sublemmata focused on the different ordering strategies but also on the classification. The critical criterion for the distinction between main and sublemmata is not whether their ordering is done in a vertical or a horizontal way.
The nature of their presentation should determine whether they are main or sublemmata. A macrostructural element qualifies as Chapter 4. In the following example from Eksteen et al. GW According to this approach horizontally-ordered lemmata that can be retrieved without the co-occurrence of an entrance lemma will also be regarded as main lemmata. Reisgoed koffers, handsakke, ens. VAW 3 The user perspective When planning a new dictionary the lexicographer has to be well-aware of the target user, the needs and the reference skills of this target user. This also implies being familiar with the typical situations of dictionary use relevant to the planned dictionary.
The less developed the dictionary using skills of the target users, the more explicit and less complicated should the presentation and treatment be. Gouws macrostructural ordering system. Consequently the dictionary only displays a vertical strict alphabetical ordering without any niched or nested clusters. To the well-trained dictionary user who is familiar with the macrostructural ordering system of a given dictionary it is usually not too difficult to access the desired lexical item, whether presented as a main or a sublemma, and in a dictionary where the intended target user group consists of experienced dictionary users the lexicographer has every right to utilize procedures of textual condensation, like partial lemmata presented in lemma niches and lemma nests, in the data distribution programme of the dictionary.
In monolingual dictionaries the subsequent criterion that plays an important role follows from the semantic transparency of the complex item. Transparent items are typically included as horizontallyordered lemmata, presented as either partial lemmata or full lemmata, cf. These lemmata receive a restricted treatment whereas complex items which the lexicographer regards as semantically opaque are included as main lemmata with a full treatment.
HAT Although this may be an established system used in many monolingual dictionaries its implementation implies two diverse grounds for the presentation and treatment of lexical items. Simplex items are included on account of their occurrence in the lexicon of the language and their frequency of usage qualifying them for inclusion in the lemma candidate list of the dictionary. Complex items also qualify on account of their usage frequency for inclusion in the lemma candidate list but their eventual inclusion and presentation in the macrostructure of the dictionary is determined by their morphological nature and certain aspects of their meaning.
Different criteria of presentation and treatment apply to these different types of lexical items. December A Life , S. Auch hier ist alles bereits beschlossene Sache — lange, bevor das amerikanische Volk ahnungslos zu den Urnen schreitet. November Das Internet ist zur wichtigsten Speerspitze geistiger Freiheit geworden. Video-Konferenzvortrag von Prof. Stimmt nicht. Eine dreiste Manipulation der Tagesschau. Die Staatschefs haben vor diesen Menschen Angst.
Was das in den Menschen anrichtet, zeigen die statistischen Auswertungen von Hans Rosling. Der Schwede ist Direktor der Gapminder-Stiftung. Negativer, als sie ist. Solche Anweisungen gibt es und gab es auch zu meiner Zeit. Und das ist was anderes, als zu berichten, was ist. Nichts kann mehr geglaubt werden , was in einer Zeitung. Auflage 4. Allein durch die Sprache manipulieren Medien unsere Wahrnehmung. Das findet sogar bei Meinungsumfragen statt, die eigentlich dem Zweck dienen sollten, erst herauszufinden, was eine Mehrheit der Menschen denkt.
TV , Gastgeber Prof. September Sie spielen die Melodie, nach der wir tanzen. Wir sind nichts weiter als intellektuelle Prostituierte. Diese Blindheit und die gleichzeitige Benommenheit machen die heutige Krise aus. Auflage Dieses Publikum ist zum neuen Player geworden.
Interview mit Prof. This is how the Zionist-controlled media works: they shield Zionist crooks by blaming others. The situation with the Zionist bankers and corrupt Israeli banks like Israel Discount Bank of New York is exactly like that depicted in The International , the film about a corrupt bank which profits from Middle East weapons deals and war debt.
As the Italian weapons dealer turned politician said: "It's not about the profits from the weapon deals; it's about control. It is a fairly daunting undertaking for an independent journalist to investigate the sprawling criminal network behind such huge crimes. Apart from the very real dangers it presents, it requires a great deal of research. Christopher Bollyn , US American independent investigative journalist, researcher, author, Solving Who directs the Internet?
Watch a large flock of birds in flight in the city. It is a liquid mass of self-propelling feathers. The flock swoops, dives and turns on a mark, before settling en masse on another roof. Who gives the orders? Which ex-dinosaur says 'Turn right at the plane tree, lads'. A flock of birds has no leader. A school of fish has no leader. A colony of ants has no leader though as the planet's most successful species, they do have core values.
Who directs your brain's hundred billion neurons to connect up? Who, indeed, directs the Internet? And SOS is the new way to look at "business structures". Can systems work with only Indians and no Cowboys? Richard Stanley, Ph. But we need to unlock and realize these potentials by personally engaging with the individuals who make up this network to the extent possible. We must also situate social media within a clearly understood and defined societal context so we can design its appropriate use. Wikipedia has a pattern of shutting out anti-establishment points of view on controversial topics, and it is here that it becomes important to distinguish between the traditionally-understood concept of Truth and Wikipedia's version.
Wikipedia's rules on what constitutes a reliable source have evolved over the years to exclude all "alternative" media outlets, particularly where politics and health are concerned. You know it and I know it. There is not one of you who would dare to write his honest opinions , and if you did, you know beforehand that it would never appear in print. I am paid weekly for keeping my honest opinions out of the paper I am connected with. Others of you are paid similar salaries for similar things, and any of you who would be foolish as to write honest opinions would be out on the streets looking for another job.
If I allowed my honest opinions to appear in one issue of my papers, before twenty-four hours my occupation would be gone. The business of the journalist is to destroy the truth, to lie outright, to pervert, to vilify, to fawn at the feet of mammon, and to sell his country and his race for his daily bread. You know it and I know it, and what folly is this toasting an independent press? We are the jumping jacks, they pull the strings and we dance. Our talents, our possibilities and our lives are all the property of other men. We are intellectual prostitutes. I'm sorry to say, but it truly is.
I had absolutely stopped watching the news. I just will not allow my brain to be polluted by this. It's like junk food for the brain. It really is. August , YouTube film, minutes duration, minute and , posted The best filter to know if the news matters is if you hear it in cafes, restaurants [ June Winter in Carraroe, Galway, Ireland , Truth , January What will happen on the Internet is something like a basic culture and a lot of highly complex subcultures. Video interview with Peter Kruse, Ph. March The new magic formula is pull by resonance.
Peter Kruse, Ph. It's the reason after having sex with someone, you're probably more inclined to form an emotional attachment. But you don't have to actually have sex in order to get those neurotransmitters firing. When you watch porn, "you're bonding with it," Kuszewski says. They [Men] can, in essence, date porn. But whatever's going on, the problem with porn isn't that men are bonding with it.
It's that opportunities to satisfy the lust for variety have never been more available — while there is more stress than ever on loving relationships. Access boom Fascination of the new virtual medium "I'm inside! Movement waves Self organized direct co-determination Political activation among the social media participants citizens, electorate, shareholders, customers Movements including polls question election frauds, rate corporations and companies, insist on dictators and title defrauders to resign, call on appearances, request integrity and transparency.
The Internet is a challenge for everyone who wants to have power. The Internet is a challenge for the formation of power. I cannot be powerful in the net just by will. I can only be powerful by perfection. It's a matter of empathy , not a matter of trivial power. Five in-sufficient coping strategies in dealing with the Internet and complex systems Phase Coping strategy Legend 1.
Trial and error Playful childlike approach 2. Rational pervasion Understanding details Rationality is counterproductive in the modern world of commerce. Focusing on less criteria Slogan: Simplify your life! Old motto: Rates, profit and prices are trump. Trivialisation is an inoperative coping strategy. It's only beneficial within simple systems. It's actually destroying complex systems. Emotional assessment of value Intuitive operation New insight: The intuitive decision is the best method of resolution. Collective intuition polls by the many are a more reliable approach than the choice of one individual.
A multitude of systems have been constructed to try to make sense of that which is incomprehensible comprehensible. To 'make sense' has ordinarily meant to be able to be definable in terms that are linear: logical and rational. But the process , and therefore the experience , of life itself is organic — that is to say, nonlinear by definition. This is the source of man's inescapable intellectual frustration.
David R. Hawkins , Power vs. Scale good habits. Have rules and trust people. Listen , listen, listen. Blog entry 5 Social Media Secrets for , presented by slideshare. Virtual media can make us more virtuous, better human beings. Video presentation by Paul Zak, Ph. July Question : How long would it take to read the Internet if it were printed out?
Answer : 57, years if one reads 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. They don't contribute, they simply read or observe. They set other priorities for the usage of their time. They account for most contributions. Japanese couple holding hands on the beach. I think that online dating is just the newest way of doing the same old thing.
As a matter of fact, I think it's actually a little bit more natural. And among the young people it's Twitter and Facebook and other social networks. So, I think that the human animal loves. We're born to love. It's much more natural to meet somebody having already known what they do for a living, how old they are, what some of their goals are, what their interests are.
Wie das soziale Netzwerk unser Leben verkauft , Heyne Verlag, 8. Februar Die virtuelle Plattform Facebook existiert seit Februar Anhand seiner Aussagen verlief seine Lernkurve so: "Sie vertrauen mir, diese Idioten. Garth S. Jowett, Ph. Maheu, Ph. Virtual Relationships and Real Betrayal , Sourcebooks, 1st edition 1. November Robert Jensen, Ph.
September Patrick Carnes, Ph. Delmonico Ph.