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For our application purpose, ease of a mesh construction with pertinent refinement is founded to be superior with Blue Kenue mesh generator. It has to be kept in mind that such method is a decrease of solution accuracy. The treatment of these properties by MIKE 21 and MIKE FM models is compatible with our application as well but has to be carefully regarded as for instance threshold treatment system use induce differences in rainfall scenarios, as the complete res- olution of 2D SWEs starts only after that cumulated rainfall exceeded the threshold.
To fit with SFRS framework and objectives for runoff induced flood risk assess- ment over an industrial site, the use of standard 2D-free surface flow numerical modeling tool is founded to be a reliable method which can provide an interesting support. Nevertheless, such type of approach requires cautions in results validity interpretation and raise up practical limits for adapted models creation with standard modeling tools. This study helped to rise up a basic methodology for 2D standard numerical modeling tool use, highlighting influent parameters and critical aspects to address for selected category of tools employment.
Simplified 2D SWEs approach as the diffusive wave approximation relies on assumption that influence of some terms can be neglected. Over our test case, for high-resolution runoff modeling, these terms significantly impacts reached water depth and deserve to be accurately represented. Here, this category of model is not suited for our purpose. Fully resolved 2D SWEsbased modeling tools seemed to be more adapted for high-resolution runoff modeling for objectives of runoff induced maximal water depth estimation and site hydrodynamic understanding.
Nevertheless, numerical representation and treatment of parameters like manning coefficient and eddy viscosity deserved to be more fundamentally studied. Tested and compared numerical modeling tools produce comparable results independently of the used numerical method, even if requiring important opti- mization in models creation and setup. In most practical runoff modeling appli- cation cases, use of numerical modeling approach for the scenarios defined by the SFRS framework will lead to result which can not be validated by measurement.
Therefore, it sounds essential to check and to identify potential troubles and limits in calculation through computation reliability indicator use. A complementary use of different models relying on different numerical schemes might help to assets inherent relative limits and performances of created models. Standard numerical modeling tools use for high-resolution runoff modeling spotlight disparities among tools in terms of practical aspects.
High-resolution topographical data integration can be properly done but modeling tools cannot equally fulfill requirement for establishment of an adapted discretization. Here, this is the case in terms of ease to create an adapted mesh and in terms of temporal discretization limitations. Modeling tools stability to handle high gradient occurrences, moving boundary treatment, and spurious oscillations induce different limits related to discretization and used numerical scheme.
In terms of relevance, numerical modeling approach for runoff flood risk assessment can give a valuable insight to evaluate facility exposure to runoff risk. Moreover, the approach might highlight comprehension of dynamical aspects of the phenomena on a specific site and help for site management regarding this kind of risk exposure. For such a purpose, the complementary use of different nature of scenarios is an interesting approach. ASN Protection des installations nuclaires de base contre les inondations externes. Projet de guide de lASN n 13, p.
Ciliberti, S. Gomez, M. Methodologies to study the surface hydraulic behaviour of urban catchments during storm events. Water Sciences and Technologies, 63 11 , 9. Aktaruzzaman, M. Detailed digital surface model DSM generation and automatic object dection to facilitate modelling of urban flooding. Remondino, F. UVA photogrammetry for mapping and 3D modelling: Current status and future perspectives. International archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences, conference on unmanned aerial vehicle in Geomatics Vol. Zurich, Switzerland. Danish: Danish Hydraulics Institute.
McCowan, A. Improving the performance of a two- dimensional hydraulic model for floodplain applications. Engineers Ed. Hobart, Australia. Audusse, E. A fast and stable well-balanced scheme with hydrostatic reconstruction for shallow water flows. Journal of Scientific Computation, 25 6 , Schubert, J. Unstructured mesh generation and land cover-based resistance for hydrodynamic modelling of urban flooding.
Advances in Water Resources, 31, Mark, O. Potential and limitations of 1D modelling of urban flooding. Journal of Hydrology, 3 , Abstract CNR is Frances leading producer of exclusively renewable energywith 18 hydroelectric power plants along the Rhne, providing a capacity of 3, MW. In order to operate these plants, the CNR has developed several made-to-measure hydroinformatic tools for various purposes, whether they are studies or operational applications.
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The studies undertaken are mainly based upon type 1-D looped-network hydraulic model with storage areas, covering the full length of the Rhne. For the use of specific studies, these models can be backed up by more detailed modelling: 2D or 3D. With this in mind, accuracy of results is a major factor and the ongoing trend is for increasingly complex models. For this reason, the study models have had to be adapted to varying operational requirements, using a number of different strategies to meet the specific requirements of each individual operational application.
This multiplicity of usages means that constant vigilance is required to maintain the consistency of codes and modelling data, notably when updating reference models. As part of the SYSSIH project hydraulic simulation system , CNR is currently setting up a common platform, to gather all the modelling tools and models needed for a full range of operational uses. This restructuring will facilitate the mainte- nance of tools and their customisation to future requirements. Bontron e-mail: g.
Balayn e-mail: p. Grimaldi et al. CNR, Frances leading producer of exclusively renewable energy, controls a variety of production facilities: hydroelectric power plants, wind farms and solar power plants. Among these, the Rhne river concession is the main asset, with a generating capacity of around 3, MW, supplied by the 18 hydroelectric plants along the river. Hydraulic modelling is omnipresent in CNRs Rhne operations.
It can be found in both the studies, used to assure the company meets the obligations imposed upon a concession holder, and within the industrial river management optimisation processes, which of course, require strict adherence to a rigorous hydraulic safety framework. CNR has always invested in hydraulic modelling and has developed made-to-measure hydroinformatic tools, specifically designed to meet each of these needs. These tools are constructed around distinct operational requirements, involving differing modelling requirements: while the study field requires accuracy above all, the operational field for industrial users or training stresses robustness.
CNR carries out a large number of hydraulic studies, whether to respect specifi- cations and to validate various existing operational methods as a concession holder for the Rhne, or for future development projects. Each of these special specifications includes the concession holders obligations, notably in terms of hydraulic flow: respect for operational instructions, respect for the natural water levels prior to the development building along undyked sections, discharge capacity of the design flood and respect for freeboard heights on non-submersible banking.
CNR must be capable proving that these specifications are respected. To achieve this, CNR produce regularly updated hydraulic models: for each of the reaches modelled, we call reference model the model used to verify that the concession holder is adhering to their contractual requirements. Beyond these concession holders requirements, CNR uses its modelling tools to validate exceptional special case operating modes along the Rhne: floods with equipment outages barrage gates and generator units , fast transient phe- nomenon e.
Faced with these requirements, the CNR has equipped itself with complete hydraulic models, capable of supplying data on water height, flow rates and speeds. These models are regularly updated to assure they are an accurate reflection of the current status of the Rhne.
The full length of the Rhne has been modelled and broken down, for reasons of practicality, into 20 reaches covering the Rhne itself with several additional models covering tributaries. A typical reach would comprise: the natural Rhne river course and the tailrace channel of upstream development, the reservoir and the run-of-the-river barrage and headrace channel of the considered development. Each reach is represented by a 1-D looped-network hydraulic model, with additional storage areas. This model gathers: the network, corresponding to the topology of the reach, topographical infor- mation using geographical data and calibration settings such as Stricklers roughness coefficients, the scenario containing the hydraulic initial conditions and the boundary conditions.
It is based on the computing core used to solve the hydraulic equations needed to calculate the flow results: discharges, speeds and water levels. The computing core, Crue, is shared by all of the Rhne models. It relies on the shallow water equations plus some structure hydraulic equations.
CNR started developing the core, using Fortran, in the s, and it is still used internally. Fudaa-Crue, a hydraulic modelling tool using Java, is also used with the Crue computing core. It allows users to create the network of a model by assembling hydraulic modelling entities: branches with various hydraulic laws shallow water equations, orifice laws, weir laws, regulated barrage, etc. The software is capable of imposing hydraulic conditions and setting model parameters. This tool is built upon the Fudaa open- source framework, designed for hydraulic modelling and administered by a con- sortium of public authorities Cetmef and Irstea and companies mainly EDF and CNR Fig.
It is used to process geographical data, from various sources and various levels of accuracy, for use in hydraulic models. Along certain reaches, classic study models are insufficient to meet the needs of certain specific problems, for example, providing a spatial understanding of the random nature of flooding on specific sites or estimating the capacity for sediment transportation.
Upstream power plant and lock Natural river course Tailrace channel with storage areas modelling the flood expansion zone. The data used in the hydraulic models of the Rhne come from a number of sources: Topological data are produced by the CNRs metrological teams or acquired from third parties, principally IGN. The data are also gleaned from terrestrial surveys, photogrammetry and, increasingly, from the use of LIDAR. These data are then used in the form of digital terrain models and characteristics lines e. The bathymetric data are, in the main, produced by CNR itself, using its hydrographic survey vessel .
The hydraulic data from the Rhne itself are gleaned from sensor stations, which constantly measure levels and flow rates . Finally, these data are completed by readings from floods, high water mark readings and flooded zone limits. All these data are collected and checked for coherence by CNRs metrologic teams.
The data are stored in and accessed from Bathy bathymetric database , Hydromet hydrometeorological database and SIG topological and modelling database , developed by CNR. An internal process, entitled Monitoring and Maintenance of the Riverbeds of the Rhne River and its Tributaries, guarantees that the data used to ensure that the CNR upholds its concession holders obligations and is verified for each reach every 5 years on average, as well as after any large-scale flooding. Thus, the reference model for each reach is regularly updated using up-to-date topographical and bathymetric data.
Evolving techniques mean that at each model update, the data available are more consistent and more accurate. In parallel, the requirements for accurate modelling results and the ability to represent a wide range of flow condi- tions will, over time, become evermore strict. These two dynamic factors are pushing forwards into ever increasingly accurate modelling and leading to the production of evermore complex models. CNR has put particular effort into assuring that any updates to the reference models are passed on to the operational models.
Within the context of the previously detailed studies, the trend is to prioritise accuracy and therefore increasingly complex models. However, is this tendency pertinent for operational use? Operational use covers all real-time activities, such as power plant control predictive control using on-board models  , short-term simulations providing a 6-hour forecast for remote operators, energy production planning and forecasting of flood propagation for internal use. These are also used to train operators in the manual control of developments under all circumstances. The principle for the operational use of river models is based upon the necessity of producing results, without which whole industrial processes may be shut down.
The two obligatory conditions for these models to be usable within this context are, firstly, a guarantee of functionality under all circumstances, without inter- ventions by modellers and within a pre-established level of accuracy, and, sec- ondly, response times compatible with real-time and iterative loop operations. This imposes strict limits in terms of the stability and robustness of the model. Specific studies undertaken Simulations on the scale hours Real-time control Programme optimisation.
Applications requiring higher levels of accuracy are those used within studies top left of the plan , those needing to be more robust are those used within an operational context lower right of plan. Thus, starting from as polyvalent a reference model as possiblewhich in itself may give rise to a number of variants for specific studiesany operational model is specialised to match the final requirements.
The filiation with the reference model ensures that the operational model remains coherent with the concession holders obligations. The various operational uses for the models all have differing requirements in terms of robustness and computational speed. For example, those models com- puting the propagation of floods along the Rhne river cannot be simplified too much in terms of the exceptional flow rates they are required to simulate.
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In return, they consider a sufficiently long lead time to permit human intervention, changing the digital parameters to match flow rate conditions and even allowing a local reworking of the structure of the model itself. On the other hand, industrial models being run on-board as part of control mechanisms must be capable of running in loop mode without human intervention. This requirement for a robust system goes hand-in-hand with a simplification of scale.
The various modelling choices made are all summarised in Table 1. This requirement for model stability and robustness leads to a similar requirement being imposed on the availability of the input data used as boundary conditions in operational models. These data are divided into two types: observations of the hydraulic state of the river and forecasts of future Rhne inflow tributaries, ungauged intermediate inflow, etc. In order to guarantee the availability of these data, the CNR has introduced a series of strategies throughout the data acquisition chain to match data use: redundant sensors and power supplies, partnerships with sites useful for fore- casting but not required for control, use of separate control and forecast databases, fail-safe modes, etc.
For example, within the hydrometric database, we have developed a best of module, used to assure the availability of critical real-time data and control the changeover to fail-safe mode. Thus, if a piece of data is unavailable or its accuracy is doubtful, the module automatically chops to a backup data source or a combination of backup readings to ensure that the fore- casting modules are constantly fed with the necessary data.
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A model is made up of three fundamental components: Geographical footprint, corresponding to the hydraulic reach being studied. Validity date, linked to the validity of the data used to build and calibrate the model. The aim of the modeltranslating the compromises created by modelling determining the scope of the validity for extrapolations of the model itself. For each of the Rhnes reaches, the reference model is regularly updated by the CNRs study teams.
This model is used to assure that the concession holders requirements are being respected and to trigger, as and when required, river bed maintenance operations along both the Rhne and its tributaries. Hydraulic Modelling for Rhne River Operation Starting from the reference model, an operational model can be created to meet specific operational requirements: this may involve specialisation of data and the removal or alteration of certain of the entities included in the reference model, for example, certain storage areas could be removed or grouped, certain weir-feeding flood expansion zones could be simplified in the modelling.
The aim, in general, is to avoid having to change digital parameters e. In this situation, a less accurate result is acceptable in order to improve stability and rapidity. The operational model, specialised for a given purpose, conserves the essential data from its reference model, particularly up-to-date bathymetric and topographical data. All changes required when creating a specialised model are saved to a knowledge base.
This can then be used to save time and improve efficiency when updating the specialised model. In reality, a reference model exists for a given validity date. When new calibration data become available, the creation of a new version of the specialised model may be begun, using the updated version of the reference model. In practice, this new version is only rolled out if there are significant changes in bathymetric data, topography, principle characteristics of major installations, between two generations of the reference model.
This opti- mises the update procedure for models by prioritising those tasks returning the highest added value. The models are then saved and distributed via a centralised hydraulic model reference library Fig. Integration of models and their links to the Hydraulic Model Model specialisation hydraulic model reference library Coherence of model parameters.
The components parts of the models and software used to meet the various hydraulic simulation requirements must be rationalised, centralised and available from a single point. The aim of this is to limit the risk of diverging models and avoid being confronted with incompatibilities between models and the software being used to run them. Among other advantages, this means that non-regression tests can be rationalised. This platform centralises all elements of the various CNR simulation tools computing core, hydraulic model network, simulation scenarios, hydraulic control models and module linkage sequencer and provides a single source for all of CNRs operational hydraulic simulation tools: real-time tools for hydraulic control, flood propagation tools, short-term forecasting simu- lation tools for remote control, SICOBA training tools, etc.
Hydraulic modelling is widely used in the operational management of the Rhne river, whether this is directly integrated as part of predictive hydraulic control or within the simulation tools used in plant control. These various industrial appli- cations have requirements, in terms of robustness and operating speeds, which may be incompatible with the reference model used to verify respect for the concession holders obligations. This reference model must be adapted to the needs and constraints of each operational application Fig.
This multiplicity of usages means that constant vigilance is required to maintain the coherency of the code and hydraulic models used in the various applications, notably when updating reference models. For this reason, CNR has put together a system to provide consistency and coherence across the various models in use. This organisation is based on the use of a model library, tracing filiation links between the various versions of the models, as well as by developing a single, shared hydraulic simulation platform.
Even though the current system is fully operational, it is by no means locked down: changing requirements and technique evolutions may lead to the intro- duction of improvements as part of the operational life cycles of the various tools. With this dynamic of progress, CNR is currently carrying out studies and developments aimed at integrating, over the medium term, upgrades such as data assimilation  or the integration of proba- bility-based approaches so as to be able to express the incertitudes inherent in hydraulic simulations as a function of the input data.
Blanquart, B. Estimation of the incertitudes in bathymetric measurements applied to crosssectional profiles taken by DR launches. Grimaldi, L. Pags, J. Modelling, analysis and control of Rhne river installations using predictive controls Local and centralised management of flood events PhD Thesis, University Claude Bernard Lyon1.
Nelly, J. Data assimilation for real-time estimation of hydraulic states and unmeasured perturbations in a 1D hydrodynamic model. Journal of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 81 10 , Abstract The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable sources for energy supply is multidimensional. A number of aspects at different levels are to be taken into account such as economical, technical, environmental, and social.
Reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very challenging even if the consideration is limited to a technoeconomical optimum. The need to develop tools for the design of electric power plants based on renewable energy resources arises from this difficulty.
At the Hydro Engineering Center HEC , considering main equipments criteria that are production and safety, useful numerical tools are developed to allow the modeling of hydraulic transients and the prediction of annual energy. Indeed, transients and energy production calculations help to costly optimize not only the sizing of the machines but also the complete hydraulic layout. For these purposes, specific numerical tools are dedicated to specific needs. Auriault e-mail: claire. Bourrilhon e-mail: monique. Maruzewski e-mail: pierre. Bernardi et al. A hydroelectric project combines various fields of expertise.
Thus, the work involved in seeking a solution requires an adequate assessment technically based on multiple criteria methods due to the range of expertise fields: civil engineering, electromechanic, supervisory control and data acquisition, economy without for- getting the social and environmental aspects.
To progress in those studies, each field is awaiting information from others and the results of each study are input data to other fields. Numerical modeling is a useful tool to support strategic decision during a hydroelectric project. It allows taking into account a large range of criteria. This extending range of criteria is influenced by the authorities who are mainly poli- ticians, investors, and regulatory administrators.
It is also the first way to evaluate risks and address unforeseen problems in a more systematical way than either guessing or forecasting. By simulating the future hydropower plant operations, each field of expertise can compare different technical solutions to choose the best one according to its criteria. The finished result should enable the authorities to draw up a series of alternatives and to choose the most acceptable settlement.
That is the reason why the Hydro Engineering Center hereafter HEC , the hydraulic integrated engineering of Electricit de France, develops its own modeling tools or models. As HEC is being organized in skills departments, these tools help finding the best compromise inside a department or help managing interfaces between two departments during a project.
In the field of electromechanic, among the many criteria involved in a hydro- electric project, the safety and performance are those that rely almost exclusively on modeling tools. To ensure the safety of populations and structures or to comply with requirements from the local grid, some decisions oblige to reconsider the project profitability or feasibility due to major impact on equipments or waterways.
In order to complete modeling, necessary information must be reliable and well formatted. The flow of main information can be described in order to understand the role of the modeling tools in the decisionmaking process Fig. A preliminary feasibility study concludes to an estimated total capacity of the future hydropower plant depending on the topology and site hydrology. Civil works engineering sizes the dam and the hydraulic design of the waterways. Then, electromechanical studies can start.
A Tool for the Decision-Making Process Waterway Head losses design Auxiliaries sizing Powerhouse Units sizing design. Transient Performance hill-chart hill-chart. Head losses and discharge depend on each other.
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Because they influence the operation range of the turbines and the behavior of surge tank, head losses coef- ficients are one of the basic data of any hydroelectric project. Thus, they are one of the first data integrated in energy production and transient modeling. If they can be roughly estimated in the preliminary steps of a project, regular and singular head losses need to be precisely calculated for the needs of modeling.
To facilitate usual singular head losses calculation, HEC developed a tool aggregating main results of specialized international publications. The benefit of this tool is that it uses the formulae best adapted to hydroelectric schemes, based on return of experience from measurements on existing power plants. Thanks to this useful tool, head losses calculation can be quickly performed after any change in the waterway design and the impact of modifications can be readily estimated through modeling. Indeed, after waterways characteristics, the modeling tools need units characteristics that rely on the turbine type and pre- liminary sizing.
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Depending on the head range, the choice of turbine type can be easy. For heads allowing more than one type of turbine, many different criteria can influence the turbine choice and sizing. The main ones are cost, performances, and behavior during transients. There are also reliability, flexibility, and maintenance. Turbine presizing main input data are as follows: net head deduced from the dam water levels and the head losses calculation ; unit maximum discharge or output; electric grid frequency at the powerhouse location; minimum tailwater level.
The turbine presizing settles the following parameters: The rotation speed: With the capacity, it is an input parameter for the alternator design. For a design head, the higher is the speed and the smaller are the turbine dimensions and costs. The diameter and geometry: Dimensions of the turbine have an influence on the powerhouse arrangement, and they depend mainly on the runner diameter. The unit setting level: Determined in such a way to limit the cavitation phe- nomena, it is a major parameter for civil works, particularly in the case of pit powerhouse or river dam.
It allows to quickly obtaining a pertinent unit presizing compatible with the know-how of turbines manufacturers. Hill charts, resulting from the manufacturer design, define the behavior of the machine in every operational configurations of the future hydraulic scheme arrangement. Some tools have been developed by HEC to display and transform hill charts in view to use them in modeling. If mathematical treatment needs are globally the same between performances and transient hill charts, their different uses lead to develop dedicated treatment tool.
The main functions and their principles are the following: Integration of an existing hill chart data from site performance measurements or from model test measurements of EDF projects to the database: All hill charts are stored with the same references to get a uniform and coherent data- base. Starting from a list of points head, discharge, efficiency or equivalent in reduced coordinate system, the functions build a regular rectangular head, discharge mesh between minimum and maximum values.
The size of the mesh can be chosen by the user. The program then calculates a 2D surface on this mesh. A smoothing parameter can be defined to stick to the input points or on the contrary, when it is needed, to create a smoother surface. The interpolation error between input and output data is plotted, so that the user can judge of the validity of the result. Creation of a new project from a hill chart of the database: From the main results of unit sizing and the choice of a reference hill chart of the database, the function creates a new prototype hill chart adapted to the new project, taking into account efficiency scale effect calculated with IEC Translation of a hill chart: The function allows some translations of a reference hill chart in the flow, head, or efficiency direction, in reduced or in prototype coordinates.
A target point can also be set for best efficiency point. This function is useful when a reference hill chart of close specific speed does not exist in the database. In that case, it is necessary to adapt manually a reference to the new project. It has to be used with caution by an aware user to ensure the physical validity of the transformation. Determination of operating points and weighted efficiency. Computation and display of circuit characteristic: With the input data of min- imum and maximum discharge, hydraulic circuit global head loss coefficient, and functions of minimal and maximal gross head variation with discharge, the function calculates and plots the characteristic curves of the hydraulic circuit.
Plotted together with the machine hill chart, it allows displaying the effective operating zone of the machine placed in its waterways. Display of hill charts: The function enables us to plot the hill charts in reference or prototype coordinates see Fig. Depending on the complexity of waterway configuration, the hydraulic machine may operate in extreme conditions such as under negative heads. For such mod- eling, the efficiency is less critical. Characteristics need to be defined in the entire machine quadrant and even in the four quadrants for some machines.
The user fills the type of machine, the synchronous speed, the runner diameter, and the raw data from model tests or site measurements. TACTIC allows reconstituting fictitious measurement points and calculates all the corresponding dimensionless terms. After detection of the various operating areas, data are interpolated in order to obtain a regular resolution of the hill chart that facilitates the calculations of the transient modeling software Fig. The BELIER software developed at HEC evaluates the pressure and discharge in the tunnels and conducts at any time during operation, for example during turbine start-up and shutdown, see Calendray et al.
The Belier software has been used for many projects over the years, see Huvet et al. The numerical models used in Belier are systematically compared to field tests as part of HECs continuing pursuit of quality assurance, and a validation hand- book keeps track of those comparisons of calculations to measured values.
Contract: to check the project data; to choose the possible combined operations. Commissioning: to optimize the parameters of the governing system. BELIER can also be used: for an uprating or renovation project; to determine the impact of new operating parameters increase discharge, faster start-up ; to expertise accidents or anomalies during operation. The steady-state or initial-state calculation methodology allows the calculation of meshed networks and takes into account all the components modeled.
The transient calculation methodology is essentially based on the characteristics method solving the Allievis equation in pipes, as shown in system 1 , where Q is the discharge through the pipe, g is the acceleration due to gravity, S and L are the cross-section and length of the pipe, H is the piezometric head, k is the head losses coefficient, and a is the wave speed. Equations for machines: Speed change equation: dn I Thydraulic 3 dt. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message.
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The target audience for this book includes scientists, engineers and practitioners involved in the field of numerical modelling in the water sector: flood management, natural resources preservation, hydraulic machineries, and innovation in numerical methods, 3D developments and applications. Read more Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private.
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